GCSE History

Conflict and tension, 1918–1939 (Section B) This resource provides guidance for teaching Conflict and tension, 1918–1939, Wider world depth studies topic from our new GCSE in History. It is based on the version 0.2 of the draft specification (8145), and is likely to be revised on accreditation of the final specification. These revisions will be published on the website after accreditation. This scheme of work enables students to understand the complex interests of different individuals, groups and states. It focuses on the causes of the conflict in the Second World War and why it was difficult to resolve its underlying issues. Assumed coverage This teaching and learning plan is intended for 30 classroom lessons, each of one hour. It doesn’t include homework learning time, but it covers three revision and assessment lessons. Assessment Assessment points in the learning activity column indicate possible assessment opportunities. These could be short tests of about ten minutes (exam-style questions, short factual tests, source evaluation) or longer assessments (exam-style questions). Resources Research exercises assume students have access to a textbook(s) and/or internet. You can supplement textbook(s) by other sources. When considering primary and secondary evidence, remember that the exam paper tests students’ ability to analyse and evaluate contemporary sources (AO3). A range of contemporary sources might include: cartoons, photographs, film, newspaper accounts, eye-witness descriptions and official documents. Interpretations of these events, reflecting later on the causes of the Second World War, will not be tested in the exam, but may be used in the classroom to support understanding of a topic. Part one: Peacemaking The armistice Lesson number Specification content Guidance Learning activity Differentiation and extension Resources 1 and 2  aims of the peacemakers  Wilson and the Fourteen Points  Clemenceau and Lloyd George  the extent to which they achieved their aims. Taking the terms of the armistice as a starting point, the focus should be on describing and explaining the aims of the ‘Big Three’. Why did they hold different opinions? Lessons 1 and 2 are linked to the terms of the treaty and reactions to it in order to analyse who was most/least satisfied with the settlement, and why. Enquiry question: How sensible was the Treaty of Versailles? Key profiles of the ‘Big Three’: students prepare a fact file by matching profiles to statements about the peacemakers. Students prepare a table to describe and explain the aims of each leader. Create columns headed ‘satisfaction/ dissatisfaction’ for each leader – this can be populated during lessons 4 and 5. Source evaluation: students study sources about the ‘Big Three’. For each source students should work out its message, purpose and reliability. Contemporary written and visual sources about the ‘Big Three’. Research materials relating to the armistice and the aims of the ‘Big Three’. The Versailles Settlement Lesson number Specification content Guidance Learning activity Differentiation and extension Resources 3, 4 and 5  Diktat  territorial changes  military restrictions  war guilt and reparations. The focus is on the terms and nature of the settlement. The emphasis should be on encouraging students to consider if the treaty was fair and sensible, not only at the time it was written, but also in hindsight. Was it the best that could have been achieved at the time and how far have later events altered our perceptions about the treaty? Students produce a narrative of the terms of the treaty and annotate a map to illustrate some of the terms. Role play: students consider how would each of the ‘Big Three’ react to the key terms? Students justify their ideas and complete the table from lesson 1 using a column headed ‘satisfaction/ dissatisfaction’. Students explain their answers. Class discussion based on hypothesis, for example, ‘Wilson was the most dissatisfied by the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. Do you agree or disagree?’ Assessment point: students produce a written explanation of the answer to the hypothesis. Students then review each other’s answer and discuss. Students consider what questions they would ask the ‘Big Three’ about how and why they reached their decisions. Maps of Europe in 1918. Textbooks, internet, sources for role play. Impact of the treaty and wider settlement Lesson number Specification content Guidance Learning activity Differentiation and extension Resources 6, 7 and 8  reactions of the Allies  German objections  strengths and weaknesses of the settlement. The emphasis should be on the short and medium term impact of the treaty for all the Allies and Germany and to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the settlement. The reference to the ‘wider settlement’ relates to the creation of new states and the problems they faced in terms of reparations and selfdetermination – issues which will be revisited when studying Wilson’s attitude to the peace and, later, the causes of the Second World War. Source exercise: students look at a range of sources relating to Allied and German attitudes about the fairness of the treaty. Students group the sources for and against, and record the results. Students compare the sources for their utility based on content, purpose and knowledge. In groups, students discuss how sensible the treaty was and then present a report to the whole class. Using the question from the group discussion, students consider the qualities required of conclusions and judgements. They attempt to write a judgement and peer assess. Students consider the question: why might biased sources still be useful to historians studying reactions to the treaty? Sources and interpretations relating to the fairness of the treaty. Review and assessment Lesson number Specification content Guidance Learning activity Differentiation and extension Resources 9 Assessment point: students could be presented with contrasting sources and are asked to compare their usefulness in helping us to understand the impact of the Treaty of Versailles. Students could be then given an agree/disagree style question based on the specimen paper. Two sources relating to Part one: Peacemaking. Sources need to be contemporary to the period. Part two: The League of Nations and international peace The League of Nations Lesson number Specification content Guidance Learning activity Differentiation and extension Resources 10, 11, 12 and 13  its formation and covenant  organisation of the League  membership of the League and how it changed  the powers of the League  the work of the League’s agencies  the contribution of the League to peace in the 1920s, including the successes and failures of the League, such as the Aaland Islands, Upper Silesia, Vilna, Corfu and Bulgaria. While considering how and why the League was set up, the emphasis should be on its strengths and weaknesses, thereby judging its viability as a peace keeping organisation in the 1920s. Enquiry question: Was the League of Nations bound to fail? Students research a timeline of the work of the League in the 1920s – they might include disputes and examples of the humanitarian contributions made by its agencies. Students prepare a spider diagram of the League’s organisations and agencies. Students look at a range of sources and interpretations which relate to the League’s peace keeping activities in the 1920s and use them to assess successes and failures of the League. The work of the League’s agencies should also be included. Students take on the role of a government official at the Class debate: what characteristics should a peace keeping organisation have? Did the League of Nations meet these requirements in its covenant, formation and organisation? Students consider the following question: which League agency do you think did the most valuable work and why? Students research the question: why Research materials for the timeline and spider diagram. A range of sources and interpretations relating to the League’s peace keeping activities in the 1920s. Research materials relating to the impact the Lesson number Specification content Guidance Learning activity Differentiation and extension Resources time and write a report outlining what they think the prospects for the League are at the end of the 1920s. Students explain if they are optimistic and/or pessimistic for the League’s future. did the Wall Street Crash make international relations more difficult? Wall Street Crash on international relations. Diplomacy outside the League Lesson number Specification content Guidance Learning activity Differentiation and extension Resources 14 Locarno treaties and the KelloggBriand Pact. The focus should be on: How important were these efforts to encourage conciliation and peace? Students investigate the terms of Locarno and the Kellogg-Briand pact and write a summary of the terms. They should then assess whether the terms were likely to improve the prospects for peace and justify their view. Students revisit their report from lesson 13 and add a paragraph reflecting on whether or not this form of diplomacy helped or hindered the League. Group research: students describe relations between the USSR and the rest of the world during the 1920s (in connection with Locarno treaties). Information relating to terms of the Locarno treaties and the Kellogg-Briand Pact. The collapse of the League Lesson number Specification content Guidance Learning activity Differentiation and extension Resources 15, 16, 17 and 18  the effects of the Depression  the Manchurian and Abyssinian crises and their consequences  the failure of the League to avert war in 1939. The focus should be on understanding some of the big challenges the League faced. What brought them about? How did the League and its members respond to these challenges? How did the challenges impact upon international relations? Enquiry question: Why did the League of Nations fail in the 1930s? Students complete a timeline of the challenges the League faced. Students look at a range of statements about why the League failed and then should collate information to support these statements. Students explore possible links between economic depression, and for example, the growth of nationalism or growth of international tensions. Manchuria and Abyssinia crises: students collate information about these crises and annotate a map of each area. Research materials relating to the League and key events/challenge s in the 1930s. Lesson number Specification content Guidance Learning activity Differentiation and extension Resources Card sort: students categorise the causes of the League’s failure in both Manchuria and Abyssinia and tabulate the results. Source exercise: students annotate a set of sources and measure their usefulness against content, purpose and knowledge. How far do these sources help to understand why the League failed? Students model a plan of an essay question based on one hypothesis to explain the League’s failure. Review and assessment Lesson number Specification content Guidance Learning activity Differentiation and extension Resources 19 Assessment point: students could be presented with contrasting sources and are asked to compare their usefulness in helping us to understand the work of the League. Students could be then given an agree/disagree style question based on the specimen paper. Sources relating to the work of League. Part three: The origins and outbreak of the Second World War The development of tension Lesson number Specification content Guidance Learning activity Differentiation and extension Resources 20 and 21  Hitler’s aims and Allied reactions  the Dollfus Affair  the Saar  German rearmament, including conscription  The Stresa Front  Anglo-German Naval Agreement. The focus should be on setting the scene: How important were early moves by Hitler in creating tension in the 1930s? Did he intend to cause the Second World War? Enquiry question: Could war have been avoided in 1939? Students study texts to create a timeline of Hitler’s foreign policy up to 1939. Students set up a table which details Hitler’s aims, what actions he took, why he took them and provide evidence of his successes and failures. In this lesson refer to events in the years 1933–1935. The table can then be updated in subsequent lessons. Students consider the following questions:  How far were Hitler’s aims and actions linked to the Treaty of Versailles?  How far do you think Hitler’s actions up to 1935 provide evidence of vulnerability and weakness? Textbooks to complete timeline Escalation of tension Lesson number Specification content Guidance Learning activity Differentiation and extension Resources 22 and 23  remilitarisation of the Rhineland  Mussolini, the Axis and the AntiComintern Pact  Anschluss. The focus is on the years 1936 to 1938 – the increasing level of tension and the part played by appeasement. Sources exercise: students study cartoons and written sources relating to the Rhineland; annotate sources and comment on their strengths and weaknesses to a historian studying the remilitarisation. Students prepare a spider diagram about Hitler’s agreements and alliances. Students prepare a report about the Anschluss for the British Government explaining how and why tension has increased as a result. Students research a profile of Neville Chamberlain. Sources relating to the Rhineland. Research materials about Hitler’s agreements and alliances, and relationship with Mussolini. Information about Anschluss. Information about Neville Chamberlain and appeasement. 24, 25 and 26  reasons for and against the policy of appeasement  the Sudeten Crisis The focus should be on: Why was appeasement considered the most appropriate policy at this Students do a card sort relating to appeasement; categories to include reasons to support and Students research reactions in the local and Information on appeasement. Sources and Lesson number Specification content Guidance Learning activity Differentiation and extension Resources and Munich  the ending of appeasement. time? What were its advantages and drawbacks? oppose the policy. Sources exercise: students study a set of sources and match these against statements about what happened during the Sudeten Crisis and Munich. Students write a first person account of what happened at Munich. Class debate: in groups, students present arguments about the Munich agreement from different points of view. Each group is allocated a country for example: Czechoslovakia, Germany, Britain, the USA and the USSR. national press following Chamberlain’s return from Munich. statements relating to the Sudeten Crisis and Munich. Extracts from contemporary local and national newspapers. The outbreak of war Lesson number Specification content Guidance Learning activity Differentiation and extension Resources 27, 28 and 29  the occupation of Czechoslovakia  the role of the USSR and the Nazi-Soviet Pact  the invasion of Poland and outbreak of war, September 1939  responsibility for the outbreak of war, including that of key individuals: Hitler, Stalin and Chamberlain. The focus should be on explaining the collapse of the policy of appeasement and the relative importance of the different factors which contributed to the outbreak of war in 1939. Students collate evidence from source material to explain the collapse of Appeasement. Source exercise: students study sources and assess their strengths and weaknesses in relation to the tension in Europe in early 1939. Group work: students collate information about the NaziSoviet Pact and invasion of Poland. Class discussion based on a spider diagram of the causes of the Second World War. Students assess the relative importance of differing factors. These might include:  the Treaty of Versailles  the League of Nations  the Wall Street Crash  Hitler  Stalin  appeasement and the attitudes of Britain, France and other powers such as the USA and Italy. Enquiry question: Should Neville Chamberlain deserve to be blamed for his policy of Appeasement? Students select two sources which look at who/what was responsible for the outbreak of war in 1939 and prepare a PowerPoint which explains what happened in September 1939. Source material relating to the collapse of Appeasement. Sources related to increasing tension in Europe. Research material on the Nazi-Soviet Pact and invasion of Poland. A range of sources relating to Neville Chamberlain and appeasement. Lesson number Specification content Guidance Learning activity Differentiation and extension Resources Students attempt to reach a judgement using the decision line, rating the responsibility of each factor. They then compile a report based on this activity. Review and assessment Lesson number Specification content Guidance Learning activity Differentiation and extension Resources 30 Assessment point: students analyse and evaluate contrasting sources and are asked to compare their usefulness in helping us to understand the causes of the Second World War. Students then answer an agree/disagree style question based on specimen paper.