Scheme of work We have designed this resource to help you plan detailed schemes of work and associated lesson plans for our GCSE Citizenship specification (8100). There are three core teaching themes: Life in Modern Britain, Rights and Responsibilities and Politics and Participation. These three themes make up three of the four assessed areas within two examination papers. The fourth assessed element relates to the student’s own citizenship investigation and their understanding of the nature of Active citizenship. There is no requirement to teach the specification in the order set out in this document. Each of the three themes is made up of five key questions. The first introduces the key ideas, concepts and issues. The second looks at issues that relate to the local community. The third addresses issues from a national perspective. The fourth looks at the international or global dimension relating to the theme. The last question is about how citizens try to bring about change regarding issues relating to the theme. The material relating to Active citizenship and the development of citizenship skills and understanding of processes is best taught alongside each of the four opening questions within each theme. The citizenship skills and processes identified in the specification, Section 3.1 relate both to the taught element and the Investigation. Students will: gain the ability to form their own hypotheses, create sustained and reasoned arguments and reach substantiated conclusions about citizenship issues understand the range of methods and approaches that can be used by governments, organisations, groups and individuals to address citizenship issues in society, including practical citizenship actions formulate citizenship enquiries, identifying and sequencing research questions to analyse citizenship ideas, issues and debates select and organise their knowledge and understanding in responses and analysis, when creating and communicating their own arguments, explaining hypotheses, ideas and different viewpoints and perspectives, countering viewpoints they do not support, giving reasons and justifying conclusions drawn present their own and other viewpoints and represent the views of others, in relation to citizenship issues, causes, situations and concepts plan practical citizenship actions aimed at delivering a benefit or change for others in society critically evaluate the effectiveness of citizenship actions to assess progress towards the intended aims and impact for the individuals, groups and communities affected show knowledge and understanding of the relationships between the different citizenship aspects studied, using the concepts to make connections, identify and compare similarities and differences in a range of situations from local to global. The suggested resources relate to websites and to examples of case studies. The list is not exhaustive and the case studies are only indicative not mandatory. As the course is taught current examples will occur and should be incorporated within lessons. It can be helpful if students maintain their own web and resource directory. This scheme of work can provide a framework to which students can add their own research/resource links. 3.2 Life in modern Britain In this theme students will look at the make-up, values and dynamics of contemporary UK society. They will consider what it means to be British, how our identities are formed and how we have multiple identities. Students will also look at the role and responsibilities of the traditional media, the impact of new media formats and the UK’s role in international issues. 3.2.1 What are the principles and values that underpin British society? Week 3 and Week 4 of Autumn Term Year 10. The first key question of each theme is designed to give an overview of the entire theme. This should enable students to understand key concepts and be able to apply this conceptual understanding to the knowledge they develop as they progress through the theme. Teachers may wish to develop this conceptual understanding through individual or group research or by direct class teaching. It may be helpful to students if they maintain a directory of key terms and concepts. Specification Content Teaching strategies and Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities Resources •The key principles and values underpinning British society today. • The human, moral, legal and political rights and the duties, equalities and freedoms of citizens. While the area of distinct British Values is seen as debatable, the identification of key principles and values is less so. What values does a society need to survive and thrive? This task can be approached through establishing an imaginary society and then contrasting this with what exists in the UK. The aim should be to identify what is meant by the terms, values and principles and to gain understanding of their conceptual underpinning. A useful starting point is also the guide written for New Residents to the What does it mean to be British? Class task to compile a list of ‘British values’. Students to justify their choice of values before it can be included in the list. Find case studies to justify your choice of values. Online research project: Are there inequalities in the UK regarding sex, gender, ethnic minority, social class? Find examples of these. Office for National Statistics Becoming a British citizen UK – Life in the UK – HMSO/Home Office. By studying the first two bullet points in tandem, students will be able to develop a wider appreciation of the issues involved in living in contemporary society. They should be able to link and differentiate between rights and responsibilities as well as understand some concrete examples. • Key factors that create individual, group, national and global identities While recognising that we are citizens of a state, citizens, we are also individuals with differing needs and expectations and differing identities. This opening section is intended to introduce the broad concepts of identity in regard to individual, group and global identity. By providing this background through the use of examples and case studies the students will be prepared to explore the issue of identity in more depth during the next section of work. Map the identities of your friends and family. What factors contribute to create this identity? AQA Citizenship Resources: What is our national culture? ACT: Teaching about identity, diversity and democracy – some thoughts and ideas 3.2.2 What do we mean by identity? Week 5, week 6 and week 7 of Autumn Term Year 10. The second key question in each theme focuses on the local, community and regional aspect of the subject content. This allows teachers to use resources and knowledge of the local community to help students gain both knowledge and understanding of the topics. This can lead to group investigative work as well as inviting the community into the classroom or taking the class into the community. Specification Content Teaching strategies and Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities Resources • The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is comprised of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The impact of this on identity debates. The issue of identity now focuses on the nature of national identity within the UK. How does identity vary between the nations and regions of the UK? Do we confuse stereotyping with identity issues? To what extent does this identity debate play into the national debate about British identity? This clearly links back to the earlier bullet point about forms of identity and the factors that develop identity. As with many citizenship issues there is not always a clear Yes or No answer. Students have to form their own judgments based upon evidence. What is important is their ability to gather and use a wider range of evidence often from differing viewpoints to help them arrive at a judgment. What is the UK? Study the maps. Think about how identities could differ in different parts of the UK. Office for National Statistics British Social Attitudes survey Guardian Article on National Identity • Changes and movement of population over time: the impact on different communities in the UK; the nature of immigration and migration to and from the UK. It is not intended to become a historical timeline from the times of Roman Britain. Students need to be aware that the UK has over the centuries seen differing patterns of mass migration. The focus needs to be on the post war period. It is important to point out that there has been a pattern of migration from the UK since 1945. Office of National Statistics (ONS) materials are readily available regarding population movement within the UK. Students may wish to study patterns of population movement within their own local area and then choose a contrasting area and seek to explain why one differs from the other. Look at the population statistics. How has the population of the UK changed over the past 50 years? Create a ‘now and then’ poster to show the changes in population. Research activity: Why do people migrate to and from the UK? Use case studies to support your research. Create a poster about the positive and negative impacts of Polish immigration to the UK. Slide Share: Migration Case Study (Poland to UK) The impact of migration on UK population growth Guardian article on UK population growth • The need for mutual respect and understanding in a diverse society and the values that underpin democratic society. This element links back to the opening section about values and allows for students to consider the importance of certain values in the diverse and democratic society that is the UK today. A debate could be held on: `Why are values such as respect and understanding important in contemporary society?’ On maps of the UK research data shade in the percentage of the country that is: over 65, high rate tax payers, under 10, born outside the UK etc. Values and principles of the UK • Identity and multiple identities; the diverse nature of the UK population. Linking back to two earlier elements students should explore the nature of multiple identities alongside the diverse nature of the UK population. This diversity can be studied in a variety of ways for example; gender, age, regional location, occupation, class, religion, ethnicity, employment. How do we celebrate diversity in the UK? For example, organise a festival in school to celebrate diversity. British social attitudes 3.2.3 What is the role of the media and the free press? Week 8 and week 9 of Autumn Term Year 10. The third key question within each theme is designed to look at national aspects of the topic. Specification Content Teaching strategies and Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities Resources • The rights, responsibilities and role of the media and a free press in informing and influencing public opinion, providing a forum for the communication and exchange of ideas and opinions, and in holding those in power to account. Studies need to define what is currently meant by the term’ the media’ from traditional to new to e media to social media. The concept of a free press needs to be explored via a range of differing media formats. In citizenship terms, what is the function of the media? Contemporary case studies enable students to readily understand the concepts involved. How effective are the media in influencing public opinion? Consider a citizenship issue, MPs expenses, attitudes towards the EU, 2011 riots – what role did the media play. Create a PowerPoint of media headlines and analyse the influence of the media. Government services and information Broadcasters Audience Research Board Office of Communications (OFCOM) Independent Press Standards Organisation • The right of the media to investigate and report on issues of public interest subject to the need for accuracy and respect for people’s privacy and dignity. What is the balance in modern society between individual privacy and the right to know? What do we mean by ‘in the public interest’? This topic can be explored through studying a range of newspapers’ coverage of topical issues and can provide a basis for class debate. The Leveson Inquiry provides a wealth of source material regarding this element. Class discussion: should more information in the UK be censored? Class debate: freedom of press vs the right to privacy. Research and organise your argument. Find out about the experiences of JK Rowling or Hugh Grant at the Leveson Enquiry. What were their issues with the press? Were they justified in these? The Leveson Inquiry Freedom of the press Guardian articles on press freedom•
The operation of press regulation and examples of where censorship is used. Should there be media regulation? When, if ever, is censorship a valid policy? Building on some of the work from the previous element, topical news stories can be discussed. What happens if there is no media regulation? While the content refers to press regulation it is helpful, if only briefly, to outline to students how other media formats are and are not regulated. This will engender a discussion of differing forms of regulation. Write a set of guidelines for the press. How would you regulate their activities? Look at case studies from countries where the press is strongly censored eg North Korea. Committee to Protect Journalists: 10 most censored countries Media censorship 3.2.4 What is the UK’s role in key international organisations? Week 10 and week 11 of Autumn Term Year 10. The fourth key question relates to international or global aspects of the theme. Specification Content Teaching strategies and Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities Resources • The role of the UK within the United Nations, NATO, the European Union (EU), the Council of Europe, the Commonwealth and the World Trade Organisation (WTO). • The UK’s membership of the EU and its impact upon the UK. Students are required to understand the UK’s role within a number of key international organisations. This can be achieved through a coverage grid so that comparative evaluation can take place. Heading may include; function of the organisation ie, free trade, date of formation 1957, date of UK membership 1973, size of the organisation – the UK is one of 28 European country members. Since the 23 June Referendum – students need to be aware of the process regarding Brexit and the issues involved. A class debate can be held regarding the case for and against membership of these bodies. To what extent do we gain or lose national power by belonging? What impact do these bodies have globally? If the EU is considered as the last on the list, its impact upon the UK can be considered in more depth that the other bodies. The debate around the June 2016 Referendum provided a wealth of contrasting evidence and materials that students can evaluate. Thought shower: How many international organisations can you name? Research the roles of the key international organisations. Create a profile of each organisation with key information, eg, broad aims, date it was established, date the UK joined, role played by the UK, structure of the organisation, recent work of the organisation, current UK attitude of the UK towards the organisation. Class debate: Should the UK have remained a member of the EU? Research and present the opposing arguments. Use the campaigns from the 2016 referendum to support your preparation United Nations North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) European Union Council of Europe The Commonwealth World Trade Organisation The UK’s EU referendum: All you need to know The Guardian : EU referendum page Huffington Post: EU referendum page This topical subject is a useful cross theme issue, as the nature of immigration relates to theme 1, sovereignty and the power of parliament relates to theme 3 and legal rights relate to theme 2. • How the UK has assisted in resolving international disputes and conflicts, and the range of methods used. It is best within this element to focus upon actions by the UK government as the final element relates to NGOs. This relates back to our role within the UN and the EU. Case studies may revolve around the Balkans in the 1990’s, intervention in Sierra Leona. This is not a section where the UK role as a participant within armed conflicts is discussed. The UK’s role is often as a member of a group of nations and those are valid case studies. In groups, research one conflict which the UK has assisted in. Assess how effective the action was. 2010 to 2015 government policy: conflict in fragile states • How international law has assisted those involved in conflict and has helped establish the rules of war. As well as an historical approach looking about how international law has developed especially since the 19th century, this topic can provide a link to the Rights and Responsibilities section if the focus is through say a current case at the International Criminal Court (ICC) and students trace back the development of current offences. The International Rescue Committee (IRC) provides excellent resources regarding this topic. Create a leaflet explaining the key points of the Geneva Convention. International Rescue Committee Can international law meet the challenges of today’s lawless conflicts? • How non-governmental organisations (NGOs) respond to humanitarian crises. This element moves away from conflict and its resolution and issues to considering humanitarian crises, which may result from war and civil conflict but can also be the result of natural and human initiated disasters. This element is best studied through the use of case studies and the supporting links provided on an NGO’s website. Give students different natural disasters eg, Haiti earthquake, Indian Ocean tsunami, Typhoon Haitian. Research task is to find out what NGOs did to respond to the crisis. Humanitarian aid and development assistance Top 5 aid organisations International Committee of the Red Cross Medicins san Frontieres Oxfam 3.2.5 How can citizens make their voice heard and make a difference in society? Week 12, week 13 and week 14 of Autumn Term Year 10. Each of the key questions relating to Active citizenship, while appearing as the last of the five questions in each theme, can be taught alongside the first four elements or as a stand-alone element. The use of contemporary case studies is a useful way to introduce students to the concepts and actions relating to Active citizenship. Specification Content Teaching strategies and Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities Resources • The opportunities and barriers to citizen participation in democracy. • The range of actions a citizen can take who wishes to hold those in power to account; the advantages and disadvantages of joining an interest group or political party, This element of the course considers participation in society, based upon living in a democracy. Clearly it is easier if the focus for this activity is the UK, but other democratic and non-democratic societies may be referenced to Thought shower: How can citizens get involved to bring about change? Research the different techniques used by citizens/groups in the past to bring about change. 38degrees Mhairi Black MP for Paisley & Renfrewshire South National Council for Voluntary Organisation Jamie Oliver’s Food Revolution standing for election, campaigning, advocacy, lobbying, petitions, joining a demonstration and volunteering. help develop points or provide contrasts. Barriers may include such issues as access to information, ability to influence decisions, or simply lack of interest or motivation. The use of case studies helps develop understanding. This can be local, national or global. When looking at actions which are acceptable and which are not acceptable in a democracy; how and why do we make a distinction? Each of the actions outlined can lead to research tasks and class presentations. Find membership of different interest groups/pressure groups. Why would a person choose to join eg Friends of the Earth? What would they hope to achieve? What factors are needed for a successful campaign to bring about change? What different types of action could citizens/groups take? Make an information leaflet with ideas about how to make a difference in society. Run your own campaign to work together and make a difference. Choose an issue in school which you want to change and organise a campaign to try and achieve your aims. Research other campaigns to gain the knowledge to be successful and use different techniques to get your message across to the leadership within the school. This could be organised as a competition within the class with different campaigns running for the same issue. Senior leadership could assess the effectiveness of the different campaigns and choose a ‘winner’. The National Archives Future health: sustainable places for health & wellbeing • The role of organisations such as public services, interest groups, pressure groups, trade unions, charities and voluntary groups and how they play a role in providing a voice and support for different groups in society. • Two different examples of how citizens working together, or through groups, attempt to change or improve their communities through actions either to address public policy, challenge injustice or resolve a local community issue. Elements three and four relate to the interaction between groups of citizens and those who hold power. This can be studied through the use of contemporary case studies. Many examples will arise during the course. By using suitable examples of case studies students are able in the examination to demonstrate knowledge, understanding and application. Contact a local interest group who is campaigning to bring about change. Ask them to come into school to discuss why they are campaigning, their campaign, what action they have taken, successes, disappointments etc. Class discussion: Should the police be allowed to strike? Carry out a detailed case study of a nation campaign to bring about change. Present your case study to the class. Trade Unions Council Charity Commission Charity Commission and the voluntary sector: what has gone wrong? Pressure Groups What are pressure groups? • How those who wish to bring about change use the media. Developing the area of media understanding, students need to be aware of how campaigners attempt to use the media to influence and promote their cause. This element is best developed through the use of recent case studies, which can be local, national or global and involve campaign groups and individuals. Party political election campaigning does not form a part of this element Make a collage of newspaper cuttings about a particular campaign. What role do the media play in campaigning? How can they influence the public? Consider different campaigns and the role the media have played. Write a news story about the impacts of a strike eg, doctors, fire brigade, teachers. UK Feminista Social Action toolkit Guardian article: campaigns that persuaded companies to change the world 3.2.6 Citizenship skills, processes and methods Specification Content Teaching strategies and Learning outcomes Each of the questions that frame the subject content for this section helps establish a question or hypothesis. This will enable students to develop the citizenship skills, processes and methods listed in this specification. Many of the skills, processes and methods listed can also be developed through the use of a case study approach. The development of a student’s citizenship skills and understanding of processes and methods should be progressed alongside each element of each theme. Understanding and appreciation of and the application of citizenship skills can take place within the classroom, through class work, debate and discussion, group activity, research, inquiry and presentations. Students need to appreciate that these are tools used within citizenship to investigate, to inquire, to develop arguments, present cases and advocate positions and actions. By using case studies students are able to appreciate how others succeed or fail in their aims. Clearly as the course develops students will gain both confidence and clarity in the application of citizenship skills and this will enable them to plan and carry out their Investigation more easily. Section 3.1 on page 9 of the specification clearly identifies Citizenship skills and processes and methods which both talk to the taught specification and the students own Investigation.
3.3 Rights and responsibilities In this theme students will look at the nature of laws and the principles upon which laws are based, how the citizen engages with legal processes, how the justice system operates in the UK, how laws have developed over time and how society deals with criminality. Students will consider also how rights are protected, the nature of universal human rights and how the UK participates in international treaties and agreements. This theme also considers how the citizen can both play a part and bring about change within the legal system. 3.3.1 What laws does a society require and why? Week 1 and week 2 of Spring Term Year 10. The first key question of each theme is designed to give an overview of the entire theme. This should enable students to understand key concepts and be able to apply this conceptual understanding to the knowledge they develop as they progress through the theme. Teachers may wish to develop this conceptual understanding through individual or group research or by direct class teaching. It may be helpful to students to maintain a directory of key terms and concepts. Specification Content Teaching strategies and Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities Resources • The fundamental principles of law to ensure rights and freedoms, the presumption of innocence and equality before the law. This element aims to give an introduction to the main principles of any legal system. Many of the elements of the system students take for granted so it is important for them to understand that they are all building blocks that both protect the innocent and protect society. These key concepts are further developed throughout the theme. Class discussion – What laws do we have in our society? Why do we need these laws? What would happen if we had no laws? The Equality and Human Rights Commission European Court of Human Rights Universal Declaration of Human Rights European Convention on Human Rights Amnesty International: Convention on the Rights of the Child UNICEF: Convention on the Rights of the Child Why do we need laws? Specification Content Teaching strategies and Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities Resources • The nature of rules and laws in helping society to deal with complex problems of fairness, justice and discrimination. This element seeks to help develop understanding of the concepts relating to the application of the law. This work can be discussed in class through the use of case studies so that students themselves are then able to develop their understanding of terms like fairness, justice and discrimination. Class activity: Working in groups, students are to set up their own new society. What laws do they think are necessary to allow society to function? What rights/ freedoms do the citizens need? Once groups have established their society, ask two groups to work together. Do they have the same rights/rules/freedoms? Could their citizens live together? Equality Act 2010: guidance Discrimination Justice and Fairness • Rights in local to global situations where there is conflict and where rights and responsibilities need to be balanced. This element further develops the points raised in the element above. How do we define rights when both sides in a dispute claim right is on their side? How should the legal system deal with such conflicts? The recent crisis regarding migration due to war and conflicts and economic migration has raised issues that clearly provide case studies for this element. Research case studies of conflict between rights and responsibilities eg, parents who have taken children abroad for medical treatment and now face legal action. Rights vs Responsibilities Rights and responsibilities lesson plan 3.3.2 What are a citizen’s rights and responsibilities within the legal system? Week 3, week 4 and week 5 of Spring Term Year 10 The second key question in each theme focuses on the local, community and regional aspect of the subject content. This allows teachers to use resources and knowledge of the local community to help students gain both knowledge and understanding of the topics. This can lead to group investigative work as well as inviting the community into the classroom or taking the class into the community. Specification Content Teaching strategies and Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities Resources The operation of the justice system: o the role and powers of the police o the role and powers of the judiciary o the roles of legal representatives o how the different criminal and civil courts work o tribunals and other means of dispute resolution. The first element divides into two parts, firstly the role of the police regarding criminal and civil law matters and secondly the legal procedures by which civil and criminal matters are dealt with by the court system. Case studies provide an excellent way of reviewing this element as against a very formal taught process. Students can develop their own civil and criminal case scenarios and discuss and enact them in class and undertake roles within the legal process. A jigsaw approach can be taken whereby differing groups within a class research an element on behalf of the rest of the class and make class presentations and produce their material to a set format designed by the teacher Arrange a visit to a court to watch a variety of different cases. Observe the different roles of the people who work there. Run a class quiz show. Give examples of different crimes/civil cases and ask students decide if it relates to civil or criminal law. Follow up the response by The Scottish Government The Courts and Tribunals Judiciary The Crown Prosecution Service The Police Northern Ireland: The Justice System The Law Society The Bar Council The Chartered Institute for Legal Executives Specification Content Teaching strategies and Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities Resources • How civil law differs from criminal law. • How the legal systems differ within the UK: o England and Wales o Northern Ireland o Scotland. to enable all the work to be collated and make available to everybody. The second group of points need to be meshed into the first i.e. civil and criminal courts needs to be considered alongside how civil law differs from criminal law. When considering the different courts and their operation it is helpful to ensure that students are aware that there are differences within the different parts of the United Kingdom asking for a rationale for the answer. Class research project: On flags of England/Wales/Northern Ireland/ Scotland list the differences in the legal systems. Write the similarities on a Union Jack flag. Structure of the court system • Rights and legal entitlements of citizens at differing ages: the age of criminal responsibility and other legal ages when young people become legally responsible for their actions (drive, marry, vote, join the forces). As well as a factual record this work can lead to debate about rights and responsibilities at different ages. Students can make suggestions for change and see if they can convince the class of their proposal whilst another group could research and present the counter argument. Homework research activity. Students to find out the legal entitlements for different responsibilities (e.g. drive, marry, vote, join the forces etc.) Organise a quiz game in groups for students to ask questions about their research. Your rights at different ages Rights and responsibilities as a young citizen Specification Content Teaching strategies and Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities Resources The aim is that students have a broad understanding that there are differing rights at different ages, not that they should be able to rote learn every possible age and right. 3.3.3 How has the law developed over time, and how does the law protect the citizen and deal with criminals? Week 6, week 7, week 8 and week 9 of Spring Term Year 10. The third key Question within each theme is designed to look at national aspects of the topic. Specification Content Teaching strategies and Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities Resources • How citizens’ rights have changed and developed over time, from the importance of Magna Carta (1215) to today and the Human Rights Act (1998). • Common law, legislation and how they differ. It is not intended that this element be taught as an extended legal history of the UK, but rather by looking at Magna Carta as the starting point for the development of legal rights and then using the Human Rights Act 1998 which consolidated existing legislation to understand how rights have developed for citizens since 1215. Clearly some points will lead back to post 1215 legislation but these should only be considered reference points. Thought shower: What rights did citizens have in 1215? How does this compare to our rights today? Why has this this change happened? Make a time line of key changes in citizens’ rights since 1215. Students could produce this either via power point or another form of interactive media Magna Carta The Human Rights Act The history of Human Rights Common law in England The common law system in the UK is a distinct element of our legal system and provides a means whereby case law can be updated to deal with changes in society. Students need to be aware of the distinction between common law, determined by precedent and judge’s rulings and legislation, which is determined by parliament and can later be amended by parliament or scrapped. Make a poster to show different examples of the differences between common law and legislation. • The right to representation; the role and history of trade unions in supporting and representing workers; the role of employers’ associations Students are required to understand the role of Trade Unions and an outline of the history of the Trade Union movement from the mid 19th century. The emphasis should be on the current role of Trade Unions. Employer Associations should be studied alongside the Trade Unions and this can be achieved through case study research on an industry basis. Students need to appreciate the current role of employer associations and Trade Unions and the way in which they work with others especially with the EU. Research a local trade or industry (present or past). Research the union associated with that trade, its history, work and where it is now and what it does. Consider inviting a representative of a Trade Union or Professional body say like the RCN to discuss their role with students. The Trade Union Council (TUC) Unite: the Union The National Archives: Crime Survey for England and Wales The Institute of Director.
• The nature of criminality in the UK today: o differing types of crimes o profile of criminality in the UK o factors affecting crime rates in society and strategies to reduce crime. • How we deal with those who commit crime: o differing forms of punishment available in the UK o the purposes of sentencing o the effectiveness of differing types of sentence o how the youth justice system operates. This work can be undertaken as a research exercise whereby the teacher uses the headings in both elements to draft questions that the students must research and answer in groups. This work could take the form of group feedback to the rest of the class. Once the feedback has been undertaken the teacher could set some debating questions based upon the feedback and regroup the class ensuring that one person from each original investigation team is in each new group so all aspects of the work are covered and ask two new teams to present the case for or against the proposition. Based upon four groups two such debates could take place where evidence from the initial research is focused upon the question for debate. Research crime statistics in your local area. Which crimes are most common? How has crime changed over the years? Organise for a local police officer to speak to the class about local crime rates and strategies for dealing with crime. Research a local crime problem. What strategies can you think of to reduce crime? Research different forms of punishment used in the UK. Class discussion: What punishments should be used for different crimes? Consider your actions if you were the judge in a variety of different cases. What sentence would you give? National Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders (NACRO) The Howard League for Penal Reform Youth Justice Board for England and Wales The Sentencing Council The Crime survey for England and Wales 3.3.4 What are the universal human rights and how do we protect them? Week 10, week 11 and week 12 of Spring Term Year 10. The fourth key Question relates to international or global aspects of the theme. Specification Content Teaching strategies and Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities Resources • The importance of key international agreement and treaties in regard to human rights: o the UN Universal Declaration on Human Rights o the European Convention on Human Rights o the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child o the Human Rights Act (1998). It is important that students understand the inter relationship between the listed conventions and declarations. This is a case where a historical approach is helpful as it enable students to see progression. Class discussion: What are human rights? What should you have a right to? Why do we need to protect rights? British Institute of Human Rights The United Nations: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) Liberty: Human Rights Human Rights Investigations The International Committee of the Red Cross Equality Human Rights Commission European Court of Human Rights Specification Content Teaching strategies and Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities Resources • The role of international law in conflict situations: o to protect victims of conflict o how international humanitarian law helps establish the rules of war. This element can be studies through the use of case studies. The existing world situation provides a number of situations that can be studied. This approach enables a situation to be related back to international law, rather than an historical approach to how international law has developed. Case study of the Hague and Geneva Conventions. The Hague Convention The Geneva Convention
3.3.5 How do citizens play a part to bring about change in the legal system? Week 1 and week 2 of Summer Term Year 10. Each of the key Questions relating to Active Citizenship whilst appearing as the last of the five questions in each theme can be taught alongside the first four elements or as a stand-alone element. The use of contemporary case studies is a useful way to introduce students to the concepts and actions relating to Active citizenship. Specification Content Teaching strategies and Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities Resources Students through their study, research, investigations or interaction with members of the community should understand the roles undertaken by citizens within the legal system and how the role of the citizen has been seen to be pivotal to our justice system. Students should understand the responsibilities and roles of citizens in the legal system; as a juror, witness, a victim of crime, magistrate, special constable, police commissioner or member of a tribunal hearing. Many of the ways a citizen can be involved in the legal system are identified during the theme, it is therefore better if those identified in this element are integrated into the core teaching for this theme. If they are considered as a stand alone element, students can research the roles and outline their importance within the legal system. Arrange for a magistrate, police office, and special constable to visit school to discuss their role. Jury Service Police Specials Association of Police and Crime Commissioners Neighborhood Watch Miscarriages of Justice UK (MOJUK) The Hillsborough Family Support Group The roles played by pressure and interest groups, trade unions, charities and voluntary groups, public institutions and public services in providing a voice and support for different groups in society campaigning to bring about a legal change or to fight an injustice This element relates to the interaction between groups of citizens and those who hold power. This can be studied through the use of contemporary case studies. Many examples will arise during the course. By using suitable examples of case studies students are able in the examination to demonstrate knowledge, understanding and application. Divide the class into groups and ask them to research one of the bodies listed in the element and provide for the rest of the group a case study presentation regarding how that group has campaigned against an injustice or brought about a legal change. If the teacher determines a format through a series of questions this enables students to equate one groups work against another’s. This presentational format as well as improving debating and speaking skills also allows the class to assemble a larger number of examples than if they had been working on their own. Liberty website Petitions Article on the Gurkhas Hillsborough Justice campaign Students should be aware of the different forms of democratic and citizenship actions people can take to bring about change and hold those in positions of power to account in regard to issues relating to human rights and the justice system: joining an interest group; campaigning; advocacy; lobbying; petitions; joining a demonstration; volunteering. Elements two and three relate to the interaction between groups of citizens and those who hold power. This can be studied through the use of contemporary case studies. Many examples will arise during the course. By using suitable examples of case studies students are able in the examination to demonstrate knowledge, understanding and application A similar exercise to that described above can be carried out with the focus being on investigating not through a group but through the methodology of campaigning used. This task builds upon similar work that can be done in earlier and later teaching elements. This enables teachers to raise the expectation of work from mere research and description to analysis and evaluation especially in regard to degrees of success related to different methods. Miscarriages of Justice Organisation Telegraph article: A supreme and magnificent exercise in people power Pressure group methods 3.3.6 Citizenship processes, skills and methods Specification Content Teaching strategies and Learning outcomes Each of the questions that frame the subject content for this section helps establish a question or hypothesis. This will enable students to develop the citizenship skills, processes and methods listed in this specification. Many of the skills, processes and methods listed can also be developed through the use of a case study approach. The development of a student’s citizenship skills and understanding of processes and methods should be developed alongside each element of each theme. Understanding and appreciation of and the application of citizenship skills can take place within the classroom, through class work, debate and discussion, group activity, research, inquiry and presentations. Students need to appreciate that these are tools used within citizenship to investigate to inquire, to develop arguments, present cases and advocate positions and actions. By using case studies students are able to appreciate how others succeed or fail in their aims. Clearly as the course develops students will gain both confidence and clarity in the application of citizenship skills and this will enable them to plan and carry out their Investigation more easily. Section 3.1 on page 9 of the specification clearly identifies Citizenship skills and processes and methods which both talk to the taught specification and the students own Investigation.
3.4 Politics and participation In this theme students will look at the nature of political power in the UK and the core concepts relating to democracy and government. This includes how government operates at its various levels within the UK, how decisions are made and how the UK parliament works and carries out its functions. It also looks at the role of political parties, the election system, how other countries govern themselves and how the citizen can bring about political change. 3.4.1 Where does political power reside in the UK and how is it controlled? Week 3 and week 4 of Summer Term Year 10. The first key Question of each theme is designed to give an overview of the entire theme. This should enable students to understand key concepts and be able to apply this conceptual understanding to the knowledge they develop as they progress through the theme. Teachers may wish to develop this conceptual understanding through individual or group research or by direct class teaching. It may be helpful to students if they maintain a directory of key terms and concepts. Specification Content Teaching strategies and Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities Resources • The concept of democracy and different forms of democracy, including representative democracy. The opening element focuses on concepts relating to democracy, what does the term actually mean? What is representative and direct democracy? Class discussion: What is democracy and why do we need it? Pair activity – Compare the differences and similarities between liberal, direct and representative democracy. 1 minute challenge: Who can accurately describe representative democracy in under a minute. Prime Minister’s Office The Economist article: What’s gone wrong with democracy? Democratic Audit UK What is democracy? • The values underpinning democracy: rights, responsibilities, freedoms, equality, the rule of law. The second element requires students to understand terms such as; values, rights, democracy, and then link these two concepts together, rights and responsibilities, and what is meant by equality and the rule of law. Divide the class into group and give each a set of blank cards. On the board list a variety of terms relating to the element and ask each group to determine an example and a definition. Collate these responses on the board and collectively determine a wording and example that best fits the term/concept. BBC news article: Should teachers ‘promote’ British values? Life in the UK test • The institutions of the British constitution: the power of government, the Prime Minister and cabinet; the sovereignty of Parliament; the roles of the legislature, the opposition, political parties, the Monarch, citizens, the judiciary, the police and the Civil Service. In order to understand how the political and governmental system works students need to be familiar with the various components that makeup the system. This is addressed in the third element. Whilst each term and its power or responsibilities can be identified and taught; the aim should be to be able to allow students to gain an understanding of the linkage between the various elements and be able to map out both mentally and physically the linkages and relationships. Key word Pictionary: After studying the institutions of the British constitution, students play a game in pairs or teams. A student is given a card with the key term – they have to draw the term without speaking. Whoever guesses first wins the point. UK Parliament UK Government Ministerial Code 10 Downing Street • How the relationships between the institutions form an uncodified British constitution and examples of how this is changing. The final question relates to the nature of the British constitution. Students need to be aware of the nature of the British constitution, unwritten, uncodified and the flexibility this offers, but it is helpful to look at a contrasting state with a written, codified and therefore less flexible constitution Discussion: Do we need a written constitution? Why? Why not? Research the main arguments and hold a debate. Write your own class constitution – What is important to include in this? Display the constitution in the classroom – over a period of Magna Carta The UK Constitution The Constitution Society for example the USA. This enables to grasp more easily the nature of the UK constitutional structure. weeks is it easy to ensure the constitution is upheld? Does having a written constitution cause any issues in the classroom? What happens if students are unable to follow the constitution? 3.4.2 What are the powers of local government and how can citizens participate? Week 5, week 6, week 7 and week 8 of Summer Term Year 10. The second key Question in each themes focuses on the local, community and regional aspect of the subject content. This therefore allows teachers to use resources and knowledge of the local community to assist students gain both knowledge and understanding of the topics. This can lead to group investigative work as well as inviting the community into the classroom or taking the class into the community. Specification Content Teaching strategies and Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities Resources • The role and structure of elected local government; the services provided by local government for citizens in local communities; roles and accountability of councillors. What services does the local council provide, do you have one or several local councils? What do you know about your local councillors and what they do? By starting from your own locality the teacher can then map into the lessons information about other structures and types of council. This can be completed as an internet research task. Ask students to bring in a local council tax bill and it additional notes to help understand how the money is raised and spent and then compare this with their on line research. Ask students to develop a case for a unitary authority if you have several local councils or if you live within a unitary authority a case for having several local councils. Card sort activity: Produce cards with a mixture of services provided by local / central government. Students to sort the cards into the correct provider. Extension: why are these services provided by the particular tier of government? Is this the correct decision to ensure the efficiency of the service? Class activity to discuss what knowledge students have of their local authority. Can they name any councillors / local government services or facilities? Local Government Association This debating style will help flesh out the key points about the role of local government. • The nature and organisation of regional and devolved government: Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and England. • How powers are organised between the Westminster Parliament and the devolved administrations in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales; how relations are changing between England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland; the debate about ‘English votes for English laws’. The second and third elements relates in the same way as the one above but to devolved government in the UK. It is important that students understand the difference between a devolved system and a federal system. Devolution is about a greater body transferring power to a lesser body. That power can be taken back at any time. A Federal system like the USA or Germany normally operates within a clear constitutional framework where each layer of government has clear powers and responsibilities and these cannot be easily changed. Students need to be aware of the recent history of devolution in Scotland, Wales and N.Ireland post 1997. The English Questions relate to both the English votes for English laws changes in Parliament and the lack of a clear policy regarding devolution within the English Regions. This area does readily allow for class debate and presentations giving differing viewpoints. Watch some of the different tiers of government on the Parliament Channel. Debate: What are the advantages /disadvantages of central vs. devolved government? Internet research activity: Find out the different laws and rights in the devolved administrations. Homework research challenge: Who can find the best reason to support the ‘English votes for English laws’ campaign. Vote in class to choose the winner. Half of the class could look for the best counter-argument to the debate. UK Parliament Scottish Parliament National Assembly for Wales The Northern Ireland Assembly Greater London Authority UK government • Who can stand for election and how candidates are selected. • Who can and cannot vote in elections and why; debates about the voting age. • Issues relating to voter turnout, voter apathy and suggestions for increasing voter turnout at elections. The fourth and fifth elements are a factual discourse about who can and cannot stand for election/vote in the various types of elections in the UK. The current information on this topic is available from the Electoral Commission web site. The issue of votes at 16 is always a debate that can be held to introduce this topic. The sixth element allows students to suggest potential changes which can lead to class discussion enables students to identify with key democratic concepts. Changes may include compulsory voting, electronic voting, changing the voting days and hours allowing 100% postal voting; all have been used in democracies and therefore allow for student research. Who can stand for election? Can you? Your mum/dad/ brother /granny? Profile: Choose the member of your family who should stand in an election. Choose carefully; do they fulfil all the criteria to stand for election? Why would a party choose them as their candidate? What skills/qualities/qualifications etc. do they have? Class debate: Should the voting age be lowered? Carefully plan and research your arguments and back these up with good knowledge and examples before the debate. Check out the statistics from the last few elections? What is the trend? Why do you think this is? Discussion: Should we make voting compulsory, like in Australia? What would happen if no one voted? The Electoral Commission General election turnout 1945 – 2015 General election 2015 EU referendum turnout
• How public taxes are raised and spent by government locally and nationally. • The practice of budgeting and managing risk and how it is used by government to manage complex decisions about the allocation of public funding. • Different viewpoints and debates about how governments and other service providers make provision for welfare, health, the elderly and education. The seventh, eight and ninth elements build upon the work students have already undertaken regarding local councils and their services, income and expenditure and links across the next key Question on national topics. This area can be investigated through local or national case studies, which students can investigate, and debate. What should government spend its income on and how do they ensure value for money? Contact your local council to ask them how they spend their money. Write a class questionnaire to send to them. Possibly contact different local councils, tiers of government and compare the replies. Role play activity: If you were the chancellor or prime minister – how would you allocate the country’s money? What areas would you prioritise? Ask a senior member of staff to ‘judge’ the spending plans. Which plans are the ‘citizens’ of the class most happy with? Why? How did students make decisions about how to spend the money? What factors did they have to consider? Divide the class into groups. Each group to research and prepare a short presentation on government spending provision for: the elderly, welfare, health or education. Government Spending The case against cuts in public spending 3.4.3 Where does political power reside: with the citizen, parliament or government? Week 9, week 10, of Summer Term Year 10. Week 1, week 2 and week 3 of Autumn Term Year 11. The third key question within each theme is designed to look at national aspects of the topic. Specification Content Teaching strategies and Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities Resources • The nature of the ‘First Past the Post’ system based on parliamentary constituencies; the frequency of Westminster elections. • Other voting systems used in UK elections, including proportional systems and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The first two elements relate to how voting systems operate within the UK. Students need to understand how the First past the Post system works and then the benefits and criticisms made of the system. Students also need to look at all the other voting systems used in the UK. The use of case studies aids students understanding. They also need to understand the difference between proportional and nonproportional systems. The Electoral Reform Society provides up to date information regarding all the types and systems of election. A way of approaching this area is to arrange a class vote, but get students to vote using a variety of voting methods and see how the method impacts upon the outcome. Make an information leaflet for young people to explain the voting system in the UK. Class ‘Show and Tell activity’: “My favourite voting system is …., because …. ”Students to research and prepare their answer. Organise a mock election in school. Groups of students to represent the different political parties and represent their ideas so the class can vote. Use different voting systems to calculate the results. Which one do students find the fairest? Why? The following web based resources are helpful: UK government BBC: 2015 Election Results UK Parliament Electoral Reform Society The Prime Minister’s Office Register of MP’s Financial Interests General elections • The difference between the executive, the legislature, the judiciary and the monarchy. The nature of bicameral Westminster parliament, the respective roles of and the relationship between the House of Commons and the House of Lords and the role of the monarch. The third elements relates to students applying the knowledge they acquired in the overview section of the theme to a deeper understanding of the relationship between the elements of government. The various Parliamentary web sites provide a wealth of current information about these relationships. A card sort arrangement is an easy way to ask students to link together the different element of the UK governmental system. Use the four key parts as the headings; design a number of factual cards about the function role and any other useful information. Ask students to place the cards under the correct headings. For example, Legislature – Parliament, House of Commons, House of Lords, Bills and Acts and Laws, Members of Parliament, MP’s, Members of the House of Lords. Once the class has sorted correctly; the task is to write up an account of the term, using all the words in the list. The Supreme Court The Royal Family Courts and Tribunal Judiciary UK Parliament: House of Lords • The major political parties contesting UK general elections; key philosophical differences between the political parties operating in UK general elections. The fourth element is a selfcontained point about Political parties, how they operate and what they stand for. This can often be covered via group research and feedback from students via PowerPoint to the rest of the class, where the teacher structures the key areas or questions they need to research about a specific political party. Research the manifestos of the main political parties. What are the key similarities/differences between their policies? Liberal Democrats Conservatives Labour UK Independence Party Scottish National Party Green Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Fein
Normally one would not expect students to have any depth of knowledge beyond the two most recent general elections. Britain’s changing political spectrum • How parliament works: scrutinising government and making it accountable; parliamentary questions, committees, debates. • The role of MPs; representing their constituencies, debating policy; scrutinising legislation. • Ceremonial roles including Black Rod; key parliamentary roles including the Speaker, whips, front bench and back bench MPs. • The legislative process; parliamentary debates and deliberation of public issues and policy. The next four elements can be linked if the topics are considered through looking at the role and work of an MP. Again the parliamentary web sites are very good at providing up to date information and the Parliament TV channel provides coverage of parliament and the work of its committees. So it is possible to follow the work of your local MP or look at the work of a select committee. The element relating to parliamentary officials relates to their role within the parliamentary system. Students need to be aware of the formal process of law making in the UK. Try to organise a class visit to Parliament to have a tour and find out how it works. (Contact your MP to come to school and discuss their role and the workings of parliament. Prepare class questions to ask. Find out what an MP does. Conduct a class project: Video diary of a day in the life of an MP. Students to complete research and then film their day, acting out the role of a day in the life of an MP. Who are they? Guess Who? Activity matching pictures to roles. Articulate: Describe the different jobs in less than 10 seconds/less than 10 words. Can the others guess? Research the legislative process in the UK. Mirror this process in your class with students playing different roles and try to pass an unfair Law –what happens? Do the different stages of the legislative process protect citizens? Visit Parliament Find your way What MPs do Guide to the House of Commons Offices and Ceremonies Legislative process The formation of government by the leader of the political party with a majority in the House of Commons, or by a coalition of parties. Looking at the two most recent General Elections in 2010 and 2015 will enable students to understand the key points in how governments are formed following an election. Create a timeline of events following the results of the 2010 general election. What role did the Prime Minister/Queen play? How was the coalition government formed? How did this compare to events following the 2015 election? Parliament and the Government How UK governments are formed The role of the Prime Minister, cabinet and ministers; the power of the Prime Minister and cabinet. • The organisation of government administration into departments, ministries and agencies; role of the civil service. No 10 Downing Street has it own website. This element overlaps with the previous point, but students need to be aware of the various government posts that exist and their order of importance. The powers of a Prime Minister need to be outlined and should be considered in the context of the outcome of an election, so the 2010 and 2015 situations provide clear case studies of Prime Ministerial power. The final element within this key question brings together existing knowledge to help understand the nature of the structure of government, agencies and the role of the civil service. Yes Minister/Prime Minister still provides an interesting and easily understood means of covering this element. Discussion: Does the Prime Minister have the power to do what he wants? Why does he not have this power? What could happen if the Prime Minister had the power to do what he wanted? How to we control the powers of the Prime Minister in the UK. Create a mind map of the organisation of central government. Class activity: Students to try and reorganise government departments to create fewer. 10 Downing Street The Prime Minister Departments, agencies and public bodies Civil Service Civil Service commission
3.4.4 How do others govern themselves? Week 4, week 5 and week 6 of Autumn Term Year 11. The fourth key Question relates to international or global aspects of the theme. Specification Content Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities Resources • Electoral systems and processes used in European parliamentary elections; the impact of these systems on the composition of political parties representing citizens. The first element clearly links back to the first and second elements of the previous question regarding electoral systems. Based upon prior knowledge of proportional and non proportional, majority and non majority system students are expected to have a generalised knowledge of the systems used by member countries of the EU to elect their MEP’s ie, regional and national lists. Students also need to be aware of the concept of transnational party groupings in the EU Parliament. Mapping the governments of Europe activity. Students to research different governments/ political systems in Europe. Each group to produce a poster/PowerPoint presentation with information about that country. European Parliament European elections European Parliament: the voting system It’s your parliament • Key differences in how citizens can or cannot participate in politics in one democratic and one nondemocratic political system that is outside the UK. The second element helps develop the students understanding of the concept of democracy. They need to define aspects that make a system democratic and look at other governmental systems that do not meet that criteria and compare how citizens are able to participate in the political processes in both a democratic or non democratic system. This work Detailed case study of a democratic (possibly USA) and non-democratic (possibly North Korea) political system. What are the main differences/similarities? Where would you prefer to live? Why? Global Witness Freedom House Amnesty International can be undertaken through a case study approach comparing the UK with another country. The element is about recognising the key differences between the two systems not about having detailed knowledge of a wide range of political systems used in other countries. 3.4.5 How can citizens try to bring about political change? Week 7, week 8, week 9 and week 10 of Autumn Term Year 11. Each of the key Questions relating to Active Citizenship whilst appearing as the last of the five questions in each theme can be taught alongside the first four elements or as a stand-alone element. The use of contemporary case studies is a useful way to introduce students to the concepts and actions relating to Active citizenship. Specification Content Teaching strategies and Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities Resources • How citizens can contribute to parliamentary democracy and hold those in power to account. The first element relates to how citizens engage with the democratic process. How do citizens participate what can be the impact of non-participation? Other than elections how can citizens hold those in power to account, both the elected and non-elected. Homework research activity: Have your family/friends ever engaged in political activities? Write and undertake a questionnaire to find out how people have got involved. Write to your MP about an issue you want to support. Break the Bag Habit Stop the War Coalition Volunteer Match National Council for Voluntary Organisations (NVCO) Find Volunteer Placements Equality and Human Rights Commission Citizens Advice Greenpeace Age UK The Women’s Institute (WI) • How digital democracy, social media and other measures are being developed as a means to improve voter engagement and the political participation of citizens. The second element looks at the impact of e media upon the democratic process. What are the positive and negative aspects of e-democracy? E petitions: Go online and sign an e-petition. How many campaigns can you find to support? Digital Democracy Using social media in political campaigns. Telegraph article: 2015 was the first digital general election. Election 2015: is this the first ‘social media’ campaign? • The different forms of action citizens can take to hold those in power to account for their actions; how the citizen can contribute to public life by joining an interest group or political party: standing for election; campaigning; advocacy; lobbying; petitions; joining a demonstration; volunteering. • The roles played by public institutions, public services, interest and pressure groups, trade unions, charities and voluntary groups in providing a voice and support for different groups in society. Elements three and four relate to the interaction between groups of citizens and those who hold power. This can be studied through the use of contemporary case studies. Many examples will arise during the course. By using suitable examples of case studies students are able in the examination to demonstrate knowledge, understanding and application. Find out about a pressure group you would like to support. What are the groups aims? How do they try to achieve these? Why are you interested in this particular group? Get involved! Get involved in a campaign. What can students do to make a difference? What different forms of action can they take to be an active citizen? Investigate the effectiveness of different types of action. As a class choose as issue in school which you want to change. Consider different ways to take action to persuade the head teacher to change the issue. Run different campaigns to see which group is the most successful. Research a case study and write an information leaflet for a pressure group outlining their point of view. Pressure Groups: case studies Pressure Groups The right to peaceful protest
3.4.6 Citizenship skills, processes and methods Specification Content Learning outcomes Each of the questions that frame the subject content for this section helps establish a question or hypothesis. This will enable students to develop the citizenship skills, processes and methods listed in this specification. Many of the skills, processes and methods listed can also be developed through the use of a case study approach. The development of a student’s citizenship skills and understanding of processes and methods should be developed alongside each element of each theme. Understanding and appreciation of, and the application of citizenship skills can take place within the classroom, through class work, debate and discussion, group activity, research, inquiry and presentations. Students need to appreciate that these are tools used within citizenship to investigate to inquire, to develop arguments, present cases and advocate positions and actions. By using case studies students are able to appreciate how others succeed or fail in their aims. Clearly as the course develops students will gain both confidence and clarity in the application of citizenship skills and this will enable them to plan and carry out their Investigation more easily. Section 3.1 on page 9 of the specification clearly identifies citizenship skills and processes and methods which both talk to the taught specification and the students own Investigation. Suggested elements across the weeks Week Element Autumn Term Year 11 Week 12 Investigation Week 13 Investigation Week 14 Investigation Spring Term Year11 Week1 Investigation Week 2 Investigation Week 3 Investigation Week 4 Investigation Week 5 Investigation Week 6 Investigation Week 7 Investigation Presentation Week 8 Mock Exams and Personal Review Week 9 Personal Review and Target setting