GCSE Science

Chemistry & Biology

Chemistry – Using resources

This resource provides guidance for teaching the topic Using resources from our new GCSE Chemistry (8462). It has been updated from the draft version to reflect the changes made in the accredited specification. These changes are also reflected in the learning outcomes and opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills of most sections.

The scheme of work is designed to be a flexible medium term plan for teaching content and development of the skills that will be assessed.

It is provided in Word format to help you create your own teaching plan – you can edit and customise it according to your needs. This scheme of work is not exhaustive; it only suggests activities and resources you could find useful in your teaching.

4.10 Using resources

4.10.1. Using the Earth’s resources and obtaining potable water

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.10.1.1 Humans use the Earth’s resources to provide warmth, shelter, food and transport.   Natural resources, supplemented by agriculture, provide food, timber, clothing and fuels.   Finite resources from the Earth, oceans and atmosphere are processed to provide energy and materials.   Chemistry plays an important role in improving agricultural and industrial processes to provide new products. It’s also important in sustainable development, which is development that meets the needs of current generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.           State examples of natural products that are supplemented or replaced by agricultural and synthetic products.   Distinguish between finite and renewable resources given appropriate information.   Extract and interpret information about resources from charts, graphs and tables.   Use orders of magnitude to evaluate the significance of data.   WS 3.2   MS 2c, 2h, 4a 1 Define the terms:   finiterenewable.   Explain the differences between the two terms using suitable examples. Research examples of natural products that are supplemented or replaced by agricultural and synthetic products.  
4.10.1.2 Water of appropriate quality is essential for life. For humans, drinking water should have sufficiently low levels of dissolved salts and microbes. Water that is safe to drink is called potable water. Potable water is not pure water in the chemical sense because it contains dissolved substances.   The methods used to produce potable water depend on available supplies of water and local conditions.   In the UK, rain provides water with low levels of dissolved substances (fresh water) that collects in the ground, in lakes and rivers, and most potable water is produced by:   choosing an appropriate source of fresh waterpassing the water through filter beds sterilising.   Sterilising agents used for potable water include chlorine, ozone or ultra-violet light.   If supplies of fresh water are limited, desalination of salty water or sea water may be required. Desalination can be done by distillation or by processes that use membranes such as reverse osmosis. These processes require large amounts of energy. Distinguish between potable water and pure water.   Describe the differences in treatment of ground water and salty water.   Give reasons for the steps used to produce potable water.   WS 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7 2 Define the terms:   potable waterpure water.   Explain the differences between the two terms.   Extended writing: describe the process of desalination.   Extended writing: describe the process of distillation   Extended writing: explain why distillation separates substances.   Grade 9: explain what happens to substances during the process of distillation in terms of intermolecular forces of attraction. Required practical 8:   Analysis and purification of water samples from different sources, including pH, dissolved solids and distillation.   AT skills covered by this practical activity: 2, 3 and 4. Video clip   YouTube: UTEC – Potable Water Generator Resources for schools – Thames Water Tools for Schools     Exampro user guide PowerPoint     Video clip   YouTube: Simple Distillation    
4.10.1.3 Urban lifestyles and industrial processes produce large amounts of waste water that require treatment before being released into the environment. Sewage and agricultural waste water require removal of organic matter and harmful microbes. Industrial waste water may require removal of organic matter and harmful chemicals.   Sewage treatment includes:   screening and grit removalsedimentation to produce sewage sludge and effluentanaerobic digestion of sewage sludgeaerobic biological treatment of effluent. Comment on the relative ease of obtaining potable water from waste, ground and salt water.   1   Research how water is treated.   Extended writing: detail the methods involved. Several water companies provide resources for schools regarding sewage treatment, for example: Anglian Water   Video clip YouTube: Water and You: The Water Treatment Process
4.10.1.4 (HT only) The Earth’s resources of metal ores are limited.   Copper ores are becoming scarce and new ways of extracting copper from low-grade ores include phytomining and bioleaching. These methods avoid traditional mining methods of digging, moving and disposing of large amounts of rock.   Phytomining uses plants to absorb metal compounds. The plants are harvested and then burned to produce ash that contains metal compounds.   Bioleaching uses bacteria to produce leachate solutions that contain metal compounds.   The metal compounds can be processed to obtain the metal. For example, copper can be obtained from solutions of copper compounds by displacement using scrap iron or by electrolysis. Evaluate alternative biological methods of metal extraction, given appropriate information.   1 Extended writing: describe the processes of   phytominingbioleaching.   Evaluate the impacts and benefits of biological methods of extracting metal. Research information for the processes of:   phytominingbioleaching.   Include percentage of metal extracted, concentration of global warming gases released, amount of electricity used etc. Use this data in an evaluation.   It may be possible to model phytomining in the laboratory by watering geraniums with dilute copper sulphate for a period of time. The leaves can be burnt and copper can be extracted from the ash by rinsing in dilute hydrochloric acid and electrolysing the solution. Video clip YouTube: Bioleaching and Phytomining  


4.10.2 Life cycle assessment and recycling

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.10.2.1 Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) are carried out to assess the environmental impact of products in each of these stages:   extracting and processing raw materialsmanufacturing and packaging  use and operation during its lifetime disposal at the end of its useful life, including transport and distribution at each stage.   Use of water, resources, energy sources and production of some wastes can be fairly easily quantified. Allocating numerical values to pollutant effects is less straightforward and requires value judgements, so LCA is not a purely objective process.   Selective or abbreviated LCAs can be devised to evaluate a product but these can be misused to reach pre-determined conclusions, eg in support of claims for advertising purposes. Carry out simple comparative LCAs for shopping bags made from plastic and paper   WS 1.3, 1.4, 1.5   MS 1a, 1c, 1d, 2a, 4a 1 Describe what a LCA is using a suitable example.   Use information to interpret the LCA of a given material or product.   Discuss the negative issues relating to LCAs and why caution should be used when using them. Use the internet to carry out simple comparative LCAs for shopping bags made from plastic and paper.   LCAs should be done as a comparison of the impact on the environment of the stages in the life of a product, and only quantified where data is readily available for energy, water, resources and wastes.    
4.10.2.2 The reduction in use, reuse and recycling of materials by end users reduces the use of limited resources, energy consumption, waste and environmental impacts.   Metals, glass, building materials, clay ceramics and most plastics are produced from limited raw materials. Much of the energy used in the processes comes from limited resources. Obtaining raw materials from the Earth by quarrying and mining causes environmental impacts.   Some products, such as glass bottles, can be reused. Glass bottles can be crushed and melted to make different glass products. Other products cannot be reused and so are recycled for a different use .  Metals can be recycled by melting and recasting or reforming into different products. The amount of separation required for recycling depends on the material and the properties required of the final product. For example, some scrap steel can be added to iron from a blast furnace to reduce the amount of iron that needs to be extracted from iron ore. Evaluate ways of reducing the use of limited resources, given appropriate information.   1 Discuss the issues relating to using limited resources to generate energy.   Extended writing: describe the environmental impacts of obtaining raw materials from the Earth. Research methods of producing/obtaining metal/glass/building materials/clay ceramics/plastics. Identify in these methods the limited resources that are used to generate the energy.    Research how glass is recycled.   Research how metal is recycled and alternatives for use of scrap metals ie in obtaining iron in a blast furnace. Video clip   YouTube: Recycling Plastics    

4.10.3 Using materials

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.10.3.1 Corrosion is the destruction of materials by chemical reactions with substances in the environment. Rusting is an example of corrosion. Both air and water are necessary for iron to rust.   Corrosion can be prevented by applying a coating that acts as a barrier, such as greasing, painting or electroplating. Aluminium has an oxide coating that protects the metal from further corrosion.   Some coatings are reactive and contain a more reactive metal to provide sacrificial protection, eg zinc is used to galvanise iron.. Describe experiments and interpret results to show that both air and water are necessary for rusting.   Explain sacrificial protection in terms of relative reactivity.   WS 2.2, 2.7, 3.5 2 Define the following terms using suitable examples:   corrosionrustingsacrificial protection.   Describe how to prevent corrosion using the examples:   oxide coating on aluminiumzinc on ironmagnesium on steel.   Use suitable examples to explain why corrosion can be prevented using barriers and the role of sacrificial barriers if appropriate to the example used. Investigate the conditions for rusting of iron nails in test tubes. Video clips: BBC Bitesize Galvanising iron and steel   BBC Bitesize Zinc as sacrificial protection   YouTube: Corrosion   Rust: Prevention and treatment   Galvanising and sacrificial protection
4.10.3.2 Most metals in everyday use are alloys.   Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin. Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc.   Gold used as jewellery is usually an alloy with silver, copper and zinc. The proportion of gold in the alloy is measured in carats, with pure gold being 24 carat. 18 carat gold is 75% gold.   Steels are alloys of iron that contain specific amounts of carbon and other metals. High carbon steel is strong but brittle. Low carbon steel is softer and more easily shaped. Steels containing chromium and nickel (stainless steels) are hard and resistant to corrosion.   Aluminium alloys are low density. Recall a use of each of the alloys specified   Interpret and evaluate the composition and uses of alloys other than those specified, given appropriate information.   MS 1a, 1c 1 Define the terms:   alloyhigh carbon steellow carbon steel.   Using diagrams, describe the difference between metals and their alloys. Describe the composition of common alloys and their uses.   State properties of examples of alloys.  Explain, in relation to the structure, why these alloys have these properties. Research the first alloy to include the history of it and its uses.   Model an alloy using different size marbles. Use this model to discuss the properties of alloys.   Research the composition and uses of alloys. Use this information to evaluate the use of the alloys.   The Royal Society of Chemistry has many resources to support teachers in the classroom – including practical guides and instructions:   RSC Practical-Chemistry Video clips: BBC Bitesize Bronze – The first alloy   BBC Bitesize Superalloys and the jet engine    
4.10.3.3 Most of the glass we use is soda-lime glass, made by heating a mixture of sand, sodium carbonate and limestone. Borosilicate glass, made from sand and boron trioxide, melts at higher temperatures than soda-lime glass.   Clay ceramics, including pottery and bricks, are made by shaping wet clay and then heating in a furnace.   The properties of polymers depend on what monomers they are made from and the conditions under which they are made. For example, low density (LD) and high density (HD) poly(ethene) are produced from ethene.   Thermosoftening polymers melt when they are heated. Thermosetting polymers do not melt when they are heated.   Most composites are made of two materials, a matrix or binder surrounding and binding together fibres or fragments of the other material, which is called the reinforcement. Explain how low density and high density poly(ethene) are both produced from ethene.   Explain the difference between thermosoftening and thermosetting polymers in terms of their structures.   Compare quantitatively the physical properties of glass and clay ceramics, polymers, composites and metals.   Explain how the properties of materials are related to their uses and select appropriate materials.   WS 1.4, 3.5, 3.8   2 Describe how the following are produced and give uses for each:   soda-lime glassborosilicate glassclay ceramicslow-density poly(ethene)high density poly(ethene)composites.   Using diagrams, describe the structure of the following polymers: thermosofteningthermosetting.   Use these diagrams and descriptions to explain why the following happens when heated:   thermosoftening polymers meltthermosetting polymers do not melt. Research the physical properties of:   soda-lime glassborosilicate glassclay ceramicslow-density poly(ethene)high density poly(ethene)composites   Use these properties to explain how the materials are related to their use. Compare the properties of thermosetting and thermosoftening polymers. More information about glass: Pilkington glass website   Video clips: BBC Bitesize The uses of polymers   See also the series ‘How It’s Made’ eg: How It’s Made Glass Bottles     Composite materials: BBC Bitesize Ceramics Revision Guide   Video clips   YouTube: NASA 360 – Composite Materials (long)   Graphene: Composite Materials   How It’s Made Carbon Fibre   How to Make an F1 Car: Composites (Part 2)

 

4.10.4 The Haber process and the use of NPK fertilisers

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.10.4.1 The Haber process is used to manufacture ammonia, which can be used to produce nitrogen-based fertilisers.   The raw materials for the Haber process are nitrogen and hydrogen.   The purified gases are passed over a catalyst of iron at a high temperature (about 450 °C) and a high pressure (about 200 atmospheres). Some of the hydrogen and nitrogen reacts to form ammonia. The reaction is reversible so some of the ammonia produced breaks down into nitrogen and hydrogen:
            On cooling, the ammonia liquefies and is removed. The remaining hydrogen and nitrogen are recycled.
Recall a source for the nitrogen and a source for the hydrogen used in the Haber process.   (HT only) Interpret graphs of reaction conditions versus rate.   (HT only) Apply the principles of dynamic equilibrium to the Haber process.   (HT only) Explain the trade-off between rate of production and position of equilibrium.   (HT only) Explain how the commercially used conditions for the Haber process are related to the availability and cost of raw materials and energy supplies, control of equilibrium position and rate.   WS 3.5, 3.8 MS 1a, 1c 2 State where the raw materials in the Haber process come from.   Describe the process for manufacturing ammonia.   Write a balanced symbol equation for the manufacture of ammonia. Use this to describe the reaction in terms of reactants, products, conditions and number of moles.   Recall the following topics:   dynamic equilibriumtemperature affecting the rate of a reactionpressure.   Explain how each of these affects the Haber process reaction.   Discuss the effect of the following conditions on the reaction:   a high temperaturea low temperaturea high pressurea low pressureuse of a catalystno catalyst.   Discuss the pros and cons of these varying conditions. Explain the trade-off between the rate of the reaction and the position of the equilibrium.   Explain how the conditions used in industry affect the equilibrium position, rate and costs of the reaction. Research the availability and cost of the raw materials and energy supplies in the Haber process. Explain how these relate to the conditions used for the Haber process in industry. Video clips BBC Bitesize Formation of ammonia using the Haber Process   YouTube: What is the Haber Process?   The Haber Process and its environmental implications   Chemistry GCSE Haber Process    
4.10.4.2 Compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are used as fertilisers to improve agricultural productivity. NPK fertilisers contain compounds of all three elements.   Industrial production of NPK fertilisers can be achieved using a variety of raw materials in several integrated processes. NPK fertilisers are formulations of various salts containing appropriate percentages of the elements.   Ammonia can be used to manufacture ammonium salts and nitric acid.   Potassium chloride, potassium sulfate and phosphate rock are obtained by mining, but phosphate rock cannot be used directly as a fertiliser.   Phosphate rock is treated with nitric acid or sulfuric acid to produce soluble salts that can be used as fertilisers. Recall the names of the salts produced when phosphate rock is treated with nitric acid, sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid   Compare the industrial production of fertilisers with laboratory preparations of the same compounds, given appropriate information. 2 Extended writing: compare how fertilisers are produced in industry and in the laboratory.   Investigate what was used as fertilizer before the industrial preparation of fertilisers was invented.   Haber’s ambiguous morality could be discussed in the context of his work with fertilisers compared to his work on poison gas in World War I. Research compositions of NPK and their uses.   Research how fertilisers can be prepared:   industrially in a laboratory.   Prepare an ammonium salt by titration eg using aqueous ammonia, dilute sulfuric acid and methyl orange.  AT 4. Video clip   YouTube: What are fertilisers?        

Chemistry – The rate and extent of chemical change

This resource provides guidance for teaching The rate and extent of chemical change topic from our new GCSE Chemistry (8462). It has been updated from the draft version to reflect the changes made in the accredited specification. Changes have been made to 4.6.1.2, 4.6.1.3 and 4.6.1.4 and minor amendments to each of the other sections.

The scheme of work is designed to be a flexible medium term plan for teaching content and development of the skills that will be assessed.

It is provided in Word format to help you create your own teaching plan – you can edit and customise it according to your needs. This scheme of work is not exhaustive, it only suggests activities and resources you could find useful in your teaching.

4.6 The rate and extent of chemical change

4.6.1 Rate of reaction

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.6.1.1 The rate of a chemical reaction can be found by measuring the quantity of a reactant used or the quantity of product formed over time:         or           The quantity of reactant or product can be measured by the mass in grams, by a volume in cm3 or by an amount in moles. The units of rate of reaction may be given as g/s, cm3/s or mol/s. Calculate the mean rate of a reaction from given information about the quantity of a reactant used or the quantity of a product formed and the time taken.   Draw and interpret graphs showing the quantity of product formed or quantity of reactant used up against time.   Draw tangents to the curves on these graphs and use the slope of the tangent as a measure of the rate of reaction.   (HT only) Calculate the gradient of a tangent to the curve on these graphs as a measure of rate of reaction at a specific time. MS 1a, 1c, 1d, 4a, 4b, 4c, 4d, 4e   2 Use graphical data to explain each part of the graph ie: initially rate is fastslows downreaction completes.   Extended writing: write instructions to another student how to calculate the mean rate of reaction.   Explain what is meant by the units: g/scm3/s mol/s. React CaCO3 with dilute HCl and measure the volume of CO2 evolved against time.   Record the results and plot a graph of results of volume of gas against time.   Use the results and graph to determine the mean rate of reaction.   A similar reaction can be done with magnesium and hydrochloric acid.   Exampro user guide PowerPoint    
4.6.1.2 Factors which affect the rates of chemical reactions include: the concentrations of reactants in solution, the pressure of reacting gases, the surface area of solid reactants, the temperature and the presence of catalysts.           Be able to recall how changing these factors affects the rate of chemical reactions.   WS 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.6, 2.7   MS 1a, 1c, 1d, 2a, 2b, 4a, 4b, 4c, 4d, 4e 2 Extended writing: explain the effect on the rate of reaction of the following factors:   concentrationpressuresurface areatemperaturecatalyst.   Use graphs of data obtained from concentration reactions to explain what occurs as the reaction proceeds. Required practical 5:   investigate how changes in concentration affect the rates of reactions by a method involving measuring the volume of a gas produced and a method involving a change in colour or turbidity.   This should be an investigation involving developing a hypothesis.   AT skills covered by this practical activity: 1, 3, 5 and 6.   This topic offers opportunities for practical work and investigations in addition to required practical 5, by changing temperature and surface area of reactants and use of catalysts.   Video clips: BBC Bitesize Rates of reactions   YouTube: Rates of reaction
4.6.1.3 Collision theory explains how various factors affect rates of reactions. According to this theory, chemical reactions can occur only when reacting particles collide with each other and with sufficient energy. The minimum amount of energy that particles must have to react is called the activation energy.   Increasing the concentration of reactants in solution, the pressure of reacting gases, and the surface area of solid reactants increases the frequency of collisions and so increases the rate of reaction.   Increasing the temperature increases the frequency of collisions and makes the collisions more energetic, and so increases the rate of reaction. Predict and explain using collision theory the effects of changing conditions of concentration, pressure and temperature on the rate of a reaction.   Predict and explain the effects of changes in the size of pieces of a reacting solid in terms of surface area to volume ratio.   Use simple ideas about proportionality when using collision theory to explain the effect of a factor on the rate of a reaction.   WS 1.2   MS 1c, 5c 1 Describe collision theory.   Use collision theory to explain the change in rate of reaction in terms of particle behaviour for: concentrationpressuresurface areatemperaturecatalyst.   Video clips YouTube: Collision theory 1   Collision theory 2   Rates of reaction   BBC Bitesize Collision theory and how to speed up rates of reaction    
4.6.1.4 Catalysts change the rate of chemical reactions but are not used up during the reaction.  Different reactions need different catalysts.  Enzymes act as catalysts in biological systems.   Catalysts increase the rate of reaction by providing a different pathway for the reaction that has lower activation energy.   A reaction profile for a catalysed reaction can be drawn in the following form:       Be able to identify catalysts in reactions from their effect on the rate of reaction and because they are not included in the chemical equation for the reaction. Be able to explain catalytic action in terms of activation energy.   Students do not need to know the names of catalysts other than those specified in the subject content.       1 Define the term activation energy.   Identify advantages of using catalysts in industrial reactions eg reducing costs.   Explain the effect of using a catalyst on the activation energy. Research different catalysts and their uses in industry.   Research catalytic converters.   An opportunity to investigate the catalytic effect of adding different metal salts to a reaction such as the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.   AT 5 Video clip   YouTube: What are catalysts?

 

4.6.2 Reversible reactions and dynamic equilibrium

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.6.2.1 In some chemical reactions, the products of the reaction can react to produce the original reactants. Such reactions are called reversible reactions and are represented:

             The direction of reversible reactions can be changed by changing the conditions. For example:  
             
  0.5 Explain what is meant by a reversible reaction.   Explain the difference between:           reactions and    à    reactions. Practical: hydrate or dehydrate copper sulfate.  Write a balanced equation for the reaction and describe the full process.   Heat ammonium chloride in a test tube. Use mineral wool to support a piece of damp pH paper half way up the tube and observe the colour change. Interpret the results (blue then red) in terms of the thermal decomposition of the ammonium chloride into ammonia and hydrogen chloride. Video clips: BBC Bitesize Reversible reactions   YouTube: What are Reversible Reactions?
4.6.2.2 If a reversible reaction is exothermic in one direction, it is endothermic in the opposite direction. The same amount of energy is transferred in each case. For example:       0.5 Recall definition of: exothermicendothermic.   Describe the effects of temperature on the reversible reaction. Investigate the temperature changes for:     Video clips: BBC Bitesize Endothermic and exothermic reactions       YouTube: Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions
4.6.2.3 When a reversible reaction occurs in apparatus which prevents the escape of reactants and products, equilibrium is reached when the forward and reverse reactions occur at exactly the same rate. WS 1.2 0.5 Explain the term equilibrium and given suitable examples of when it can occur. Research examples of equilibrium reactions in industry. Video clip   YouTube: What is Dynamic Equilibrium?
4.6.2.4 (HT only) The relative amounts of all the reactants and products at equilibrium depend on the conditions of the reaction.   If a system is at equilibrium and a change is made to any of the conditions, then the system responds to counteract the change.   The effects of changing conditions on a system at equilibrium can be predicted using Le Chatelier’s Principle. Be able to make qualitative predictions about the effect of changes on systems at equilibrium when given appropriate information.       1 Describe Le Chatelier’s principle.   Explain the effects on equilibrium of changing conditions using suitable examples.   Research the work of Le Chatelier or the life of Fritz Haber. Highlight the moral ambiguity of Haber’s work.   Video clips   YouTube: Le Chatelier’s Principle Part 1   BBC Bitesize Formation of ammonia using the Haber Process   YouTube: What is the Haber Process?
4.6.2.5 (HT only) If the concentration of one of the reactants or products is changed, the system is no longer at equilibrium and the concentrations of all the substances will change until equilibrium is reached again.   If the concentration of a reactant is increased, more products will be formed until equilibrium is reached again.   If the concentration of a product is decreased, more reactants will react until equilibrium is reached again. Be able to interpret appropriate given data to predict the effect of a change in concentration of a reactant or product on given reactions at equilibrium.     0.5 Use data to predict the effect of concentration on equilibrium. Justify answers.   See video clips for 4.6.2.4
4.6.2.6 (HT only) If the temperature of a system at equilibrium is increased:   the relative amount of products at equilibrium increases for an endothermic reactionthe relative amount of products at equilibrium decreases for an exothermic reaction.   If the temperature of a system at equilibrium is decreased:   the relative amount of products at equilibrium decreases for an endothermic reactionthe relative amount of products at equilibrium increases for an exothermic reaction. Be able to interpret appropriate given data to predict the effect of a change in temperature on given reactions at equilibrium.     0.5 Use data to predict the effect of temperature on equilibrium. Justify answers.   Video clip   YouTube: Le Chatelier’s Principle Part 2    
4.6.2.7 (HT only) For gaseous reactions at equilibrium:   an increase in pressure causes the equilibrium position to shift towards the side with the smaller number of molecules as shown by the symbol equation for that reactiona decrease in pressure causes the equilibrium position to shift towards the side with the larger number of molecules as shown by the symbol equation for that reaction. Be able to interpret appropriate given data to predict the effect of pressure changes on given reactions at equilibrium.     0.5 Use data to predict the effect of pressure on equilibrium. Justify answers.   See video clips for 4.6.2.4

 

Chemistry – Quantitative chemistry

This resource provides guidance for teaching the Quantitative chemistry topic from our new GCSE Chemistry (8462). It has been updated from the draft version to reflect the changes made in the accredited specification. In particular, 4.3.1.4 is new.

The scheme of work is designed to be a flexible medium term plan for teaching content and development of the skills that will be assessed.

It is provided in Word format to help you create your own teaching plan – you can edit and customise it according to your needs. This scheme of work is not exhaustive; it only suggests activities and resources you could find useful in your teaching.

4.3 Quantitative chemistry

4.3.1 Conservation of mass and the quantitative interpretation of chemical equations

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.3.1.1 The law of conservation of mass states that no atoms are lost or made during a chemical reaction so the mass of the products equals the mass of the reactants.   This means that chemical reactions can be represented by symbol equations which are balanced in terms of the numbers of atoms of each element involved on both sides of the equation. Understand the use of the multipliers in equations in normal script before a formula and in subscript within a formula.   WS 1.2 2 Explain the meaning of the law of conservation.   Write simple word equations.   Write simple symbol equations.   Balance symbol equations.   Extended writing:describe the equations given in terms of number of moles, reactants and products.   Grade 9:balance complex equations and add state symbols. Model the law of conservation using molecular model kits.   Lego or Duplo bricks can be used to good effect.   Teacher demonstration. The precipitation reaction:     can be performed on a balance. No change in total mass but obvious yellow precipitate observed. Video clips: BBC Bitesize Conservation of mass in chemical reactions   YouTube: The law of conservation of mass   Law of Conservation of Mass Experiment
4.3.1.2 The relative formula mass (Mr) of a compound is the sum of the relative atomic masses of the atoms in the numbers shown in the formula.   In a balanced chemical equation, the sum of the relative formula masses of the reactants in the quantities shown equals the sum of the relative formula masses of the products in the quantities shown. Use relative atomic masses in the calculations specified in the subject content.   Be able to calculate the relative formula mass (Mr) of a compound from its formula, given the relative atomic masses.   1 Review the definition of relative atomic mass.   Recall how to find the relative atomic mass from the Periodic Table.   Define the relative molecular mass.   Extended writing:write instructions to another student how to calculate the relative formula mass. Model compounds with different sized and coloured lego bricks pre-marked with symbol and Ar of different elements.  Sum the Ars marked on the bricks to obtain the Mr.   Exampro user guide PowerPoint    
4.3.1.3 Some reactions may appear to involve a change in mass but this can usually be explained because a reactant or product is a gas and its mass has not been taken into account. For example: when a metal reacts with oxygen the mass of the oxide produced is greater than the mass of the metal or in thermal decompositions of metal carbonates carbon dioxide is produced and escapes into the atmosphere leaving the metal oxide as the only solid product. Students should be able to explain any observed changes in mass in non-enclosed systems during a chemical reaction given the balanced symbol equation for the reaction and explain these changes in terms of the particle model.   WS 1.2   1 Extended writing: use measurements of mass before and after an experiment to explain what has happened to the mass during the experiment and why it has happened. Use magnesium ribbon to produce magnesium oxide.  Measure the mass of the ribbon at the start of the experiment, burn the ribbon in a strong Bunsen flame (SAFETY required) and measure the mass of the ribbon at the end of the experiment.   Use HCl acid in a conical flask with CaCO3. Measure the mass of the reaction on a top pan balance as the reaction proceeds over two minutes.    Demonstrate combustion of paper in a large beaker to show mass may decrease because products are released to the air as gases.   Try balancing iron wool on a pair of scales (a makeshift one can be set up using a carefully balanced metre rule). Heat the iron wool strongly to observe the increase in mass of the oxide.                                                 Video clip YouTube: BBC Chemical reactions Burning iron wool experiment at 7 minutes in.
4.3.1.4 Whenever a measurement is made there is always some uncertainty about the result obtained. Represent the distribution of results and make estimations of uncertainty.   Use the range of a set of measurements about the mean as a measure of uncertainty. WS 3.4. 0.5   Class thiosulfate ‘disappearing cross’ experiment at a single fixed concentration using (a) pre-printed computer generated crosses (b) hand drawn crosses using different pens/pencils.  

4.3.2 Use of amount of substance in relation to masses of pure substances

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.3.2.1 (HT only) Chemical amounts are measured in moles. The symbol for the unit mole is mol.   The mass of one mole of a substance in grams is numerically equal to its relative formula mass.   One mole of a substance contains the same number of the stated particles, atoms, molecules or ions as one mole of any other substance.   The number of atoms, molecules or ions in a mole of a given substance is the Avogadro constant. The value of the Avogadro constant is 6.02 x 1023 per mole. Understand that the measurement of amounts in moles can apply to atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, formulae and equations, for example that in one mole of carbon (C) the number of atoms is the same as the number of molecules in one mole of carbon dioxide (CO2).   Be able to use the relative formula mass of a substance to calculate the number of moles in a given mass of that substance and vice versa.   WS 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.5, 4.6 MS 1a, 1b, 2a, 3b, 3c 1 Define one mole in terms of Mr and Ar   Calculate the number of moles in a substance using the relative formula mass.   Extended writing:write instructions to another student how to calculate the number of moles using the relative formula mass Measure out and compare 1 mole of elements like iron, sulfur, magnesium, copper, aluminium and so on.   Measure out and compare one mole of common compounds, water, sodium chloride, calcium carbonate and so on. Video clips   YouTube: What is a mole?   Avogadro’s number – The mole
4.3.2.2 (HT only) The masses of reactants and products can be calculated from balanced symbol equations. Chemical equations can be interpreted in terms of moles. For example:     shows that one mole of magnesium reacts with two moles of hydrochloric acid to produce one mole of magnesium chloride and one mole of hydrogen gas. Calculate the masses of substances shown in a balanced symbol equation.   Calculate the masses of reactants and products from the balanced symbol equation and the mass of a given reactant or product.   MS 1a, 1c, 3b, 3c 1 Balance chemical equations and use these to calculate the masses of substances present.   Extended writing:write instructions to another student use balanced chemical equations to calculate the masses of substances present.   Video clip YouTube: Calculating Masses in Reactions    
4.3.2.3 (HT only) The balancing numbers in a symbol equation can be calculated from the masses of reactants and products by converting the masses in grams to amounts in moles and converting the numbers of moles to simple whole number ratios.       Be able to balance an equation given the masses of reactants and products.   Change the subject of a mathematical equation. MS 3b, 3c 1 Use the masses of substances present in a reaction to write a balanced equation.    
4.3.2.4 (HT only) In a chemical reaction involving two reactants, it is common to use an excess of one of the reactants to ensure that all of the other reactant is used. The reactant that is completely used up is called the limiting reactant because it limits the amount of products. Be able to explain the effect of a limiting quantity of a reactant on the amount of products it is possible to obtain in terms of amounts in moles or masses in grams.   WS 4.1 0.5 Define the term limiting reactant. Link the limiting reactant to the number of moles. Link the limiting reactant to the masses in grams. Use a small strip of magnesium ribbon in 20 ml HCl acid. Identify which reactant is the limiting reactant and state the reason for this choice.  
4.3.2.5   Many chemical reactions take place in solutions. The concentration of a solution can be measured in mass per given volume of solution, eg grams per dm3 (g/dm3). Calculate the mass of solute in a given volume of solution of known concentration in terms of mass per given volume of solution.   (HT only)   Explain how the mass of a solute and the volume of a solution is related to the concentration of the solution   MS 1c, 3c 0.5 Explain the meaning of concentration and the unit grams per dm3   Be able to convert cm3 into dm3.   Use the equation:   to calculate the concentration of a solution.   Rearrange the equation:   to make mass the subject.   Extended writing:write instructions to another student on how to calculate the concentration, or how to rearrange the equation to calculate mass. Discuss the differences of the word ‘concentration’ and ‘strength’ in science and everyday language. To demonstrate the idea of concentration students could make different concentrations of tea, coffee or a dark squash like blackcurrant.                                 Students often confuse the concept of ‘concentration’ with ‘strength’. Video clip   YouTube: Concentration formula and calculations

4.3.3 Yield and atom economy of chemical reactions

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.3.3.1 Even though no atoms are gained or lost in a chemical reaction, it isn’t always possible to obtain the calculated amount of a product because: the reaction may not go to completion because it is reversiblesome of the product may be lost when it is separated from the reaction mixturesome of the reactants may react in ways different to the expected reaction. The amount of a product obtained is known as the yield. When compared with the maximum theoretical amount as a percentage, it is called the percentage yield.                     Calculate the percentage yield of a product from the actual yield of a reaction.   (HT only)   Calculate the theoretical amount of a product from a given amount of reactant and the balanced equation for the reaction.     WS 4.2, 4.6 MS 1a, 1c, 2a, 3c 1 Describe how atoms are lost or gained in a chemical reaction.   Explain why atoms can be lost or gained in a chemical reaction.   Calculate the theoretical yield for simple examples.   Extended writing: write instructions to another student how to calculate the theoretical yield giving explained examples. Use Lego as a model for chemical reactions demonstrating the loss of product and use the model as a simple introduction to yield calculations.   The same can be applied to atom economy.   Video clips   YouTube: Theoretical yield and losses   Percentage yield    
4.3.3.2 The atom economy (atom utilisation) is a measure of the amount of starting materials that end up as useful products. It is important for sustainable development and for economic reasons to use reactions with high atom economy.   The percentage atom economy of a reaction is calculated using the balanced equation for the reaction as follows:       Calculate the atom economy of a reaction to form a desired product from the balanced equation.   (HT only)   Explain why a particular reaction pathway is chosen to produce a specified product given appropriate data such as atom economy (if not calculated), yield, rate, equilibrium position and usefulness of by-products.   WS 4.1, 4.2 MS 1a, 1c, 3c 1 Calculate the atom economy for simple examples.   Extended writing: write instructions to another student how to calculate the atom economy giving explained examples. Identify a chemical reaction that has a high atom economy and research the positives to industry of producing a high yield of useful product.   Identify a chemical reaction that has a low atom economy and research the negatives to industry of producing a low yield of useful product and ways the reactions has been improved to increase the yield of useful product. Video clip   YouTube: What is the Atom Economy?

4.3.4 Using concentrations of solutions in mol/dm3

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.3.4 (HT only) The concentration of a solution can be measured in mol/dm3.   The amount in moles of solute or the mass in grams of solute in a given volume of solution can be calculated from its concentration in mol/dm3.   If the volumes of two solutions that react completely are known and the concentration of one solution is known, the concentration of the other solution can be calculated.   Explain how the concentration of a solution in mol/dm3 is related to the mass of the solute and the volume of the solution.   WS 4.2, 4.3, 4.6 MS 1a, 1c, 3b, 3c 1 Explain the meaning of concentration and the unit mol per dm3. Be able to convert cm3 into dm3. Use the equation   to calculate the concentration of a solution. Rearrange the equation   to make number of moles the subject. Extended writing:write instructions to another student on how to calculate the concentration, or how to rearrange the equation to calculate number of moles Extended writing: write instructions to another student on how to carry out a titration. Include reasons for using a burette instead of other measuring equipment. Grade 9:explain why indicators eg methyl orange and phenolphthalein are used instead of Universal indicator. Titrate HCl with NaOH using an indicator of methyl orange. Use the titre results and know volumes of NaOH and concentration, to calculate the concentration of the HCl. Video clip   YouTube: Concentration formula and calculations    

4.3.5 Use amount of substance in relation to volume of gases

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.3.5 (HT only) Equal amounts in moles of gases occupy the same volume under the same conditions of temperature and pressure.   The volume of one mole of any gas at room temperature and pressure (20 °C and 1 atmosphere pressure) is 24 dm3.   The volumes of gaseous reactants and products can be calculated from the balanced equation for the reaction. Calculate the volume of a gas at room temperature and pressure from its mass and relative formula mass   Calculate volumes of gaseous reactants and products from a balanced equation and a given volume of a gaseous reactant or product.   Change the subject of a mathematical equation.   WS 1.2, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.6   MS 1a, 1c, 3c, 3d 0.5 Recall the equation: Use the equation: volume of gas at rtp = number of moles x molar gas volume (24 dm3) for simple examples.   Extended writing:write instructions to another student on how to calculate the volume of a gas.   Use balanced equations and known volume of reactant/product to calculate the volumes of gaseous reactants/ products.   YouTube: Molar volumes of gases   YouTube: Calculating gas volume

 

Chemistry – Organic chemistry

This resource provides guidance for teaching the topic Organic chemistry from our new GCSE Chemistry (8462). It has been updated from the draft version to reflect the changes made in the accredited specification. These changes are also reflected in the learning outcomes and opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills of most sections.

The scheme of work is designed to be a flexible medium term plan for teaching content and development of the skills that will be assessed.

It is provided in Word format to help you create your own teaching plan – you can edit and customise it according to your needs. This scheme of work is not exhaustive; it only suggests activities and resources you could find useful in your teaching.

4.7 Organic chemistry

4.7.1 Carbon compounds as fuels and feedstock

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.7.1.1 Crude oil is a finite resource found in rocks. Crude oil is the remains of an ancient biomass consisting mainly of plankton that was buried in mud.   Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds. Most of the compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons, which are molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only.   Most of the hydrocarbons in crude oil are hydrocarbons called alkanes. The general formula for the homologous series of alkanes is The first four members of the alkanes are methane, ethane, propane and butane. Alkane molecules can be represented in the following forms:  or     Be able to recognise substances as alkanes given their formulae in these forms.   Students do not need to know the names of specific alkanes other than methane, ethane, propane and butane.   WS 1.2 1 Describe the formation of crude oil.   Describe the composition of crude oil.   Define a hydrocarbon.   Explain what is meant by the formula   Make molecular models and work out general formula for the alkanes.   Draw the covalent bonding in: methaneethanepropanebutane.   Define the term saturated. Plot boiling points of alkanes against number of carbons. Make predictions of the boiling points of other alkanes.   Make models of alkane molecules using molecular modelling kits. Exampro user guide PowerPoint    
4.7.1.2 The many hydrocarbons in crude oil may be separated into fractions, each of which contains molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms, by fractional distillation.   The fractions can be processed to produce fuels and feedstock for the petrochemical industry.   Many of the fuels on which we depend for our modern lifestyle such as petrol, diesel oil, kerosene, heavy fuel oil and liquefied petroleum gases, are produced from crude oil.   Many useful materials on which modern life depends are produced by the petrochemical industry, such as solvents, lubricants, polymers, detergents.   The vast array of natural and synthetic carbon compounds occur due to the ability of carbon atoms to form families of similar compounds. Explain how fractional distillation works in terms of evaporation and condensation.   Knowledge of the names of other specific fractions or fuels is not required.   WS 1.2 2 Describe the process of fractional distillation.   Grade 9:explain the process of fractional distillation in terms of intermolecular forces of attraction.   Suggest the impact on fuels, feedstocks and petrochemicals of the depleting stocks of crude oil.   Describe a life without oil or oil derived products. Look at the cultural and environmental impact of the oil industry around the world. Research uses of the fractions of crude oil. Video clips YouTube: Fractional distillation   YouTube: Crude Oil Fractions and their uses    
4.7.1.3 Some properties of hydrocarbons depend on the size of their molecules, including boiling point, viscosity and flammability. These properties influence how hydrocarbons are used as fuels.   The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels releases energy. During combustion, the carbon and hydrogen in the fuels are oxidised. The complete combustion of a hydrocarbon produces carbon dioxide and water. Recall how boiling point, viscosity and flammability change with increasing molecular size.   Write balanced equations for the complete combustion of hydrocarbons with a given formula. Knowledge of trends inproperties of hydrocarbons is limited to:   boiling pointsviscosityflammability.   WS 1.2, 4.1 1 Explain the properties of hydrocarbons in relation to intermolecular forces.   Write balanced symbol equations for the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels.   Describe the balanced symbol equation including moles present, reactants and products.   Investigate the properties of different hydrocarbons in terms of boiling point, viscosity and flammability with increasing molecular size.   Identify the products of combustion of alkanes.   Video clips: BBC Bitesize Combustion of carbon   BBC Bitesize Combustion of natural gas        
4.7.1.4 Hydrocarbons can be broken down (cracked) to produce smaller, more useful molecules.   Cracking can be done by various methods including catalytic cracking and steam cracking.   The products of cracking include alkanes and another type of hydrocarbon called alkenes.   Alkenes are more reactive than alkanes and react with bromine water, which is used as a test for alkenes.   There is a high demand for fuels with small molecules and so some of the products of cracking are useful as fuels.   Alkenes are used to produce polymers and as starting materials for the production of many other chemicals. Describe in general terms the conditions used for catalytic cracking and steam cracking.   Recall the colour change when bromine water reacts with an alkene.   Balance chemical equations as examples of cracking given the formulae of the reactants and products.   Give examples to illustrate the usefulness of cracking.   Be able to explain how modern life depends on the uses of hydrocarbons.   For Combined Science: Trilogy and Synergy students do not need to know the formulae or names of individual alkenes.   WS 1.2 1 Describe the process of cracking.   Explain the process of cracking.   Write balanced symbol equations for the cracking of alkanes.   Describe the balanced symbol equation including moles present, long alkane reactant, specific reaction conditions, and alkene and short alkane products. Demo or practical: crack paraffin over porous clay pot.   Use bromine water to identify alkenes.   Test for unsaturation in other compounds.   Research uses of common alkenes. Video clips YouTube: Hydrocarbon Cracking and Why It Is Done    

4.7.2 Reactions of alkenes and alcohols

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.7.2.1 Alkenes are hydrocarbons with a double carbon-carbon bond. The general formula for the homologous series of alkenes is   Alkene molecules are unsaturated because they contain two fewer hydrogen atoms than the alkane with the same number of carbon atoms.   The first four members of the homologous series of alkenes are ethene, propene, butene and pentene.   Alkene molecules can be represented in the following forms: or   Students do not need to know the names of individual alkenes other than ethene, propene, butene and pentene.   WS 1.2   MS 5b 1 Explain what is meant by the formula   Grade 9:draw the covalent bonding in:   ethenepropenebutenepentene.   Define the term unsaturated. Recognise substances that are alkenes from their names or from given formulae in these forms.   Video clip YouTube: Alkanes and Alkenes
4.7.2.2 Alkenes are hydrocarbons with the functional group C=C.   It is the generality of reactions of functional groups that determine the reactions of organic compounds.   Alkenes react with oxygen in combustion reactions in the same way as other hydrocarbons, but they tend to burn in air with smoky flames because of incomplete combustion.   Alkenes react with hydrogen, water and the halogens, by the addition of atoms across the carbon-carbon double bond so that the double bond becomes a single carbon-carbon bond.   The addition of hydrogen to an alkene (unsaturated) takes place in the presence of a catalyst to produce the corresponding alkane (saturated).   The addition of water to an alkene takes place by reaction with steam in the presence of a catalyst to produce an alcohol.   Addition of a halogen to an alkene produces a saturated compound with two halogen atoms in the molecule, for example ethene reacts with bromine to produce dibromoethane. Draw fully displayed structural formulae of the first four members of the alkenes and the products of their addition reactions with hydrogen, water, chlorine, bromine and iodine.   WS 1.2 3 Write balanced symbol equations for the combustion of alkenes in oxygen.   Describe the balanced symbol equation including moles present, reactants and products.   Write the reaction between an alkene and hydrogen, giving suitable examples.   Describe the reaction including moles present, reactants and products.   Write the reaction between an alkene and water, giving suitable examples.   Describe the reaction including moles present, reactants and products.   Write the reaction between an alkene and a halogen molecule, giving suitable examples.   Describe the reaction including moles present, reactants and products.   Video clip YouTube: Halogenation
4.7.2.3 Alcohols contain the functional group –OH.   Methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol are the first four members of a homologous series of alcohols.   Alcohols can be represented in the following forms:     or     Aqueous solutions of ethanol are produced when sugar solutions are fermented using yeast. Describe what happens when any of the first four alcohols react with sodium, burn in air, are added to water, react with an oxidising agent. Recall the main uses of these alcohols.   Know the conditions used for fermentation of sugar using yeast.   Be able to recognise alcohols from their names or from given formulae.   Students do notneed to know the names of individual alcohols other than methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol.   Students are not expected to write balanced chemical equations for the reactions of alcohols other than for combustion reactions.       2 Grade 9:draw the covalent bonding in: methanolethanolpropanolbutanol.   Describe what happens to one of the first four alcohols during the reactions: dissolving in water to form a neutral solutionreacting with sodium to produce hydrogenburning in airoxidising to produce carboxylic acidsuse as fuels and solvents. Research uses of the first four alcohols.   Opportunities when investigating reactions of alcohols. AT 2, 5, 6 Video clip YouTube: What are alcohols?    
4.7.2.4 Carboxylic acids have the functional group –COOH.   The first four members of a homologous series of carboxylic acids are methanoic acid, ethanoic acid, propanoic acid and butanoic acid.   The structures of carboxylic acids can be represented in the following forms:       or     Describe what happens when any of the first four carboxylic acids react with carbonates, dissolve in water, react with alcohols.   (HT only) Explain why carboxylic acids are weak acids in terms of ionisation and pH.   Recognise carboxylic acids from their names or from given formulae.   Students do not need to know the names of individual carboxylic acids other than methanoic acid, ethanoic acid, propanoic acid and butanoic acid.   Students are not expected to write balanced chemical equations for thereactions of carboxylic acids.   Students do not need to know the names of esters other than ethyl ethanoate. 2 Grade 9:draw the covalent bonding in:   methanoic acidethanoic acidspropanoic acidbutanoic acid.   Describe what happens to one of the first four acids during the reactions:   dissolving in water to produce acidic solutionsreacting with carbonates to produce carbon dioxidenot ionising completely when dissolved in water (they are weak acids)reacting with alcohols in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce esters, for example ethanoic acid reacts with ethanol to produce ethyl ethanoate and water. Research uses of the first four carboxylic acids.   Research some of the uses of esters and try to work out the alcohols and carboxylic acids used to make them.   Opportunities within investigation of the reactions of carboxylic acids.   AT 2, 5, 6 Video clip YouTube: Carboxylic Acids and Esters      

4.7.3 Synthetic and naturally occurring polymers

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.7.3.1 Alkenes can be used to make polymers such as poly(ethene) and poly(propene) by addition polymerisation.   In addition polymerisation reactions many small molecules (monomers) join together to form very large molecules (polymers).   For example:     In addition polymers the repeating unit has the same atoms as the monomer because no other molecule is formed in the reaction.   Recognise addition polymers and monomers from diagrams in the forms shown and from the presence of the functional group -C=C- in the monomers.   Draw diagrams to represent the formation of a polymer from a given alkene monomer.   Relate the repeating unit to the monomer.   WS 1.2   MS 5b 1 Define: monomerpolymerpolymerisationrepeating unit.   Describe the process of polymerisation. Model polymerisation using molecular model kits.   Research uses of simple polymers.   Visualise and represent 2D and 3D forms including two-dimensional representations of 3D objects. Video clip YouTube: Polymerisation of propene and chloroethene    
4.7.3.2 (HT only) Condensation polymerisation involves monomers with two functional groups. When these types of monomers react they join together, usually losing small molecules such as water, and so the reactions are called condensation reactions.   The simplest polymers are produced from two different monomers with two of the same functional groups on each monomer.   For example: ethane diol     and hexanedioic acid       polymerise to produce a polyester:   Explain the basic principles of condensation polymerisation by reference to the functional groups in the monomers and the repeating units in the polymers.   WS 1.2   MS 5b 1 Describe what takes place during condensation polymerisation. Identify monomers, polymers and repeating units.   Describe the polymerisation of ethane-1,2-diol and hexanedioic acid. Use models to represent condensation polymerisation.   Research common polyesters and their uses.   Visualise and represent 2D and 3D forms including two-dimensional representations of 3D objects. Video clip YouTube: Condensation Polymerisation
4.7.3.3 (HT only) Amino acids have two different functional groups in a molecule. Amino acids react by condensation polymerisation to produce polypeptides.   For example: glycine is H2NCH2COOH and polymerises to produce the polypeptide (-HNCH2COO-)n and n H2O   Different amino acids can be combined in the same chain to produce proteins.   0.5 Describe the polymerisation of amino acids to produce polypeptides. Research common amino acids and polypeptides, and polypeptide uses.  
4.7.3.4 DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a large molecule essential for life. DNA encodes genetic instructions for the development and functioning of living organisms and viruses. Most DNA molecules are two polymer chains, made from four different monomers called nucleotides, in the form of a double helix. Other naturally occurring polymers important for life include proteins, starch and cellulose. Be able to name the types of monomers from which these naturally occurring polymers are made. 1 Describe the structure of DNA in terms of two polymer chains and nucleotides.   Research and present the discovery of the structure of DNA including the contributions of Francis Crick, James Watson, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklyn. Research the history of the discovery of DNA as a polymer chain.   Research naturally occurring polymers and their uses. Video clip YouTube: DNA and genes   The story of DNA is presented in the BBC Horizon Programme ‘Life Story’.

 

Chemistry – Energy changes

This resource provides guidance for teaching the Energy changes topic from our new GCSE Chemistry (8462). It has been updated from the draft version to reflect the changes made in the accredited specification. Changes have been made to 4.5.1.1 and minor amendments to each of the other sections.

The scheme of work is designed to be a flexible medium term plan for teaching content and development of the skills that will be assessed.

It is provided in Word format to help you create your own teaching plan – you can edit and customise it according to your needs. This scheme of work is not exhaustive, it only suggests activities and resources you could find useful in your teaching.

4.5 Energy changes

4.5.1 Exothermic and endothermic reactions

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.5.1.1 Energy is conserved in chemical reactions. The amount of energy in the universe at the end of a chemical reaction is the same as before the reaction takes place. If a reaction transfers energy to the surroundings the product molecules must have less energy than the reactants, by the amount transferred.   An exothermic reaction is one that transfers energy to the surroundings so the temperature of the surroundings increases.   Exothermic reactions include combustion, many oxidation reactions and neutralisation.   Everyday uses of exothermic reactions include self-heating cans and hand warmers.   An endothermic reaction is one that takes in energy from the surroundings so the temperature of the surroundings decreases.   Endothermic reactions include thermal decompositions and the reaction of citric acid and sodium hydrogencarbonate. Some sports injury packs are based on endothermic reactions. Distinguish between exothermic and endothermic reactions on the basis of the temperature change of the surroundings.   Evaluate uses and applications of exothermic and endothermic reactions given appropriate information.   Limited to measurement of temperature change. Calculation of energy changes or ΔH is not required.   WS 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.6, 2.7   MS 1a, 2a, 2b, 4a, 4c. 2 Define the terms: exothermicendothermic.   Write-up the practical investigations ensuring the following are included: hypothesisplan including identification of the independent, dependent and control variablesdata collectionanalysis of resultsevaluation of the results and plan. Required practical 4:   Investigate the variables that affect temperature changes in reacting solutions such as, eg acid plus metals, acid plus carbonates, neutralisations, displacement of metals.   AT skills covered by this practical activity: 1, 3, 5 and 6. Video clips: BBC Bitesize Endothermic and exothermic reactions   YouTube: Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions     Exampro user guide PowerPoint  
4.5.1.2 Chemical reactions can occur only when reacting particles collide with each other with sufficient energy. The minimum amount of energy that particles must have to react is called the activation energy.   Reaction profiles can be used to show the relative energies of reactants and products, the activation energy and the overall energy change of a reaction.   Draw simple reaction profiles (energy level diagrams) for exothermic and endothermic reactions showing the relative energies of reactants and products, the activation energy and the overall energy change, with a curved arrow to show the energy as the reaction proceeds.   Use reaction profiles to identify reactions as exothermic or endothermic.   Explain that the activation energy is the energy needed for a reaction to occur.   WS 4.1 1 Define the term activation energy.   Draw reaction profiles for exothermic and endothermic. Explain what the diagrams display. Demo, and where appropriate practically investigate, exothermic and endothermic reactions, such as thermal decomposition of marble or copper sulfate, barium hydroxide + ammonium chloride, thermite reaction etc.  
4.5.1.3 (HT only) During a chemical reaction:   energy must be supplied to break bonds in the reactantsenergy is released when bonds in the products are formed.   The energy needed to break bonds and the energy released when bonds are formed can be calculated from bond energies.   The difference between the sum of the energy needed to break bonds in the reactants and the sum of the energy released when bonds in the products are formed is the overall energy change of the reaction.   In an exothermic reaction, the energy released from forming new bonds is greater than the energy needed to break existing bonds. In an endothermic reaction, the energy needed to break existing bonds is greater than the energy released from forming new bonds. Be able to calculate the energy transferred in chemical reactions using bond energies supplied.   MS1a 2 Calculate the energy transferred in chemical reactions.   Extended writing:write instructions to another student how to calculate the energy transferred in a chemical reaction.   Explain why a chemical reaction is classed as being exothermic or endothermic in relation to the energy involved in breaking and making bonds. Research common bond energies and use these in calculation for simple reactions. Video clip YouTube: Introduction to bond energies    

4.5.2 Chemical cells and fuel cells

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.5.2.1 Cells contain chemicals which react to produce electricity.   The voltage produced by a cell is dependent upon a number of factors including the type of electrode and electrolyte.   A simple cell can be made by connecting two different metals in contact with an electrolyte. Batteries consist of two or more cells connected together in series to provide a greater voltage.   In non-rechargeable cells and batteries the chemical reactions stop when one of the reactants has been used up. Alkaline batteries are non-rechargeable. Rechargeable cells and batteries can be recharged because the chemical reactions are reversed when an external electrical current is supplied. Be able to interpret data in terms of the relative reactivity of different metals and to evaluate the use of cells.   Students do not need to know details of cells and batteries other than those specified.   1 Describe the composition of a simple cell and a battery as stated in the unit content.   Explain how the following cells produce electricity: simple cellnon-rechargeable batteryrechargeable battery. Research and evaluate uses of cells and batteries.   Construct simple cells using combinations of metal strips in contact with their salt solution via a salt bridge.   AT6 – Safe and careful use of liquids.   Compare the magnitude of the resulting potential difference with the position of the metals in the reactivity series. Video clip YouTube: How do Batteries Work?
4.5.2.2 Fuel cells are supplied by an external source of fuel (eg hydrogen) and oxygen or air. The fuel is oxidised electrochemically within the fuel cell to produce a potential difference.   The overall reaction in a hydrogen fuel cell involves the oxidation of hydrogen to produce water.   Hydrogen fuel cells offer a potential alternative to rechargeable cells and batteries. Be able to evaluate the use of hydrogen fuel cells in comparison with rechargeable cells and batteries.   (HT only) Be able to write the half equations for the electrode reactions in the hydrogen fuel cell. 1 Compare and contrast the uses of hydrogen cells, batteries and rechargeable cells.   Construct half equations for the electrode reactions in the hydrogen cells.   Research fuel cell development and use in various space programs including Apollo, the Space Shuttle and the ISS. Research and evaluate uses of hydrogen cells.   Construct simple fuel cells – there are several websites devoted to their construction, for example: Mad Science – DIY hydrogen fuel cell   Instructables – How to Make A Simple Hydrogen Fuel Cell Video clip YouTube: Hydrogen fuel cell

 

Chemistry – Chemical changes

This resource provides guidance for teaching the Chemical changes topic from our new GCSE Chemistry (8462). It has been updated from the draft version to reflect the changes made in the accredited specification. Sections 4.4.2.3, 4.4.2.4 and 4.4.3.3 have been amended as well as the learning outcomes and opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills of most sections.

The scheme of work is designed to be a flexible medium term plan for teaching content and development of the skills that will be assessed.

It is provided in Word format to help you create your own teaching plan – you can edit and customise it according to your needs. This scheme of work is not exhaustive; it only suggests activities and resources you could find useful in your teaching.

4.4 Chemical changes

4.4.1 Reactivity of metals

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.4.1.1 Metals react with oxygen to produce metal oxides. The reactions are oxidation reactions because the metals gain oxygen. Explain reduction and oxidation in terms of loss or gain of oxygen. 0.5 Define the following terms: oxidationreduction.   Write word and balanced symbol equations for the reactions of metals with oxygen to produce metal oxides. Use these to identify where reduction and oxidation has taken place. Demo reactions: RSC Reacting metals with oxygen Video clips: BBC Bitesize Alkali metals and their reactions to air and water   BBC Bitesize How sodium reacts with water
4.4.1.2 When metals react with other substances the metal atoms form positive ions. The reactivity of a metal is related to its tendency to form positive ions. Metals can be arranged in order of their reactivity in a reactivity series. The metals potassium, sodium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and copper can be put in order of their reactivity from their reactions with water and dilute acids.     The non-metals hydrogen and carbon are often included in the reactivity series.   A more reactive metal can displace a less reactive metal from a compound. The reactions of metals with water and acids are limited to room temperature and do not include reactions with steam.   Recall and describe the reactions, if any, of potassium, sodium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and copper with water or dilute acids, where appropriate, to place these metals in order of reactivity. Explain how the reactivity of metals with water or dilute acids is related to the tendency of the metal to form its positive ion.   Deduce an order of reactivity of metals based on experimental results. 1 Draw the atomic structure of metals and the ion formed. Use these to describe how the ion has been formed.   Make links between the ability to form ions and the reactivity with water and acid.   Grade 9: explain the trends in reactivity of Group 1 in terms of atomic structure.   Describe what occurs in a displacement reaction, using suitable examples.   Explain why displacement occurs.   Compare the year of discovery of a metallic element with its position in the reactivity series. Link discoveries to new technology such as the invention of the battery. Demo, and where appropriate practically investigate, the reactivity of some of the metals with water and acid.   Use YouTube clips or let students investigate the reactivity of the remaining combinations.   Use findings to construct a reactivity series. Compare this to the actual reactivity series.     AT 6. Mixing of reagents to explore chemical changes and/or products. Video clips: BBC Bitesize Reactivity of metals and their uses   YouTube: The reactivity series       Exampro user guide PowerPoint    
4.4.1.3 Unreactive metals such as gold are found in the Earth as the metal itself but most metals are found as compounds that require chemical reactions to extract the metal.   Metals less reactive than carbon can be extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon.   Reduction involves the loss of oxygen. Knowledge and understanding are limited to the reduction of oxides using carbon. Knowledge of the details of processes used in the extraction of metals is not required.   Interpret or evaluate specific metal extraction processes when given appropriate information.   Identify the substances which are oxidised or reduced in terms of gain or loss of oxygen. WS 1.4, 4.1       1 Describe how carbon is used to reduce metal oxides. Explain how this takes place in terms of movement of electrons.   Identify which products have been oxidised in extraction examples. Explain how this takes place in terms of movement of electrons. Reduce iron oxide using carbon: RSC The reduction of iron oxide by carbon   Research different methods for extraction metals from their oxides.   Compare and contrast the methods, evaluating the methods in terms of environmental, economic and social impacts. Video clip YouTube: Reduction of copper oxide    
4.4.1.4 (HT only) Oxidation is the loss of electrons and reduction is the gain of electrons. Write ionic equations for displacement reactions.   Identify in a given reaction, symbol equation or half equation which species are oxidised and which are reduced.   WS 4.1 MS 3a 1 Write balanced symbol equations/half equations for the displacement of metal oxides. Use these to identify which species has been oxidised or reduced. Give reasons for your answers. Carry out simple displacement reactions. For these write ionic equations. Video clips YouTube: What are Reduction and Oxidation?   BBC Bitesize What is rust?    

 

4.4.2 Reactions of acids

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.4.2.1 Acids react with some metals to produce salts and hydrogen. Knowledge of reactions limited to those of magnesium, zinc and iron with hydrochloric and sulfuric acids.   (HT only) Explain in terms of gain or loss of electrons, that these are redox reactions.   (HT only) Identify which species are oxidised and which are reduced in given chemical equations. WS 4.1 1   Investigate the reactions of the following metals with sulfuric acid: magnesiumzinciron.   Write word and balanced symbol equations for these reactions. Use the balanced symbol equations to identify which species have been oxidised and which have been reduced. Explain why each species has been oxidised or reduced.  
4.4.2.2 Acids are neutralised by alkalis (eg soluble metal hydroxides) and bases (eg insoluble metal hydroxides and metal oxides) to produce salts and water, and by metal carbonates to produce salts, water and carbon dioxide.   The particular salt produced in any reaction between an acid and a base or alkali depends on: the acid used (hydrochloric acid produces chlorides, nitric acid produces nitrates, sulfuric acid produces sulfates) the positive ions in the base, alkali or carbonate. Predict products from given reactants.   Use the formulae of common ions to deduce the formulae of salts. 2 Define the term neutralisation.   Using common reactants, predict the products.   Investigate the following reactions: acids + soluble metal hydroxideacid + insoluble metal hydroxideacids + metal carbonates. Write word and balanced symbol equations for these reactions. Video clips: BBC Bitesize Acids and alkalis   BBC Bitesize Neutralisation     BBC Bitesize How neutralisation is used in diving apparatus    
4.4.2.3 Soluble salts can be made from acids by reacting them with solid insoluble substances, such as metals, metal oxides, hydroxides or carbonates.   The solid is added to the acid until it no more reacts and the excess solid is filtered off to produce a solution of the salt.   Salt solutions can be crystallised to produce solid salts. Describe how to make pure, dry samples of named soluble salts from information provided.   WS 2.3, 2.4 2 Extended writing:describe how to make a pure, dry sample of a soluble salt.   Define the terms: solubleinsoluble.   Explain what is meant by a soluble salt.   Explain why reactants are often used in excess. Required practical 1:   Preparation of a pure, dry sample of a soluble salt from an insoluble oxide or carbonate using a Bunsen burner to heat dilute acid and a water bath or electric heater to evaporate the solution.   AT skills covered by this practical activity: 2, 3, 4 and 6  
4.4.2.4 Acids produce hydrogen ions (H+) in aqueous solutions.   Aqueous solutions of alkalis contain hydroxide ions (OH).   The pH scale, from 0 to 14, is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, and can be measured using universal indicator or a pH probe.   A solution with pH 7 is neutral. Aqueous solutions of acids have pH values of less than 7 and aqueous solutions of alkalis have pH values greater than 7.   In neutralisation reactions between an acid and an alkali, hydrogen ions react with hydroxide ions to produce water. This reaction can be represented by the equation:   H+ (aq) + OH (aq)    H2O (l) Describe the use of universal indicator or a wide range indicator to measure the approximate pH of a solution.   Use the pH scale to identify acidic or alkaline solutions. WS 1.2, 2.6, 4.1   . 2 Define the following terms: acidbasealkalineutral.   Recall the pH numbers for the following solutions: acidicalkalineneutral.   Write the symbol equation for the neutralisation of an acid and an alkali. Measure the pH of a variety of the following solutions: acidicalkalineneutral.   Practical: measure the pH change when a strong acid neutralises a strong alkali. This is best done using a data logger and pH probe or digital pH meter.  AT3. Video clips: BBC Bitesize Acidic, alkaline or neutral   YouTube: What are Indicators and how do we use them?      
4.4.2.5 The volumes of acid and alkali solutions that react with each other can be measured by titration using a suitable indicator. Describe how to carry out titrations using strong acids and strong alkalis only (sulfuric, hydrochloric and nitric acids only) to find the reacting volumes accurately.   (HT Only) Calculate the chemical quantities in titrations involving concentrations in mol/dm3 and in g/dm3. WS 2.4, 2.6 MS 1a, 1c, 2a 2   Required practical 2:   Determination of the reacting volumes of solutions of a strong acid and a strong alkali by titration.   (HT only) determination of the concentration of one of the solutions in mol/dm3 and g/dm3 from the reacting volumes and the known concentration of the other solution.   AT skills covered by this practical activity: 1 and 8      
4.4.2.6 (HT only) A strong acid is completely ionised in aqueous solution. Examples of strong acids are hydrochloric, nitric and sulfuric acids.   A weak acid is only partially ionised in aqueous solution. Examples of weak acids are ethanoic, citric and carbonic acids.   For a given concentration of aqueous solutions, the stronger an acid, the lower the pH.   As the pH decreases by one unit, the hydrogen ion concentration of the solution increases by a factor of 10. Use and explain the terms dilute and concentrated (in terms of amount of substance), and weak and strong (in terms of the degree of ionisation) in relation to acids.   Describe neutrality and relative acidity in terms of the effect on hydrogen ion concentration and the numerical value of pH (whole numbers only).   WS 4.1 MS 2h 1 Explain the meaning of the following terms: diluteconcentratedweakstrong.   Explain why strong acids are completely ionised in aqueous solutions but a weak acid is only partially ionised.   Recall examples of strong and weak acids.   Describe neutrality in terms on hydrogen ion concentration.   Describe relative acidity in terms of hydrogen ion concentration. Use universal indicator or a pH probe to measure the pH of hydrochloric acid, ethanoic acid, sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide. Be careful to use the same concentration of each.   Measure the pH of different acids at different concentrations.   Compare the rate of reaction when magnesium is dipped in hydrochloric acid and ethanoic acid of the same concentration.   AT 8  

4.4.3 Electrolysis

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.4.3.1 When an ionic compound is melted or dissolved in water, the ions are free to move about within the liquid or solution. These liquids and solutions are able to conduct electricity and are called electrolytes.   Passing an electric current through electrolytes causes the ions to move to the electrodes. Positively charged ions move to the negative electrode (the cathode), and negatively charged ions move to the positive electrode (the anode). Ions are discharged at the electrodes producing elements. This process is called electrolysis. (HT only) Throughout 4.4.3: Higher Tier students should be able to write half equations for the reactions occurring at the electrodes during electrolysis, and may be required to complete and balance supplied half equations. WS 4.1 1 Explain why solid ionic compounds cannot conduct electricity but ionic compounds can conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water.   Define the term electrolyte. Describe how an electric current can pass through an ionic compound.   Explain what happens to positive and negative ions during electrolysis and how elements form from their ions. Carry out the electrolysis of solutions following the RSC method: RSC Electrolysis of solutions   Write balanced symbol equations for these reactions.   Write half equations for the reactions that occur at each electrode. Video clips: BBC Bitesize Electrolysis and electroplating   YouTube: GCSE Science Revision Electrolysis of a Solution    
4.4.3.2 When a simple ionic compound (eg lead bromide) is electrolysed in the molten state using inert electrodes, the metal (lead) is produced at the cathode and the non-metal (bromine) is produced at the anode. Students should be able to predict the products of the electrolysis of binary ionic compounds in the molten state.   0.5 Calculate the atom economy for simple examples.   Extended writing: write instructions to another student how to calculate the atom economy giving explained examples. Demo the electrolysis of lead bromide. A safer alternative for practical work is anhydrous zinc chloride.   Write balanced half equations for the reactions that occur at both electrodes. Video clip: YouTube: Electrolysis of Molten Compounds
4.4.3.3 Metals can be extracted from molten compounds using electrolysis. Electrolysis is used if the metal is too reactive to be extracted by reduction with carbon or if the metal reacts with carbon. Large amounts of energy are used in the extraction process to melt the compounds and to produce the electrical current.   Aluminium is manufactured by the electrolysis of a molten mixture of aluminium oxide and cryolite using carbon as the positive electrode (anode). Explain why a mixture is used as the electrolyte.   Explain why the positive electrode must be continually replaced.   WS 1.4, 4.1 1 Recall the reactivity series.   Give reasons why some metals have to be extracted by electrolysis.   Extended writing: describe how aluminium is extracted from its ore.   Write balanced half equations for the reactions that occur at both electrodes.   Extended writing: describe how reactive metal elements were discovered by electrolysis. Construct a timeline. Research how aluminium is extracted from its ore. Write balanced half equations for the reactions that occur at both electrodes.  
4.4.3.4 The ions discharged when an aqueous solution is electrolysed using inert electrodes depend on the relative reactivity of the elements involved.   At the negative electrode (cathode), hydrogen is produced if the metal is more reactive than hydrogen.   At the positive electrode (anode), oxygen is produced unless the solution contains halide ions when the halogen is produced.   This happens because in the aqueous solution water molecules break down producing hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions that are discharged. Be able to predict the products of the electrolysis of aqueous solutions containing a single ionic compound.   WS 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.6 2 Define the term aqueous.   Extended writing: describe how an aqueous solution is electrolysed.   Explain why the following atoms could be produced: hydrogenoxygen. Required practical 3:   Investigate what happens when aqueous solutions are electrolysed using inert electrodes. This should be an investigation involving developing a hypothesis.   AT skills covered by this practical activity: 3, 7 and 8.  
4.4.3.5 (HT only) During electrolysis, at the cathode (negative electrode), positively charged ions gain electrons and so the reactions are reductions.   At the anode (positive electrode), negatively charged ions lose electrons and so the reactions are oxidations.   Reactions at electrodes can be represented by half equations, for example:   2H+ + 2e   H2 and 4OH   O2 + 2H2O + 4e or 4OH – 4e   O2 + 2H2O   1 Explain thoroughly what happens at the following electrodes using suitable examples and half equations: cathodeanode.    

Chemistry – Bonding, structure, and the properties of matter

This resource provides guidance for teaching the Bonding, structure and the properties of matter topic from our new GCSE Chemistry (8462). It has been updated from the draft version to reflect the changes made in the accredited specification.

The scheme of work is designed to be a flexible medium term plan for teaching content and development of the skills that will be assessed.

It is provided in Word format to help you create your own teaching plan – you can edit and customise it according to your needs. This scheme of work is not exhaustive; it only suggests activities and resources you could find useful in your teaching.

4.2 Bonding, structure and the properties of matter

4.2.1 Chemical bonds, ionic, covalent and metallic

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.2.1.1 There are three types of strong chemical bonds: ionic, covalent and metallic. For ionic bonding the particles are oppositely charged ions. For covalent bonding the particles are atoms which share pairs of electrons. For metallic bonding the particles are atoms which share delocalised electrons. Ionic bonding occurs in compounds formed from metals combined with non-metals. Covalent bonding occurs in non-metallic elements and in compounds of non-metals. Metallic bonding occurs in metallic elements and alloys. Students should be able to explain chemical bonding in terms of electrostatic forces and the transfer or sharing of electrons. 1 Define ‘electrostatic forces of attraction’.   Extended writing: describe why atoms bond in order to obtain a noble gas configuration/full outer level of electrons.   Describe/draw the structure of common atoms and suggest how they could bond to obtain a full outer level of electrons. Demo the formation of sodium chloride in a fume cupboard.    
4.2.1.2 When a metal atom reacts with a non-metal atom, electrons in the outer shell of the metal atom are transferred. Metal atoms lose electrons to become positively charged ions. Non-metal atoms gain electrons to become negatively charged ions. The ions produced by metals in Groups 1 and 2 and by non-metals in Groups 6 and 7 have the electronic structure of a noble gas (Group 0). The electron transfer during the formation of an ionic compound can be represented by a dot and cross diagram, eg for sodium chloride:   The charge on the ions produced by metals in Groups 1 and 2 and by non-metals in Groups 6 and 7 relates to the group number of the element in the periodic table. Students should be able to: draw dot and cross diagrams for ionic compounds formed by metals in Groups 1 and 2 with non-metals in Groups 6 and 7work out the charge on the ions of metals and non-metals from the group number of the element, limited to the metals in Groups 1 and 2, and non-metals in Groups 6 and 7.   WS 1.2   Students should be able to translate data between diagrammatic and numeric forms (MS 4a).   MS 5b 0.5 Tabulate common atoms and state the charges of the ions formed.   Grade 9: explain an example of ionic bonding including detail on electron transfer, group numbers of the atoms involved and the use of correct terms, eg cation and anion. Use magnesium ribbon to produce magnesium oxide. Draw the dot and cross diagram for this reaction. Exampro user guide PowerPoint   Video clips: BBC Bitesize Ionic compounds and the periodic table   YouTube: What are ions?    YouTube: What are ionic bonds?
4.2.1.3 An ionic compound is a giant structure of ions. Ionic compounds are held together by strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions. These forces act in all directions in the lattice and this is called ionic bonding.   The structure of sodium chloride can be represented in the following forms:   Students should be familiar with the structure of sodium chloride but do not need to know the structures of other ionic compounds.   Students should be able to: deduce that a compound is ionic from a diagram of its structure in one of the specified formsdescribe the limitations of using dot and cross, ball and stick, two and three dimensional diagrams to represent a giant ionic structurework out the empirical formula of an ionic compound from a given model or diagram that shows the ions in the structure. WS 1.2 Students should be able to visualise and represent 2D and 3D forms including two dimensional representations of 3D objects. MS 4a, 1a, 1c. 1 Extended writing: describe the bonding in the sodium chloride lattice using the correct terms, eg electrostatic forces of attraction. Model the sodium chloride lattice using molecular model kits.  
4.2.1.4 When atoms share pairs of electrons, they form covalent bonds. These bonds between atoms are strong. Covalently bonded substances may consist of small molecules. Some covalently bonded substances have very large molecules, such as polymers. Some covalently bonded substances have giant covalent structures, such as diamond and silicon dioxide. The covalent bonds in molecules and giant structures can be represented in the following forms:   Polymers can be represented in the form: where n is a large number. Students should be able to: recognise substances as small molecules, polymers or giant structures from diagrams showing their bondingrecognise common substances that consist of small molecules from their chemical formula.draw dot and cross diagrams for the molecules of hydrogen, chlorine, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen chloride, water, ammonia and methane represent the covalent bonds in small molecules, in the repeating units of polymers and in part of giant covalent structures, using a line to represent a single bonddescribe the limitations of using dot and cross, ball and stick, two and three dimensional diagrams to represent molecules or giant structuresdeduce the molecular formula of a substance from a given model or diagram in these forms showing the atoms and bonds in the molecule. WS 1.2   Visualise and represent 2D and 3D forms including two dimensional representations of 3D objects.MS 5b 1 Extended writing: describe the difference between simple covalent substances and giant covalent substances.   Grade 9: explain an example of covalent bonding including detail on electron transfer, group numbers of the atoms involved and the use of correct terminology. Demo the formation of hydrogen chloride. Draw the dot and cross diagram for this reaction.   Model simple covalent substance using molecular model kits.   Demo giant covalent structures using molecular model kits. Video clip: BBC Bitesize Covalent bonding and the periodic table
4.2.1.5 Metals consist of giant structures of atoms arranged in a regular pattern. The electrons in the outer shell of metal atoms are delocalised and so are free to move through the whole structure. The sharing of delocalised electrons gives rise to strong metallic bonds. The bonding in metals may be represented in the following form:   WS 1.2 Students should be able to: recognise substances as giant metallic structures from diagrams showing their bondingvisualise and represent 2D and 3D forms including two dimensional representations of 3D objects. MS 5b 0.5 Define ‘delocalised electrons’. Use copper wire and silver nitrate solution to grow silver crystals. Video clips: BBC Bitesize The atomic structure of metals   YouTube: What are metallic bonds?

4.2.2 How bonding and structure are related to the properties of substances

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.2.2.1 The three states of matter are solid, liquid and gas. Melting and freezing take place at the melting point, boiling and condensing take place at the boiling point. The three states of matter can be represented by a simple model. In this model, particles are represented by small solid spheres. Particle theory can help to explain melting, boiling, freezing and condensing.     The amount of energy needed to change state from solid to liquid and from liquid to gas depends on the strength of the forces between the particles of the substance. The nature of the particles involved depends on the type of bonding and the structure of the substance. The stronger the forces between the particles, the higher the melting point and boiling point of the substance. (Higher Tier only) Limitations of the simple model above include that in the model there are no forces, that all particles are represented as spheres and that the spheres are solid. Students should be able to: predict the states of substances at different temperatures given appropriate data explain the different temperatures at which changes of state occur in terms of energy transfers and types of bondingrecognise that atoms themselves do not have the bulk properties of materials(Higher Tier only) explain the limitations of the particle theory in relation to changes of state when particles are represented by solid spheres which have no forces between them. WS 1.2   Visualise and represent 2D and 3D forms including two dimensional representations of 3D objects. MS 5b 1 Extended writing: describe the properties of matter in a solid, liquid and gas.   Define melting point and boiling point.   Grade 9: explain the differences in changes of state in terms of intermolecular forces of attraction between a short molecule ie methane and a longer molecule ie pentane.   Video clips: BBC Bitesize Particle models of solids, liquids and gases   BBC Bitesize Changes of state   YouTube: States of matter
4.2.2.2 In chemical equations, the three states of matter are shown as (s), (l) and (g), with (aq) for aqueous solutions. Include appropriate state symbols in chemical equations for the reactions in this specification. 0.5 Describe balanced symbol equations including the states of matter.    
4.2.2.3 Ionic compounds have regular structures (giant ionic lattices) in which there are strong electrostatic forces of attraction in all directions between oppositely charged ions. These compounds have high melting points and high boiling points because of the large amounts of energy needed to break the many strong bonds. When melted or dissolved in water, ionic compounds conduct electricity because the ions are free to move and so charge can flow. Knowledge of the structures of specific ionic compounds other than sodium chloride is not required. 1 Extended writing: describe the electrical conductivity of ionic substances.   Extended writing: explain why solid ionic substances do not conduct electricity but dissolved or molten ionic substances do conduct electricity.   Grade 9:explain how ionic substances dissolve in water.   Extended writing: explain why sodium chloride is difficult to melt.   Research some uses of ionic substances. Extension: make links between the uses of ionic substances, their properties and structure.   Practically test the conductivity of ionic compounds, eg sodium chloride and potassium chloride. Video clip YouTube: Ionic compounds and their properties
4.2.2.4 Substances that consist of small molecules are usually gases or liquids that have relatively low melting points and boiling points. These substances have only weak forces between the molecules (intermolecular forces). It is these intermolecular forces that are overcome, not the covalent bonds, when the substance melts or boils. The intermolecular forces increase with the size of the molecules, so larger molecules have higher melting and boiling points. These substances do not conduct electricity because the molecules do not have an overall electric charge. Students should be able to use the idea that intermolecular forces are weak compared with covalent bonds to explain the bulk properties of molecular substances. 0.5 Extended writing:describe melting points and boiling points of covalent substances.   Extended writing:explain why the melting point and boiling point increases as the size of the molecule does in terms of intermolecular forces.   Extended writing:explain why covalent substances do not conduct electricity.   Grade 9:explain why pure water does not conduct electricity but tap water does conduct electricity. Research some uses of covalent substances.   Extension:make links between the uses of covalent substances, their properties and structure.   Practically test the conductivity of simple covalent substances using ethanol and solid wax pieces. Video clip YouTube: Properties of covalent compounds
4.2.2.5 Polymers have very large molecules. The atoms in the polymer molecules are linked to other atoms by strong covalent bonds. The intermolecular forces between polymer molecules are relatively strong and so these substances are solids at room temperature. Students should be able to recognise polymers from diagrams showing their bonding. 1 Extended writing: explain how ethene polymerises. Model polymers.   Make a polymer from cornstarch.   Investigate the properties of plastic bags. Video clips: BBC Bitesize The plastic revolution   BBC Bitesize The uses of polymers   YouTube: Polymerisation of propene and chloroethene  
4.2.2.6 Substances that consist of giant covalent structures are solids with very high melting points. All of the atoms in these structures are linked to other atoms by strong covalent bonds. These bonds must be overcome to melt or boil these substances. Diamond and graphite (forms of carbon) and silicon dioxide (silica) are examples of giant covalent structures. Students should be able to recognise giant covalent structures from diagrams showing their bonding and structure. WS 1.2 MS 5b 0.5 Extended writing:describe the structure of diamond, silicon dioxide and graphite.   Extended writing: explain how covalent substances boil. Research some uses of covalent substances.   Extension:make links between the uses of covalent substances, their properties and structure.  
4.2.2.7 Metals have giant structures of atoms with strong metallic bonding. This means that most metals have high melting and boiling points.   In pure metals, atoms are arranged in layers, which allows metals to be bent and shaped. Pure metals are too soft for many uses and so are mixed with other metals to make alloys which are harder.. Explain why alloys are harder than pure metals in terms of distortion of the layers of atoms in the structure of a pure metal. WS 1.2 1 Extended writing: describe melting points and boiling points of metallic substances.   Extended writing: explain why the melting point and boiling point of metallic substances are high.   Extended writing: describe the structure of metal alloys.         Research some uses of metallic substances.   Extension:make links between the uses of metal substances, their properties and structure.   Research some uses of metal alloys.   Extension:make links between the uses of metal alloys, their properties and structure. Video clips: BBC Bitesize The properties and uses of metals   BBC Bitesize Bronze – the first alloy
4.2.2.8 Metals are good conductors of electricity because the delocalised electrons in the metal carry electrical charge through the metal. Metals are good conductors of thermal energy because energy is transferred by the delocalised electrons.   0.5 Extended writing:explain why metallic substances conduct electricity.    

4.2.3 Structure and bonding of carbon

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.2.3.1 In diamond, each carbon atom forms four covalent bonds with other carbon atoms in a giant covalent structure, so diamond is very hard, has a very high melting point and does not conduct electricity. Explain the properties of diamond in terms of its structure and bonding. WS 1.2 Visualise and represent 2D and 3D forms including two dimensional representations of 3D objects. MS 5b 1 Extended writing:link the properties of diamond to the structure. Research the properties of diamond.   Model the structure of diamond using model kits. Video clips: BBC Bitesize Properties of diamonds   YouTube: Structure of diamond and graphite
4.2.3.2 In graphite, each carbon atom forms three covalent bonds with three other carbon atoms, forming layers of hexagonal rings which have no covalent bonds between the layers. In graphite, one electron from each carbon atom is delocalised. Explain the properties of graphite in terms of its structure and bonding.   Know that graphite is similar to metals in that it has delocalised electrons. WS 1.2 0.5 Extended writing: link the properties of graphite to the structure.   Extended writing:explain why graphite conducts electricity. Research the properties of graphite.   Model the structure of graphite using model kits. Video clip: BBC Bitesize Properties and structure of graphite
4.2.3.3 Graphene is a single layer of graphite and has properties that make it useful in electronics and composites. Fullerenes are molecules of carbon atoms with hollow shapes. The structure of fullerenes is based on hexagonal rings of carbon atoms but they may also contain rings with five or seven carbon atoms. The first fullerene to be discovered was Buckminsterfullerene (C60) which has a spherical shape.   Carbon nanotubes are cylindrical fullerenes with very high length to diameter ratios. Their properties make them useful for nanotechnology, electronics and materials.   Recognise graphene and fullerenes from diagrams and descriptions of their bonding and structure.   Give examples of the uses of fullerenes, including carbon nanotubes.   Visualise and represent 2D and 3D forms including two-dimensional representations of 3D objects. WS 1.2, 1.4 MS 5b 0.5 Extended writing:link the properties of graphene to the structure.   Extended writing:describe the history of fullerenes. Research the properties of graphene.   Research uses of fullerenes. Video clips: BBC Bitesize Discovery and uses of graphene   YouTube: Bucky Balls, Graphene and Nano Tubes

4.2.4 Bulk and surface properties of matter including nanoparticles

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.2.4.1 Nanoscience refers to structures that are 1–100 nm in size, of the order of a few hundred atoms. Nanoparticles are smaller than fine particles (PM2.5), which have diameters between 100 and 2500 nm (1 x 10-7 m and 2.5 x 10-6 m). Coarse particles (PM10) have diameters between 1 x 10-5 m and 2.5 x 10-6 m. Coarse particles are often referred to as dust. As the side of cube decreases by a factor of 10 the surface area to volume ratio increases by a factor of 10. Nanoparticles may have properties different from those for the same materials in bulk because of their high surface area to volume ratio. It may also mean that smaller quantities are needed to be effective than for materials with normal particle sizes.         Students should be able to compare ‘nano’ dimensions to typical dimensions of atoms and molecules. WS 1.2, 1.4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5 MS 1b, 1c, 1d, 2h, 5c 0.5 Extended writing:describe the history of nanoscience.         Video clip YouTube: What is nanoscience?
4.2.4.2 Nanoparticles have many applications in medicine, in electronics, in cosmetics and sun creams, as deodorants, and as catalysts. New applications for nanoparticulate materials are an important area of research. Consider some of the applications of these nanoparticulate materials.   Students do not need to know specific examples or properties other than those specified.   Given appropriate information, evaluate the use of nanoparticles for a specified purpose   Explain that there are possible risks associated with the use of nanoparticles. WS 1.3, 1.4, 1.5     0.5 Extended writing:link the uses of nanoparticles to their properties.   Extended writing:evaluate the use of nanoparticles in applications, eg sun cream. Research uses and properties of nanoparticles. Video clip YouTube: Bucky Balls, Graphene and Nano Tubes

Chemistry – Atomic structure and the periodic table

This resource provides guidance for teaching Atomic structure and the periodic table topic from our new GCSE Chemistry (8462). It has been updated from the draft version to reflect the changes made in the accredited specification. These changes are also reflected in the learning outcomes and opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills of most sections.

The scheme of work is designed to be a flexible medium term plan for teaching content and development of the skills that will be assessed.

It is provided in Word format to help you create your own teaching plan – you can edit and customise it according to your needs. This scheme of work is not exhaustive; it only suggests activities and resources you could find useful in your teaching.

4.1 Atomic structure and the periodic table

4.1.1 A simple model of the atom, symbols, relative atomic mass, electronic charge and isotopes

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.1.1.1 All substances are made of atoms. An atom is the smallest part of an element that can exist.   Atoms of each element are represented by a chemical symbol, eg ‘O’ represents an atom of oxygen.   There are about 100 different elements.   Elements are shown in the periodic table.   Compounds are formed from elements by chemical reactions. Chemical reactions always involve the formation of one or more new substances, and often involve a detectable energy change.   Compounds contain two or more elements chemically combined in fixed proportions and can be represented by formulae using the symbols of the atoms from which they were formed. Compounds can only be separated into elements by chemical reactions.   Chemical reactions can be represented by word equations or equations using symbols and formulae. Use the names and symbols of the first 20 elements in the periodic table, the elements in Groups 1 and 7, and other elements in this specification.                   Name compounds of these elements from given formulae or symbol equations.           Write word equations for the reactions in this specification.   Write formulae and balanced chemical equations for the reactions in this specification.   (HT only) write balanced half equations and ionic equations where appropriate.   2 Define an atom and element.   Use scientific conventions to identify chemical symbols.   Use scientific conventions to identify elements by chemical symbols.             Define a compound.   Write word equations for reactions from practical activities stated in the specification. Develop skills to communicate through use of symbolic equations. Apply these skills to write balanced symbol equations for equations met in practical activities.   Extended writing Describe word, formulae and balanced chemicals equations. Model atoms (using physical models or computer simulations).   Research the history of the element names and their symbols. Construct an element fact file or cube.               Discussion about the difference between atoms, elements and compounds. Model atoms, elements and compounds.   Burn magnesium in oxygen. Burn sodium in oxygen. Video clip: BBC Bitesize –Structure of an atom   YouTube: What is an atom?     Exampro user guide PowerPoint     Video clip: BBC Bitesize –Introduction to atoms and elements   Royal Society of Chemistry –Periodic Table (interactive)          
4.1.1.2 A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together. The chemical properties of each substance in the mixture are unchanged.   Mixtures can be separated by physical processes such as filtration, crystallisation, simple distillation, fractional distillation and chromatography. These physical processes do not involve chemical reactions and no new substances are made. Describe, explain and give examples of the specified processes of separation.         Suggest suitable separation and purification techniques for mixtures when given appropriate information. 2 Define a mixture.   Extended writing Describe each practical technique of separating mixtures. Explain how chromatography, distillation and filtration practical techniques occur.       High demand Explain why crystallisation happens. Model mixtures.   WS 2.2, 2.3, 4.1   Carry out chromatography techniques using sweets or felt tip pens.   Demo distillation of citrus peel.   Carry out crystallisation using salol. Carry out filtration and evaporation of sea water. Show that mineral waters are not ‘pure’ in the scientific sense.   Video clip: BBC Bitesize –Mixtures and compounds    
4.1.1.3 New experimental evidence may lead to a scientific model being changed or replaced.   Before the discovery of the electron, atoms were thought to be tiny spheres that could not be divided.   The discovery of the electron led to the plum-pudding model of the atom. The plum-pudding model suggested that the atom was a ball of positive charge with negative electrons embedded in it.   The results from the alpha particle scattering experiment led to the plum-pudding model being replaced by the nuclear model. Niels Bohr adapted the nuclear model by suggesting that electrons orbit the nucleus at specific distances. The theoretical calculations of Bohr agreed with experimental observations.   Later experiments led to the idea that the positive charge of any nucleus could be subdivided into a whole number of smaller particles, each particle having the same amount of positive charge. The name proton was given to these particles.   The experimental work of James Chadwick provided the evidence to show the existence of neutrons within the nucleus. Describe how and why the atomic model has changed over time.   Describe the difference between the plum-pudding model of the atom and the nuclear model of the atom.   Describe why the new evidence from the scattering experiment led to a change in the atomic model. 1 Create a timeline for the history of the atomic model.   Extended writing Describe the differences between the plum-pudding model, nuclear model and atomic model. Describe why changes to the atomic model happened.   High demand Describe the experimental techniques involved in the history of the atomic model.  Explain how the experimental techniques work. Model the plum-pudding model, nuclear model and atomic model.   WS 1.1, 1.2 Nobel Prizes and Laureates   Atomic Structure Timeline
4.1.1.4 The relative electrical charge of particles in atoms is:   Name of particle Relative charge Proton +1 Neutron 0 Electron -1   In an atom, the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus. Atoms have no overall electrical charge.   The number of protons in an atom of an element is its atomic number. All atoms of a particular element have the same number of protons. Atoms of different elements have different numbers of protons. Recall the different charges of the particles that make up an atom.   Describe why atoms have no overall charge.   Recall what atomic number represents.   Use the periodic table to identify the number of protons in different elements. 0.5 Recall structure of atom and the charges of each particle (KS3).   Using examples from the first 20 elements on the periodic table, students read off and work out the number of each charge different elements have.   Describe the relationship between number of positive and negative charges. Apply this relationship to explain why there is no overall charge.   Referring to their table of data, students write their rules to state what the atomic number is and why elements are different from each other. Designing an appropriate table to display data on atomic numbers and number of atomic particles in different elements. Explain to each other what atomic structure means, and why atoms have no overall charge.
4.1.1.5 Atoms are very small, having a radius of about 0.1 nm (1 x 10-10 m).   The radius of a nucleus is less than 1/10 000 of that of the atom (about 1 x 10-14 m).   Most of the mass of an atom is in the nucleus.   The relative masses of protons, neutrons and electrons are: Name of particle Relative mass Proton 1 Neutron 1 Electron Very small   The sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom is its mass number.   Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons; these atoms are called isotopes of that element.   Atoms can be represented as shown in this example:         Describe the structure of the atom.     Details of energy levels and line spectra are not required.   Calculate the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons in an atom or ion, given its atomic number and mass number for the first 20 elements.   Be able to relate size and scale of atoms to objects in the physical world.   0.5 Extended writing Describe the structure of atoms. Model atoms (using physical models or computer simulations).     WS 4.3, 4.4 Ma 1b Video clip: BBC Bitesize –Atomic structure         Video clip: BBC Bitesize –How mass and atomic numbers explain atomic structure   YouTube: Atomic Number and Mass Number      
4.1.1.6 The relative atomic mass of an element is an average value that takes account of the abundance of the isotopes of the element. Students should be able to calculate the relative atomic mass of an element given the percentage abundance of its isotopes. 0.5     YouTube: Relative Atomic Mass
4.1.1.7 The electrons in an atom occupy the lowest available energy levels (innermost available shells).   The electronic structure of an atom can be represented by numbers or by a diagram.           For example, the electronic structure of sodium is 2,8,1 or            showing two electrons in the lowest energy level, eight in the second energy level and one in the third energy level. Students should be able to represent the electronic structures of the first twenty elements of the periodic table in both forms.   Students may answer questions in terms of either energy levels or shells. 0.5 Describe how many electrons there can be in the first, second and third energy shells. Role play using students to represent protons, neutrons and electrons, build up the idea of full and complete energy shells with 2 in the first, 8 in the second and 8 in the third energy shell.   WS 1.2 Ma 5b YouTube: Energy Levels and Electron Configuration   YouTube: Drawing electron configuration diagrams


4.1.2 The periodic table

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.1.2.1 The elements in the periodic table are arranged in order of atomic (proton) number and so that elements with similar properties are in columns, known as groups. The table is called a periodic table because similar properties occur at regular intervals.   Elements in the same group in the periodic table have the same number of electrons in their outer shell (outer electrons) and this gives them similar chemical properties. Explain how the position of an element in the periodic table is related to the arrangement of electrons in its atoms and hence to its atomic number.   Predict possible reactions and probable reactivity of elements from their positions in the periodic table. 0.5 Identify link between electron configuration and the structure of the periodic table for elements 1 to 20. Identify anomalies.   Video clip: BBC Bitesize – Groups and periods in the periodic table   YouTube: How the elements are laid out in the periodic table   YouTube: Mendeleev and the Periodic Table      
Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.1.2.2 Before the discovery of protons, neutrons and electrons scientists attempted to classify the elements by arranging them in order of their atomic weights.   The early periodic tables were incomplete and some elements were placed in inappropriate groups if the strict order of atomic weights was followed.   Mendeleev overcame some of the problems by leaving gaps for elements that he thought had not been discovered and in some places changed the order based on atomic weights.   Elements with properties predicted by Mendeleev were discovered and filled the gaps. Knowledge of isotopes made it possible to explain why the order based on atomic weights was not always correct.   Describe these steps in the development of the periodic table.   Describe and explain how testing a prediction can support or refute a new scientific idea. 0.5 Create a timeline for the history of the periodic table.   Extended writing Describe the differences between the early Periodic tables and our current Periodic table. Explain why the Periodic table has changed throughout the years. WS1.1   Dynamic Periodic Table   or   Royal Society of Chemistry –Periodic Table (interactive)   University of Nottingham – The Periodic Table of Videos
Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.1.2.3 Elements that react to form positive ions are metals.   Elements that do not form positive ions are non-metals.   The majority of elements are metals. Metals are found to the left and towards the bottom of the periodic table. Non-metals are found towards the right and top of the periodic table. Explain the differences between metals and non-metals on the basis of their characteristic physical and chemical properties.   Explain how the atomic structure of metals and non-metals relates to their position in the periodic table.   Explain how the reactions of elements are related to the arrangement of electrons in their atoms and hence to their atomic number.                         0.5                          
Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.1.2.4 The elements in Group 0 of the periodic table are called the noble gases. They are unreactive and do not easily form molecules because their atoms have stable arrangements of electrons.   The noble gases have eight electrons in their outer energy level, except for helium, which has only two electrons.   The boiling points of the noble gases increase with increasing relative atomic mass (going down the group).                         Explain how properties of the elements in Group 0 depend on the outer shell of electrons of the atoms.   Predict properties from given trends down the group. 0.5 Extended writing Describe the trends in properties in Group 0. Explain how properties of the elements in Group 0 depend on the outer shell of electrons of the atoms.     High demand Explain the trends in Group 0.   YouTube: Noble gases – the gases in group 18    
Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.1.2.5 The elements in Group 1 of the periodic table are known as the alkali metals and have characteristic properties because of the single electron in their outer shell.:   In Group 1, the reactivity of the elements increases going down the group. Describe the reactions of the first three alkali metals with oxygen, chlorine and water.   Explain how properties of the elements in Group 1 depend on the outer shell of electrons of the atoms.   Predict properties from given trends down the group. 0.5 Extended writing Describe the trends in properties in Group 1. Explain how properties of the elements in Group 1 depend on the outer shell of electrons of the atoms.   High demand Explain the trends in Group 1. Demo reactivity of Na, Li and K in water with universal indicator. Predict reactions for Rb, Cs and Fr. Video clip: BBC Bitesize –Alkali metals and their reactions to air and water       YouTube: Group 1 as an example of Groups in the periodic table   YouTube: Alkali metals in water, accurate!  
Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.1.2.6 The elements in Group 7 of the periodic table are known as the halogens and have similar reactions because they all have seven electrons in their outer shell. The halogens are non-metals and consist of molecules made of pairs of atoms.   In Group 7, the further down the group an element is, the higher its relative molecular mass, melting point and boiling point.   In Group 7, the reactivity of the elements decreases going down the group.   A more reactive halogen can displace a less reactive halogen from an aqueous solution of its salt.                 Describe the nature of the compounds formed when chlorine, bromine and iodine react with metals and non-metals.   Explain how properties of the elements in Group 7 depend on the outer shell of electrons of the atoms.   Predict properties from given trends down the group. 0.5 Extended writing Describe the trends in properties in Group 7. Explain how properties of the elements in Group 7 depend on the outer shell of electrons of the atoms.   High demand Explain the trends in Group 7. Demonstrate the reactions of chlorine, bromine and iodine with iron wool.   Carry out displacement reactions using KCl, KBr, KI with waters of the corresponding halogens.   Write word and balanced symbol equations for all reactions in the displacement practical. Video clip: BBC Bitesize –Reactivity of group 1 and 7 elements   YouTube: Halogens


4.1.3 Properties of the transition metals

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.1.3.1 The transition elements are metals with similar properties which are different from those of the elements in Group 1. Describe the difference compared with Group 1 in melting points, densities, strength, hardness and reactivity with oxygen, water and halogens.   Exemplify these general properties by reference to Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu. 0.5 Extended writing Describe the properties of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu.   Explain the links between properties of transition metals with their common uses. Research the properties and uses of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu. YouTube: GCSE Science Revision   YouTube: The Transition Metals Song    
4.1.3.2 Many transition elements have ions with different charges form coloured compounds and are useful as catalysts. Exemplify these general properties by reference to compounds of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu. 0.5 Describe the properties of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu.   High demand Give reasons why transition metals have ions with different charges. Carry out flame tests for common metals.   This topic can be used in the development of the following mathematical skills: 1b Recognise expressions in standard form. 5b Visualise and represent 2D and 3D forms including two dimensional representations of 3D objects.        

Chemistry – Chemical analysis

This resource provides guidance for teaching the Chemical analysis topic from our new GCSE Chemistry (8462). It has been updated from the draft version to reflect the changes made in the accredited specification. Changes have been made to 4.8.1.3 and a few amendments to each of the other sections including the learning outcomes and opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills of most sections.

The scheme of work is designed to be a flexible medium term plan for teaching content and development of the skills that will be assessed.

It is provided in Word format to help you create your own teaching plan – you can edit and customise it according to your needs. This scheme of work is not exhaustive; it only suggests activities and resources you could find useful in your teaching.

4.8 Chemical analysis

4.8.1 Purity, formulations and chromatography

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.8.1.1 In chemistry, a pure substance is a single element or compound, not mixed with any other substance.   Pure elements and compounds melt and boil at specific temperatures. Melting point and boiling point data can be used to distinguish pure substances from mixtures.   In everyday language, a pure substance can mean a substance that has had nothing added to it, so it is unadulterated and in its natural state, eg pure milk. Be able to use melting point data to distinguish pure from impure substances.   WS 2.2, 4.1   1 Define the terms:   pure substancecompound.   Explain, in terms of intermolecular forces, the terms:   melting pointboiling point.   Use data to identify pure and impure substances.   Identify the contents of mineral waters sold as ‘pure’. Discuss the meaning of ‘pure’. Research the melting and boiling points of common pure substances and compounds. Suggest reasons for differences in data available on the internet.  
4.8.1.2 A formulation is a mixture that has been designed as a useful product. Many products are complex mixtures in which each chemical has a particular purpose. Formulations are made by mixing the components in carefully measured quantities to ensure that the product has the required properties. Formulations include fuels, cleaning agents, paints, medicines, alloys, fertilisers and foods. Identify formulations given appropriate information.   Students do not need to know the names of components in proprietary products.   WS 1.4, 2.2 0.5 Define the terms:   mixtureformulation. Research the composition of the following formulations: fuelcleaning agentspaintsmedicinesalloysfertilisersfoods. Identify the purpose of each chemical in the formulation.  
4.8.1.3 Chromatography can be used to separate mixtures and can give information to help identify substances. Chromatography involves a stationary phase and a mobile phase. Separation depends on the distribution of substances between the phases.   The ratio of the distance moved by a compound (centre of spot from origin) to the distance moved by the solvent can be expressed as its Rf value:   Different compounds have different Rf values in different solvents, which can be used to help identify the compounds. The compounds in a mixture may separate into different spots depending on the solvent but a pure compound will produce a single spot in all solvents. Explain how paper chromatography separates mixtures.   Suggest how chromatographic methods can be used for distinguishing pure substances from impure substances.   Interpret chromatograms and determine Rf values from chromatograms.   Provide answers to an appropriate number of significant figures.   WS 2.4, 2.6 MS 1a, 1c, 1d, 2a       2 Describe a method for paper chromatography.   Explain what happens to substances during the process of chromatography.   Describe to another student what the Rf value is and instructions on how to calculate the Rf value.   Devise a method for distinguishing between pure and impure substances using chromatography. Required practical 6:   Investigate how paper chromatography can be used to separate and tell the difference between coloured substances. Students should calculate Rf values.   AT skills covered by this practical activity: 1 and 4. Video clips YouTube: Basics of chromatography   YouTube: Paper and thin layer chromatography   Exampro user guide PowerPoint    

 

 

4.8.2 Identification of common gases

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.8.2.1 The test for hydrogen uses a burning splint held at the open end of a test tube of the gas. Hydrogen burns rapidly with a pop sound.   0.5 Describe the test for hydrogen to another student. Carry out a simple test for hydrogen. Video clip YouTube: Testing for hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, (ammonia) and chlorine
4.8.2.2 The test for oxygen uses a glowing splint inserted into a test tube of the gas. The splint relights in oxygen.   0.5 Describe the test for oxygen to another student. Carry out a simple test for oxygen.  
4.8.2.3 The test for carbon dioxide uses an aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide (lime water). When carbon dioxide is shaken with or bubbled through limewater the limewater turns milky (cloudy).   0.5 Describe the test for carbon dioxide to another student. Carry out a simple test for carbon dioxide.  
4.8.2.4 The test for chlorine uses litmus paper. When damp litmus paper is put into chlorine gas the litmus paper is bleached and turns white.   0.5 Describe the test for chlorine to another student. Small amounts of chlorine can be generated from the electrolysis of brine (either as a demonstration or during a class practical).  

 

4.8.3 Identification of ions by chemical and spectroscopic means

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.8.3.1 Flame tests can be used to identify some metal ions (cations). Lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium and copper compounds produce distinctive colours in flame tests:   lithium compounds result in a crimson flamesodium compounds result in a yellow flamepotassium compounds result in a lilac flamecalcium compounds result in an orange-red flamecopper compounds result in a green flame.   If a sample containing a mixture of ions is used, some flame colours can be masked. Identify species from the results of the tests in 8.3a to 8.3e.   Flame colours of other metal ions are not required knowledge.   WS 2.2 1 Describe the flame tests for identifying cations to another student.   Research how firework manufacturers produce the different colours in fireworks. Carry out flame tests on the following cations: lithiumsodiumpotassiumcalciumcopper.   AT 8 Video clip YouTube: Testing for positive ions – Part 1    
4.8.3.2 Sodium hydroxide solution can be used to identify some metal ions (cations).   Solutions of aluminium, calcium and magnesium ions form white precipitates when sodium hydroxide solution is added but only the aluminium hydroxide precipitate dissolves in excess sodium hydroxide solution.   Solutions of copper(II), iron(II) and iron(III) ions form coloured precipitates when sodium hydroxide solution is added.  Copper(II) forms a blue precipitate, iron(II) a green precipitate and iron(III) a brown precipitate. Be able to write balanced equations for the reactions to produce the insoluble hydroxides.   Students are not expected to write equations for the production of sodium aluminate.   WS 2.2 2 Describe how sodium hydroxide can be used to identify some cations to another student. Use sodium hydroxide to test for the following cations: aluminiumcalciummagnesiumcopper(ll)iron(ll)iron(lll). AT8  
4.8.3.3 Carbonates react with dilute acids to form carbon dioxide gas. Carbon dioxide can be identified with limewater.     1 Describe how dilute acids can be used to identify carbonates to another student. Use dilute acid to test for the following carbonates:   sodium carbonatepotassium carbonate.   Analyse the composition of an egg shell, testing for the presence of various ions using acids and other test tube reactions and flame tests. Video clip: YouTube: Sulfate and Carbonate Tests    
4.8.3.4 Halide ions in solution produce precipitates with silver nitrate solution in the presence of dilute nitric acid. Silver chloride is white, silver bromide is cream and silver iodide is yellow.   1 Describe how silver nitrate can be used to identify halides to another student.   Use silver nitrate to test the following halides:   chloridebromideiodide. Video clip: YouTube: Halide ion tests  
4.8.3.5 Sulfate ions in solution produce a white precipitate with barium chloride solution in the presence of dilute hydrochloric acid. WS 2.4, 2.6 2 Describe how barium chloride in the presence of dilute hydrochloric acid can be used to identify sulfate ions to another student.   Plan an analysis programme to identify an unknown substance using just test tube reactions. Use barium chloride in the presence of dilute hydrochloric acid to test for sulfate ions.   Required practical 7:   Use of chemical tests to identify the ions in unknown single ionic compounds covering the ions from sections 4.8.3.1 to 4.8.3.5.   AT skills covered by this practical activity: 1 and 8.   Video clip: Sulfate and Carbonate Tests    
4.8.3.6 Elements and compounds can be detected and identified using instrumental methods. Instrumental methods are accurate, sensitive and rapid. State advantages of instrumental methods compared with the chemical tests in this specification.   WS 1.4 0.5   Research instrumental methods for detecting elements and compounds.   Compare these to chemical tests carried out in this specification.   Suggest advantages of the instrumental methods compared with the chemical tests.    
4.8.3.7 Flame emission spectroscopy is an example of an instrumental method used to analyse metal ions in solutions. The sample is put into a flame and the light given out is passed through a spectroscope. The output is a line spectrum that can be analysed to identify the metal ions in the solution and measure their concentrations.     Interpret an instrumental result given appropriate data in chart or tabular form, when accompanied by a reference set in the same form, limited to flame emission spectroscopy.   WS 3.6   MS 4a     1 Describe the process of flame emission spectroscopy.   Explain what happens to a sample throughout the process of flame emission spectroscopy.   Interpret instrumental results for flame emission spectroscopy.   Research how chemical analysis has been used to detect and solve crimes especially in forgery and murder by poisoning.   Research how robotic spacecraft sent to investigate other planets analyse their atmospheres and surface materials using instrumentation.   Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of instrumental analysis versus test tube analysis. Research how flame emission spectroscopy takes place.     An opportunity to observe flame spectra using a hand-held spectroscope.   AT 8 Video clip YouTube: Atomic Emission Spectroscopy    

 

Biology – Organisation

This resource provides guidance for teaching the Organisation topic from our new GCSE in Biology. It has been updated from the draft version to reflect the changes made in the accredited specification. There have been no changes to the required practicals. However there have been minor changes to the specification content in sections 4.2.1 Principles of organisation, 4.2.2.1 The human digestive system, 4.2.2.3 Blood, 4.2.2.4 Coronary disease, 4.2.2.5 Health issues, 4.2.3.1 Plant tissues and 4.2.3.2 Plant organ system. These alterations have not required changes to be made to the Scheme of work.

The scheme of work is designed to be a flexible medium term plan for teaching content and development of the skills that will be assessed.

It is provided in Word format to help you create your own teaching plan – you can edit and customise it according to your needs. This scheme of work is not exhaustive; it only suggests activities and resources you could find useful in your teaching.

4.2 Organisation

4.2.1 Principles of organisation

This section is covered at KS3, so could be omitted, depending on your students, or taught as an introduction to 4.1 Cell biology.

Organ systems associated with the specification are the Digestive, Circulatory, Respiratory, Nervous, Endocrine, Reproductive and Excretory Systems.

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop scientific communication skills   Opportunities to apply practical and  enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.2.1.1   Organisational hierarchy. Cells are the building blocks of living organisms. A tissue is a group of cells with a similar structure and function. Organs are groups of tissues working together. Organs are organised into organ systems. An organism is made up of several organ systems. Explain the terms cell, tissue, organ, organ system and organism, and be able to give examples of each. Have an understanding of the size and scale of cells, tissues, organs, organ systems and organisms. Describe the main systems in the human body and their functions. 0.5   Recap KS3 work on organisation using models and images of the human body and organs. Prepare a set of cards with images of different body organs and ask pupils to arrange the cards into organ systems. What is the function of each organ within its system? Produce a flow diagram showing organisation in large organisms and relate to size.     Using models. Critically evaluating models to identify those features which are effectively represented and those which are not. Torso, models or images of systems, models or images of organs showing different tissues.  


4.2.2 Animal tissues, organs and organ systems

Students should know the organs in the digestive system from KS3, so 4.2.2.1 could be covered as a revision exercise for homework.

The structure and function of the gas exchange system was covered at KS3. For KS4 the focus is on the relationship between the circulatory and gas exchange systems.

4.2.2.2 Heart and blood vessels has links with 4.4.2 Respiration. Some teachers may wish to move on to teach parts of 4.4.2.2 Response to exercise immediately after the heart and blood in 4.2.2.2 and 4.2.2.3.

4.2.2.3 Blood, also links with 4.3.1.6 Human defence systems and 4.3.1.7 Vaccination.

4.2.2.4 Coronary heart disease could be taught with the heart, or later following on from Health issues in 4.2.2.5.

There are links with 4.1.1.3 (Cell specialisation), 4.1.3.1 (Diffusion) and 4.1.3.3 (Active transport).

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop scientific communication skills   Opportunities to apply practical and  enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.2.2.1 The human digestive system. The structure and functions of the digestive system.     Describe the functions of the digestive system to digest and absorb foods. Identify the positions of the main organs on a diagram of the digestive system. Know that food molecules must be small and soluble in order to be absorbed into the blood. Describe the functions of the organs in the system. Explain how the small intestine is adapted for its function. 0.5 Recap the functions of the digestive system, and organs in the system from KS3. Label a diagram of the digestive system and colour areas where digestion, digestion and absorption of food, and absorption of water occur. Watch the video of digestion of an egg sandwich (see resources). Describe the pathway of an egg sandwich from mouth to anus.  Tell it as a story.       Demonstrate the digestion show: mouth is potato masher in a bowl (add food and mash). Squirt in salivatransfer into a sandwich bag (stomach) and squeeze with ‘enzymes’transfer into another bowl via a sieve (small intestine)what is left in the sieve must be soaked up with a sponge (large intestine) then emptied into a small sandwich bag (rectum)cut a hole in corner of bag for anus and show egestion. View sections of the small intestine under a microscope. Make a model to show how the villi increase the surface area of the small intestine. Model of the digestive system and organs. BBC Bitesize: Digestive system Two bowlsMasherFoodBottle of ‘saliva’ and ‘enzymes’SieveTwo sandwich bagsScissorsMicroscopesSlides of small intestine. Digestion of egg sandwich video    
4.2.2.1 Properties of enzymes. Enzymes are biological catalysts. The properties of enzymes. The lock and key theory and collision theory can be used to explain enzyme action.   Define the terms ‘catalyst’ and ‘enzyme’. Describe the properties of enzymes. Explain why enzymes are specific and are denatured by high temperatures and extremes of pH. Use the lock and key theory and collision theory to explain enzyme action.   1 Recap KS3 work on enzymes. Demo: the action of an inorganic catalyst and catalase, using living and dead tissues, on the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide. Use the observations to lead into the properties of enzymes. Watch a video clip to help to describe the action of catalase. Watch computer simulations to help make notes and explain the properties of enzymes. Make models or cut-outs to demonstrate the shape of the active site of an enzyme and the shape of the substrate(s). Demo: how the rate of the catalase reaction can be measured using a gas syringe or inverted cylinder of water and timer to prepare for the Required practical next lesson. Interpret observations of the action of a catalyst and of catalase from celery, potato, fresh liver and boiled liver on hydrogen peroxide. Explore how the rate of a reaction can be measured by measuring the volume of gas given off in a given time. Calculate the rate using data obtained. Discuss how the equipment could be adapted to investigate the effect of a factor on the rate of the reaction. Make predictions and identify variables.   Demo: manganese dioxide, liver, boiled liver, celery, apple or potato, hydrogen peroxide, test tubes or small beakers and goggles. BBC Bitesize: Enzymes and active sites Properties of enzymes Demo: living tissue, hydrogen peroxide, flask, delivery tube, gas syringe, cylinder and trough, timer. Also see Practical Handbook
4.2.2.1 Required practical: Investigate the effect of pH on the rate of reaction of amylase enzyme. Students should use a continuous sampling technique to determine the time taken to completely digest a starch solution at a range of pH values. Iodine reagent is to be used to test for starch every 30 seconds. Temperature must be controlled by use of a water bath or electric heater.   Carry out a safe, controlled investigation to measure the rate of the catalase under different conditions. Draw a diagram of the apparatus and write a method. Identify variables. Present and analyse the results: calculate rates of reaction using raw data and graphs. Draw conclusions and give explanations for the results. 1.5 Required practical Carry out a safe, controlled investigation to measure the rate of the catalase reaction under different conditions. Draw a diagram of the apparatus and write a method. Identify variables. Present and analyse the results: calculate rates of reaction using raw data and graphs. Draw conclusions and give explanations for the results. Required practical: See Practical Handbook.
4.2.2.1 Human digestive enzymes Enzymes in the digestive system chemically digest food into small, soluble molecules that can be absorbed. Names of enzymes with substrates, products and sites of production. Bile is made by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. It helps in the digestion of fats by neutralising acid from the stomach and emulsifying fats. Different enzymes work best at different temperatures and pH values.     Required practical: Food tests. Use qualitative reagents to test for a range of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. To include: Benedict’s test for sugars; iodine test for starch; and Biuret reagent for protein. Explain why foods need to be digested into small, soluble molecules. Describe the three types of enzymes involved in digestion, including the names of the substrates, products and where the enzymes are produced.     Explain how bile helps in the digestion of fats. Interpret graphs to determine the optimum temperature or pH for an enzyme. Carry out other enzyme controlled investigations as appropriate. Calculate the rate of enzyme controlled reactions. Interpret the results from enzyme controlled reactions. 2 Observe a model for digestion using popper beads to illustrate large molecules being broken into smaller ones. Introduce the names of the three groups of digestive enzymes, what they digest and the products formed. Present the information in a table.     Discuss the role of bile and demonstrate the action of washing up liquid on fats. Demonstrate the effect of bile salts on the rate of digestion of milk using a pH indicator. Using a model or large poster of the digestive system identify where each type of enzyme and bile is produced. Add labels to the digestive system diagram to show where the different enzymes and bile are produced. Optional investigations or use computer simulations and interpret and explain the results: investigate the optimum pH values for pepsin and trypsin.investigate the effect of temperature on amylase activity. Use the BBC activity about the digestive system. Make a life size model of the digestive system. Role play – What happens to food as it moves along the digestive system?   Use bead model. Investigate the action of amylase on starch using a model gut or interpret the results using the computer simulation.           Watch the demos and discuss the outcomes. Explain why pH is measured to indicate the rate of fat digestion. Investigate the optimum pH values for pepsin and trypsin enzymes. Relate the results to their sites of action in the digestive system. Investigate the effect of temperature on amylase activity – measure time taken for starch to disappear. Plot results and find optimum temperature for amylase. Plot and interpret graphs about enzyme activity; determine optimal temperatures and pH values. Model: Strings of popper beads. Model gut: amylase solution, starch solution, cellulose tubing, beaker, iodine solution, Benedict’s solution, test tubes, spotting tile, waterbath. Digestion experiments Demo: large trough of water, greasy frying pan, washing up liquid, tube of water and olive oil Demo: two tubes full cream milk, sodium carbonate solution, phenolphthalein or UI solution, lipase solution, +/- washing up liquid and timer. pH: Pepsin solution, trypsin solution, buffer solutions at different pH values, UI strips,  egg white suspension, test tubes, timers and goggles. Amylase: amylase solution, starch solution, test tubes, water baths at different temperatures, thermometers, glass rods, spotting tiles, iodine solution, timers, goggles. BBC Bitesize; Digestive system  
4.2.2.2                       4.2.2.2 The heart and blood vessels. The heart is a double pump. How the heart is adapted for its function. The names of the blood vessels associated with the heart. Pacemaker cells regulate the beating of the heart. Artificial pacemakers correct irregularities in heart rate. How the lungs are adapted for efficient gas exchange. Describe the functions of the heart and circulatory system. Describe and label a diagram of the heart showing four chambers, vena cava, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein and aorta. Describe the flow of blood from the body, through the heart and lungs and back to the body. Explain how the heart is adapted for its function.   Describe the heart as a double pump and explain why this is efficient. Describe the function of the pacemaker cells and coronary arteries. Label the main structures in the gas exchange system – trachea, bronchi, alveoli and capillary network around alveoli. Explain how the alveoli are adapted for efficient gas exchange.     1.5 Describe the functions of the heart and circulatory system. Show pictures of a single and a double circulatory system.  Pupils write down similarities and differences. Discuss the reasons why. Use computer simulation to show the flow of blood around the heart, lungs and body. Label a diagram of the heart and colour to show oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Describe the flow of blood by sorting cards with names of blood vessels, chambers, lungs and body to show direction of blood flow. Research the work of Galen and William Harvey and produce a report. Recap KS3 work on the structure and function of the gas exchange system. Use a model and identify the main organs in the gas exchange system. Label a diagram of the gas exchange system. Label a diagram of the alveoli and explain how they are adapted for efficient gas exchange. Demo: show a model heart and identify the chambers, main blood vessels and valves. Demo: heart and lungs of a pig to show the associated vessels. Allow students to feel the vessels. Show students how to dissect their pig hearts and identify the vessels. Dissect a pig’s heart. See Nuffield Foundation Practical Science suggestions. Show lungs and trachea of a sheep from a local butcher. Identify the main structures and discuss the roles. Inflate the lungs with a bicycle pump.           Model heart Demo: heart and lungs of pig with vessels attached, board, scissors, mounted needle, gloves. Dissection: hearts with vessels attached, boards, scissors, mounted needles, gloves. Practical Biology: Looking at a heart BBC Bitesize; The human heart (video clip showing heart and pacemaker cells). Activity: Cards to sort The structure of the heart Torso or model of gas exchange system. Sheep lungs and trachea (PLUCK), bicycle pump
4.2.2.2 Structure and function of arteries, veins and capillaries. Explain how the blood vessels are adapted for their function.   1 Use computer simulation or video clip showing the three types of blood vessels and comparing their functions. Extract information to explain the structure of the blood vessels. Label diagrams of the three types of blood vessel. Produce a table to compare the structure of the vessels and relate to their function. Demo: how valves in veins prevent backflow of blood using someone with prominent veins. Students explain the principles of valve action. Observe prepared slides of the different vessels, or use bio-viewers. Compare their size and structure. Measure pulse rate and blood pressure – lying down, sitting and standing. Microscopes, prepared slides, bio-viewers. The blood vessels Pulse and blood pressure: timers or pulse rate sensor, blood pressure monitor.
4.2.2.4 Coronary heart disease. Fatty material builds up in coronary arteries reducing blood flow to the heart muscle. Stents can be used to keep the coronary arteries open. Statins reduce cholesterol levels, so fatty material is deposited more slowly. Faulty heart valves can be replaced with biological or mechanical ones. Heart failure can be treated with a heart and lung transplant. Artificial hearts can be used whilst waiting for a transplant, or to allow the heart to rest and recover. Describe problems associated with the heart and explain how they can be treated. Evaluate the use of drugs, mechanical devices and transplants to treat heart problems, including religious and ethical issues.   1 Watch video clip about coronary heart disease. Discuss the different types of heart problems that can occur and how they are treated –blocked coronary arteries, heart attack, faulty valves, hole in the heart, drugs, transplants, artificial hearts and replacement valves. Produce a report or PowerPoint presentation. Observe illustrations of artificial hearts and replacement valves. Demonstrate effect of blockage in tube on rate of water flow. Observe video of heart and lung transplant. BBC animation and quiz about heart disease. Research the first heart transplant. Demo: calculate the rate of water flow through tubing. Evaluate the use of models to represent blocked arteries. BBC Bitesize: Coronary heart disease Artificial heart and valves if available otherwise show illustrations. Demo: rigid, transparent tubing – one left open and the other partially blocked with wax, funnel, measured volumes of water, timer. BBC Bitesize: Heart and lungs transplant BBC Bitesize: The circulatory system
4.2.2.3 Blood. Blood is a tissue consisting of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Plasma transports dissolved chemicals and proteins around the body. Red blood cells transport oxygen attached to haemoglobin. White blood cells help to protect the body against infection. Platelets are fragments of cells involved in blood clotting. Describe the four main components of blood. Explain how each component is adapted for its function. Identify pictures of the different blood cells. 1 Discuss the functions of blood and describe the four main components of blood. Draw and label diagrams of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Watch BBC lesson about blood with animations (see resources). Produce models of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Produce a Mind map to explain the composition of blood and describe the functions of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Write a word equation for the reaction of oxygen with haemoglobin.   Observe prepared blood smears, or use bio-viewers. Compare the size and number of red and white blood cells.     Microscopes, prepared slides or bio-viewers. BBC Bitesize: Blood  
4.2.2.5 4.2.2.6                                               Health issues and effect of lifestyle on non-communicable diseases Health is the state of physical and mental well-being. Factors such as diet, stress and life situations can have a serious effect on physical and mental health. Diseases are major causes of ill health. Different diseases may interact: defects in the immune system increase the chance of catching an infectious disease. Viral infections can trigger cancers. Immune reactions can trigger allergies. Physical ill-health can lead to depression and mental illness. Various risk factors are linked to some non-communicable disease. Explain how diet, stress and life situations can affect physical and mental health. Give examples of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Describe examples of how diseases may interact. Describe the effects of diet, smoking, alcohol and exercise on health. Explain how and why the Government encourages people to lead a healthy lifestyle. Give risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, lung diseases and cancers. 1 Discuss factors that can affect health and how to lead a healthy lifestyle. Carry out research using textbooks and the internet and write a report on the effects of diet, stress, smoking, alcohol and exercise on health, to include risk factors for specific diseases. Analyse data about health risks and diseases. Carry out a survey of lifestyle habits. Watch the adverts about smoking, alcohol and diet.  Analyse the message they are sending and suggest why. Ask what advice do they give and how effective they are and why. Brainstorm the human and financial cost of these non-communicable diseases on individuals, communities, nations and globally. Role-play a doctor and patient discussing the benefits and difficulties of one lifestyle change, eg smoking, alcohol, diet or exercise. Carry out research.                       Collect, present and analyse data about health risks and diseases, looking for correlations. Measure height and weight to calculate BMI. Calculate BMI and evaluate the use of this type of measurement. Human physiology and health Adverts: Change4Life: Be Food Smart TV ad 2013 Public Health England ant-smoking campaign video Change4Life: Alcohol
4.2.2.7 Cancers (malignant tumours) result from uncontrolled cell division. Cancer cells may invade neighbouring tissues, or break off and spread to other parts of the body in the blood, where they form secondary tumours. Describe some causes of cancer, eg viruses, smoking, alcohol, carcinogens and ionising radiation. Describe the difference between benign and malignant tumours. Explain how cancer may spread from one site in the body to form a secondary tumour in another part of the body. 1 Watch animation about cancer on ABPI site (see resources). Research the causes of cancer and cancer treatment. Explore activities and information on cancer research site.         Analyse data about cancer from cancer research site. Cell division and cancer Cancer Research UK Lesson plans


4.2.3 Plant tissues, organs and systems

Some useful resources and information can be found at saps.org.uk

This section closely ties in with 4.4.1 Photosynthesis.

The structure of a leaf in 4.2.3.1 should be linked to the process of photosynthesis.

Plant transport systems in 4.2.3.2 should be related to the transport of water to the leaf for photosynthesis, and the transport of sugars away from the leaf to other parts of the plant.

4.1.3.3 Active transport is included here in relation to 4.2.3.2 Plant organ system. It also links with 4.3.3 Plant disease.

Meristem tissue can be covered with 4.1.1.4 Cell differentiation or 4.1.2.3 Stem cells.

There are links with 4.1.1.3 Cell specialisation, 4.1.1.5 Microscopy, 4.1.3.1 Diffusion and 4.1.3.3 Active transport.

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop scientific communication skills   Opportunities to apply practical and  enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.2.3.1 4.2.3.2                         4.2.3.1 Plant organs and Plant tissues. The leaf. Plant organs include stems, roots and leaves. Organs are made up of different tissues, eg meristem tissue at growing tips. The leaf is the organ of photosynthesis. Examples of tissues in a leaf: epidermis, palisade and spongy mesophyll, xylem, phloem, guard cells and stomata. How these tissues are adapted for their function. Label the main organs of a plant and describe their functions. Identify the tissues in a leaf and describe their functions. Relate the structure of each tissue to its function in photosynthesis. Explain why there are more stomata on the lower surface of a leaf. Describe the role of stomata and guard cells to control water loss and gas exchange. Calculate stomatal density.         1.5 Label a diagram of a plant with names and functions of organs. Observeacross section of a leaf and identify the tissues. Compare prepared slides with their own cross sections and evaluate the methods used to produce them. Relate to use of the microscope. Label a diagram of a cross section through a leaf. Describe how the tissues are adapted for their role in photosynthesis. Investigate the arrangement of stomata and suggest reasons for this distribution. Calculate stomatal density using data provided or from direct observations. Demonstrate how guard cells open and close the stomata. Observe the video clip showing stomata. Explain how the guard cells and stomata control water loss and gas exchange. Listen to the rap about photosynthesis and leaf structure. Make sections of a leaf and observe under the microscope, or use bio- viewers. Draw the tissue arrangement observed. Dip leaves into hot water and make nail varnish imprints of stomata and observe under the microscope. Suggest reasons why there are more stomata on the lower surface. Draw the arrangement of stomata and guard cells observed. Using a flowering plant make and examine leaf sections: microscopes, slides, coverslips, stain, scalpels, tiles, prepared slides and bio-viewers. Stomata: leaves from privet and spider plants, kettle, beakers, nail varnish, slides, coverslips and microscopes. Demo: 2 cylindrical balloons, sellotape. Measuring stomatal density Stomata: Leaf structure, stomata and carbon dioxide video clip Rap: BBC Bitesize: Photosynthesis rap
4.2.3.1 4.2.3.2 Plant transport systems. The roots, stem and leaves form a plant transport system. Root hair cells absorb water by osmosis and mineral ions by diffusion and active transport. (See next lesson). Xylem tissue transports water and dissolved ions. The flow of water from the roots to leaves is called the transpiration stream. Xylem tissue is composed of hollow tubes strengthened with lignin. Phloem tissue transports dissolved sugars from the leaves to other parts of the plant. The movement of food through phloem is called translocation. Phloem cells have pores in their end walls for movement of cell sap. Describe the organs that make up the plant transport system. Describe the role of xylem, phloem and root hair cells and explain how they are adapted for their functions. Define the terms ‘transpiration’ and ‘translocation’.     1 Demonstrate capillary action using in a long capillary tube and coloured dye. Demonstrate transport of coloured dye in celery or a plant stem then allow students to take sections and observe the dye in the xylem vessels under the microscope. Observe and draw xylem, phloem and root hair cells. Estimate the size of the cells. Describe how they are adapted for their functions. Label a diagram of a plant to show that water enters via the roots and travels in the xylem to the leaves; carbon dioxide enters leaves via stomata; light is absorbed by chlorophyll in leaves; dissolved sugars are transported from the leaves in the phloem to other parts of the plant.   Evaluate the use of a model to show water transport in a plant stem. Prepare sections of celery or plant stem and observe under a microscope. Observe prepared slides or bioviewers of xylem and phloem cells; draw them and estimate their size. Demonstrate long piece of capillary tubing supported in clamp, beaker of coloured water. Plant stalks: celery of plant stalk in beaker of coloured water, scalpels, tiles, slides and coverslips, microscopes. Prepared slides: of xylem, phloem and root hair cells, microscopes, bioviewers. BBC Bitesize: The need for transport
4.1.3.3           4.1.3.3 Active transport. Active transport involves the movement of a substance against a concentration gradient and requires energy from respiration. Mineral ions can be absorbed by active transport into plant root hairs from very dilute solutions in the soil.   Sugar can be absorbed by active transport from the gut into the blood. Define the term ‘active transport’. Describe where active transport occurs in humans and plants and what is transported. Explain why active transport requires energy. Explain how active transport enables cells to absorb ions from very dilute solutions. Explain the relationship between active transport and oxygen supply and numbers of mitochondria in cells. 0.5 Recap diffusion and osmosis. Compare them with active transport. Produce a comparison table. Introduce active transport as absorption against the concentration gradient. Discuss when this might be useful. Research where active transport occurs in plants and humans and label these on diagrams with notes. Observe a video or pictures of plants growing in soil and in hydroponic solutions. Suggest why farmers and gardeners turn the soil and hydroponic solutions must be kept aerated. Use the Nuffield activity. Students can carry out a similar investigation to demonstrate the need for oxygen. Observe images of the mitochondria in root hair cells and cells lining the small intestine. Relate to active transport. Observe a computer simulation of active transport. Investigate the effect of oxygen availability on the growth of plants. (Could be amended to investigate need for nitrate and magnesium ions, links with 4.3.3.1). Observe results in later lessons. Use of a model. BBC Bitesize: Movement across cell membranes Tracking active uptake of minerals by plant roots             Oxygen: gas jars with lids, glass tubes, fresh and boiled water to make mineral ion solution(s), black paper.

Biology – Inheritance, variation and evolution

This resource provides guidance for teaching the Inheritance, variation and evolution topic from our new GCSE in Biology. It has been updated from the draft version to reflect the changes made in the accredited specification. There have been no changes to the required practicals. However there have been minor changes to the specification to sections 4.6.1.4 DNA and the genome, 4.6.1.5 DNA structure, 4.6.1.6 Genetic inheritance, 4.6.2.1 Variation, 4.6.2.2 Evolution, 4.6.3.2 Speciation, 4.6.3.3 The understanding of genetics, 4.6.3.4 Evidence for evolution, 4.6.3.6 Extinction, 4.6.3.6 Resistant bacteria and 4.6.4 Classification of living organisms. These alterations have not required changes to be made to the scheme of work.

The scheme of work is designed to be a flexible medium term plan for teaching content and development of the skills that will be assessed.

It is provided in Word format to help you create your own teaching plan – you can edit and customise it according to your needs. This scheme of work is not exhaustive; it only suggests activities and resources you could find useful in your teaching.

4.6 Inheritance, variation and evolution

4.6.1 Reproduction

Several useful resources can be found at BBC Bitesize Science page

Sexual reproduction links with 4.6.2.3, Selective breeding.

Asexual reproduction links with 4.1.2.2, Mitosis and the cell cycle, and 4.6.2.5, Cloning.

There are also links with 4.1.1.4, Cell differentiation, and 4.7.5, Food production.

Chromosomes and Mitosis (4.1.2.1 and 4.1.2.2) should be reviewed when teaching Meiosis.

Protein synthesis links with enzyme action in 4.2.2.1.

It would be sensible to teach Sex determination, 4.6.1.8, after sexual and asexual reproduction and before DNA and genes, in 4.6.1.4. This would begin the story at the level of chromosomes, which have been introduced in meiosis, and also leads on from single chromosomes coming together as pairs at fertilisation.

4.6.1.7, Inherited disorders links with 4.6.2.4, Genetic engineering to treat genetic disorders.

4.6.2.4, Genetic engineering, and 4.6.2.5, Cloning, could be taught after inheritance, rather than with 4.6.2 Variation and evolution.

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop scientific communication skills Opportunities to apply practical and  enquiry skills Self/peer assessment Opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.6.1.1                             4.6.1.1 Sexual and asexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction involves the joining (fusion) of male and female gametes, sperm and eggs in animals and pollen and ovule cells in flowering plants. This mixing of genetic information leads to variation in the offspring. Gametes are produced by meiosis. Asexual reproduction involves only one parent and no fusion of gametes.  There is no mixing of genetic information. This leads to genetically identical offspring (clones). Only mitosis is involved. Explain why sexual reproduction produces variation in the offspring, but asexual reproduction does not. Describe sexual reproduction in animals and plants.
Define the term clone.   Describe cuttings as clones of plants. (See 4.6.2.5 Cloning)
1 Recap of reproduction through group work to discuss and share answers to questions: do we really need males? is sex necessary? can scientists solve the world food shortage? do hermaphrodites lead a solitary existence? Watch BBC video clips of fertilisation in humans and pollination of flowers (see resources). Observe exhibition showing asexual reproduction in different organisms. Give examples of sexual and asexual reproduction in different organisms. View the BBC guide to sexual and asexual reproduction (see resources). Appreciate how scientific developments can be used to control reproduction.   BBC Bitesize – Human fertilisation BBC Two – Science Clips – Pollination and Transportation       Exhibition: strawberry runnerscarrot top growing on damp blotting paperpotato sproutingspider plant producing runnersbulbamoebayeast. BBC Bitesize –Asexual and sexual reproduction BBC Bitesize – Reproduction and cloning activity
4.6.1.2 Meiosis. Cells in reproductive organs divide by meiosis to form gametes. When a cell divides to form gametes: copies of the genetic information are made and the cell divides twice to form four gametes, each with a single set of chromosomes. All gametes are genetically different from each other. Gametes join at fertilisation to restore the normal number of chromosomes. The new cell divides by mitosis, and as the embryo develops cells differentiate.     Explain the term gametes and describe their genetic material. Explain why sexual reproduction results in variety. Draw diagrams to explain how gametes are formed in meiosis. Explain the number of chromosomes in the gametes during meiosis and fertilisation. Describe how an embryo is formed. Compare mitosis and meiosis (links with 4.1.2.1 and 4.1.2.2). 1 Consider fusion of sex cells at fertilisation and explain why gametes have only one set of chromosomes – use models or diagrams. Make models to show what happens during fertilisation (‘Play-Doh’ is ideal) – this could be extended to a stop frame animation if ICT is available. Watch BBC video clip and access information on mitosis and meiosis (see resources). Produce a poster to compare mitosis and meiosis. Use bio-viewers, video clips or images to show chromosomes and meiosis.       Mitosis and meiosis: BBC Bitesize – The building blocks of cells Knowledge and understanding of the stages in meiosis are not required.
4.6.1.3                             4.6.1.3 Advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction. Advantages of sexual: produces variationsurvival advantage if the environment changesused in selective breeding to produce organisms with desired characteristics. Advantages of asexual reproduction: only one parent neededtime and energy efficient as do not need to find a matefaster than sexual reproductionmany identical offspring produced when conditions are favourable. Some organisms can reproduce by either method, depending on conditions. Describe advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction. Describe some organisms that can reproduce by both methods: malarial parasites reproduce asexually in the human host, and sexually in the mosquitomany fungi reproduce asexually by spores, but asexually to produce variationmany plants reproduce sexually to produce seeds and asexually by runners, eg strawberry plants, or bulb division, eg daffodils.   0.5 –1 Brainstorm advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction and report outcomes in a table or mind map. Research organisms that can reproduce both sexually and asexually and produce an illustrated report. Identify links to other areas of the specification, eg selective breeding, variation, evolution, bacteria, cloning.    
4.6.1.8 Sex determination. Human body cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes. 22 pairs control characteristics only. The 23rd pair carries the genes that determine sex. In females the sex chromosomes are the same (XX); in males the chromosomes are different (XY). Explain using a Punnett square and genetic diagram how sex is determined in humans. Explain the probability of having a child that is a boy or a girl. 0.5 Look at male and female karyotypes and identify the number of pairs of chromosomes and each pair of sex chromosomes. Use ‘Making Reebops’ game to demonstrate variation (see resources). Watch BBC video clip about Sex chromosomes (see resources). Use a Punnett square and a genetic cross diagram to illustrate the inheritance of sex; evaluate the chance of producing a male or female. ‘Making Reebops’ practical. Video clip: BBC Bitesize – Sex chromosomes Nuffield Foundation | Making Reebops: a model for meiosis
4.6.1.4   DNA. DNA is a polymer made up of two strands forming a double helix. DNA is found in chromosomes. A gene is a small section of DNA. Each gene codes for a sequence of amino acids to form a particular protein. The genome is all the genetic material of an organism. The human genome has been studied and will be important for medicine in the future. Describe the structure of chromosomes, DNA and genes.

Explain that a gene is a small section of DNA that codes for a particular sequence of amino acids to make a specific protein. Describe what the genome is. Explain how knowledge of the human genome will help medicine in the future, eg identifying genes linked to cancers, understanding and treating inherited disorders. It will also help trace human migration patterns. Explain the ethical issues related to DNA sequencing.    
1 Recap key ideas by asking students to reorder by size: cell, nucleus, DNA, chromosome, gene, nucleotide. Debate: research and discuss ‘DNA profiling’ for health. Research roles of Franklin, Watson and Crick in the discovery of the structure of DNA. Demo or practical to extract DNA.     Appreciate the power and limitations of science and consider any ethical issues.   Extract DNA from fruits such as onions or kiwi fruit. Observe the long strands which are the polymer. Wellcome trust – Interactive Human Genome BBC Bitesize – What is DNA? Ethical issues: ABPI – Genetics and the pharmaceutical industry Nuffield Foundation | Extracting DNA from living things
4.6.1.5 DNA structure. DNA is made up of four different nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a sugar, a phosphate group and one of four different bases attached to the sugar. The bases are A, C, G and T. The bases on the two strands always join together in the same pairs: C with G and T with A. Describe the structure of DNA using diagrams and models.                 Explain how the bases on the two strands link together. 0.5 Describe DNA using a model, eg using sweets or shaped and coloured cards (see resources). Draw a diagram to represent DNA structure. Draw diagram to show base pairing. ABPI resource includes animation to sequence bases, the pharmaceutical industry and ethical issues of DNA profiling. Model DNA structure.         Model base pairing.             Model: sweets or shaped and coloured cards. ABPI – Human genome project Model:different shaped and coloured cards to represent A, T, C and G to fit together.
4.6.1.5   4.6.1.5                                         4.6.1.5             4.6.1.5 HT: protein synthesis. The bases on the two strands always join together in the same pairs: C with G and T with A. Proteins are synthesised on ribosomes, according to a template. Carrier molecules bring specific amino acids to add to the growing protein chain in the correct order. When the protein chain is complete it folds up to form a unique shape. This unique shape enables the proteins to do their job as enzymes, hormones or forming structures in the body such as collagen. Mutations occur continuously. Most do not alter the protein, or only alter it slightly so that its appearance or function is not changed. A few mutations code for an altered protein with a different shape. For example an enzyme may no longer fit the substrate binding site or a structural protein may lose its strength. Not all parts of DNA code for proteins. Non-coding parts of DNA can switch genes on and off, so variations in these areas of DNA may affect how genes are expressed. HT: explain how the bases on the two strands link together.     Describe in simple terms how a protein is synthesised.             Explain the importance of the shape of a protein for enzyme action (links with 4.2.2.1) and function.               Describe what a mutation is and how a mutation could affect the formation of a protein. Explain that most mutations have little effect but a few have more serious effects on the function of the protein.                       Describe the function of non-coding parts of DNA and the possible effect of a mutation in a non-coding section of DNA. 0.5 Draw diagram to show base pairing. ABPI resource includes animation to sequence bases. Codebreaking bingo game – see website resource (could be adapted to simplify). Watch an animation or video clip showing protein synthesis (see resources).                           Recap what a mutation is. Compare base sequences to identify mutations and discuss the possible effects of mutations. Model base pairing.       Model sequences of amino acids using a base code.                                 Use a model to identify mutations in the base sequence. Model: different shaped and coloured cards to represent A, T, C and G to fit together. ABPI – Human genome project Codon Bingo PDF instructions BBC Bitesize – Genetic Control
4.6.1.6 4.6.1.7         4.6.1.6 4.6.1.7                                         4.6.1.6 4.6.1.7 Genetic inheritance and inherited disorders. Some characteristics are controlled by a single gene. Each gene may have different forms called alleles. The genes present, or genotype, operate at a molecular level to develop characteristics that are expressed as a phenotype. A dominant allele is expressed if only present on one chromosome. A recessive allele is only expressed if present on both chromosomes. If the two alleles present are the same the person is homozygous for that trait, but if the alleles are different they are heterozygous. Most characteristics are a result of multiple genes interacting. Some disorders are inherited, eg polydactyly and cystic fibrosis. A Punnett square can be constructed to predict the outcome of a monohybrid cross. Give examples of characteristics controlled by a single gene and describe their alleles.         Give examples of characteristics controlled by multiple genes. Define and use the terms: gametes,genotype, phenotype, dominant recessive, homozygous and heterozygous. Complete a Punnett square to show the outcomes of genetic crosses. Interpret the results of a genetic cross diagram and use direct proportion and simple ratios to express the outcomes. Describe the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring.               Describe the inherited disorders polydactyly and cystic fibrosis. Use genetic cross diagrams to explain inheritance and carriers. Make informed judgements about the economic, social and ethical issues concerning embryo screening. Discuss the use of genetic modification to treat genetic disorders (links with 4.6.1.4). HT: construct Punnet squares and genetic crosses. 2 Discuss variation in families and why offspring have some characteristics of their mother and some of their father and often strongly resemble their grandparents.       Complete Punnett squares. BBC activity Inheritance showing genetic crosses (see resources).   Show images of polydactyly.  Interpret family trees to determine chance of inheriting disorders. Watch a video to explain what cystic fibrosis is, how it is inherited and to illustrate the severity of the disorder (see resources). Evaluate genetic modification to treat cystic fibrosis. Produce notes and complete genetic diagrams to explain how polydactyly and cystic fibrosis are inherited. Interpret genetic diagrams relating to these disorders. Role play – choices for parents of a cystic fibrosis sufferer who would like another child.  To involve experts explaining cystic fibrosis and the screening procedure; the child with the disorder; parents to discuss what they would do if the foetus had the disorder. Or Watch a video of the process and describe issues to be considered re embryo screening.               Complete Punnett squares and genetic crosses. Interpret the results and describe the offspring. BBC Bitesize – Inheritance activity                                 Video clip:  BBC Bitesize – Gene therapy and cystic fibrosis                   Video clip: Embryo chromosome screening
4.6.3.3                           4.6.3.3 The understanding of genetics In the mid-19th century Gregor Mendel carried out breeding experiments using plants. He proposed the idea of separately inherited factors that we now call genes. In the late 19th century behaviour of chromosomes during cell division was observed. In the early 20th century it was observed that chromosomes and Mendel’s factors behaved in similar ways, leading to the idea that the factors (genes) were located on chromosomes. In the mid-20th century the structure of DNA was determined and the mechanism of gene function worked out. Describe some of the experiments carried out by Mendel using pea plants. Explain why Mendel proposed the idea of separately inherited factors and why the importance of this discovery was not recognised until after his death. Predict and explain the outcome of crosses using genetic diagrams based on Mendel’s experiments and using unfamiliar information. Describe a timeline showing the main developments in the understanding of inheritance. 1 Watch a video clip of Mendel’s experiments (see resources).  

            Draw and label genetic diagrams to explain Mendel’s experiments. Interpret genetic diagrams of Mendel’s experiments. Research the main developments in the understanding of inheritance and draw a timeline.                
Use a model to explain genetic inheritance in pea plants and using unfamiliar information. Video clip: BBC Bitesize – Dominant and recessive inheritance of genes
4.6.2.4                                             4.6.2.4 Genetic engineering. Genetic engineering involves modifying the genome of an organism to introduce a desired characteristic. Genes can be cut from the chromosome of a human or other organism and transferred into the cells of other organisms. HT: enzymes are used to cut the gene from a chromosome; gene is inserted into a vector, eg bacterial plasmid or virus; vector is used to insert gene into cell; cell then makes a new protein to produce the desired characteristic. Examples of genetic engineering. Concerns about GM crops, eg effect on populations of wild flowers and insects, and uncertainty about safety of eating them. Define the term genetic engineering. Describe the process of genetic engineering and its advantages. HT: describe in detail the process of genetic engineering. Evaluate the use of genetic engineering in medicine, eg in gene therapy and production of hormones and some vaccines. Interpret information about genetic engineering techniques. Make informed judgements about the economic, social and ethical issues concerning genetic engineering and GM crops. Explain advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering. 1–2 Brainstorm what the terms genetic engineering, genetic modification and gene therapy mean. List examples of genetic engineering. Produce a leaflet for a doctor’s surgery to explain how human insulin is produced by bacteria and discuss the advantages of this over porcine insulin Interpret information about genetic engineering techniques. Research advantages and disadvantages of GM crops. What characteristics may be modified? Produce a web page or a table of benefits versus concerns for homework. Produce short, headline paragraphs to represent the views of organic farmers, Food-Aid organisers, GM Research scientists and students. Research the use of genetic engineering in medicine. Use a model to describe genetic engineering techniques.   Evaluate the use of genetic engineering in agriculture and medicine.       UPD8 – GM decisions Information on genetically modified food can be found at curriculumbits.com PPT B1.7  Genetic variation and its control
4.6.2.5 Cloning. Cloning techniques include: taking cuttings tissue culture  embryo transplants adult cell cloning. Define the term clone. Describe plant cloning techniques to include: taking plant cuttingstissue culture. Explain the importance of cloning to plant growers. Interpret information about plant cloning techniques. Explain advantages and disadvantages of plant cloning techniques. 1 Discuss plant cloning techniques and why they are used. Take cuttings of different plants. Produce cauliflower clones – follow guidance from Science and Plants for Schools (SAPS). Observe growth in later lesson. Evaluate the use of cuttings and tissue culture to clone plants. Take cuttings and compare with the parent plants.     Produce cauliflower clones using aseptic technique. Evaluate the method and results. Cuttings: scalpels or scissorsplants, eg geraniums and spider plantspotscompost or rooting compound. SAPS | Cauliflower cloning – Tissue Culture and Micropropagation
4.6.2.5 Cloning Cloning techniques include: taking cuttings tissue culture  embryo transplants adult cell cloning. Explain why identical twins are clones. Describe animal cloning techniques to include: embryo transplants adult cell cloning. Present arguments for and against human cloning. Make informed judgements about the economic, social and ethical issues concerning cloning. 1 Discuss how identical twins are formed and lead on to embryo transplants.  Students produce models to explain the method of embryo transplants. Students evaluate strengths and weaknesses of their own and other models. Watch a video clip of adult cell cloning/Dolly the sheep (see resources). Produce a flow diagram to describe the process of adult cell cloning or carry out card sorting activity. Debate whether human cloning should be allowed. Produce and evaluate a model to describe embryo transplants.       Use a model to describe adult cell cloning. Twins and Dolly the sheep: BBC Bitesize – Identical twins and cloning Adult cell cloning video clip: BBC Bitesize – The history of cloning Ethics of cloning video clip: BBC Bitesize – The science and ethics of cloning

 

4.6.2 Variation and evolution

4.6.3 The development of understanding of genetics and evolution

The content of these two sections is closely related.

These sections link with 4.6.1.1, Sexual and asexual reproduction.

4.6.2.4, Genetic engineering, and 4.6.2.5, Cloning, could be taught after 4.6.1.6, Genetic inheritance, as described above, rather than with Variation and evolution.

All sections of the specification related to evolution have been linked together here, to include 4.6.2.2, Evolution, 4.6.3.1, Theory of evolution, 4.6.3.2, Speciation, and Evidence for evolution – Fossils, and Resistant bacteria, 4.6.3.4, 4.6.3.5 and 4.6.3.7. Extinction, 4.6.3.6, completes the story.

Resistant bacteria, 4.6.3.7, links with 4.3.1.8, Antibiotics and painkillers.

There are lots of good BBC activities and video clips about evolution, evidence for the theory and extinction.

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop scientific communication skills Opportunities to apply practical and  enquiry skills Self/peer assessment Opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.6.2.1   Variation. Differences in the characteristics of individuals may be due to: genes they have inheritedenvironmental causesa combination of genetic and environmental causes.   Classify characteristics as being due to genetic, environmental or a combination of these causes. Give examples of continuous and discontinuous variation. Decide the best way to present information about variation in tables and charts.         1–2 Discuss why organisms of the same species show variation. Use the terms: genetic and environmental variation, continuous and discontinuous variation. Class survey of characteristics – collate results in a table and produce a display of the results in appropriate format. Discuss how continuous data should be displayed. Include in the table whether each characteristic is due to genetic or environmental causes, or both. Measure variation in plants, eg leaf length in areas of sun/shade. Would you want to know if you had a genetic predisposition to illness that could be linked to environment? Eg, high cholesterol levels in family. Discuss the benefits of knowing how genes can be linked to diseases. Class survey and presentation of results.     Measure variation in a plant species growing in different areas of school grounds. BBC Bitesize – Variation PPT B1.7  Genetic variation and its control
4.6.2.3           4.6.2.3 Selective breeding. Selective breeding (artificial selection) is the process by which humans breed plants and animals for useful characteristics. The steps involved in selective breeding. Selective breeding of food plants has produced disease or weather resistant crops, more attractive or better flavoured fruits and crops that are easier to harvest. Selective breeding of animals has produced cows that produce more milk, animals that produce more, better flavoured or leaner meat. Selective breeding can lead to ‘inbreeding’ where some breeds are particularly prone to disease or inherited defects. Some breeds of dogs suffer from inbred defects. Explain why humans selectively breed plants and animals. Describe selective breeding as a type of sexual reproduction. Describe the process of selective breeding and give examples.       Explain the benefits and risks of selective breeding in plants and animals. 1 Images of different dogs. Students ‘breed’ and name a new dog from selecting any 2 – draw a picture of their new breed. Draw a flow diagram to explain the steps involved in selective breeding. Give examples of characteristics that are selectively bred in plants and animals. Discuss the advantages and risks of selective breeding in plants and animals. Debate: should people be allowed to breed dogs? Produce a model to describe selective breeding.       Consider the social, economic and ethical implications of selective breeding. Video clips: BBC Bitesize – Selective breeding in dogs BBC Bitesize – Natural and artificial selection in racehorses BBC Bitesize – Species and selective breeding   BBC Bitesize – The development of artificial selection in farming
4.6.2.2                         4.6.2.2 Evolution. Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection states that all species evolved from simple life forms that first developed more than three billion years ago. The main stages of natural selection.     Mutations are changes in the DNA code. They may lead to more rapid evolution, although mutations that result in a new phenotype are rare. Organisms of the same species can interbreed to produce fertile offspring. Describe Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. Describe the main stages of natural selection as: individual organisms within a particular species may show a wide range of phenotype variation because of differences in their genesindividuals with characteristics most suited to the environment are more likely to survive to breed successfullythe genes that have enabled these individuals to survive are then passed on to the next generation. Define the term mutation. Explain why mutation may lead to more rapid change in a species. Define the term species. Identify organisms that are of different species. Interpret evolutionary trees. 2 Look at exhibition to show the wide variety of organisms that live, or have lived, on Earth.  Discuss how they were all formed. BBC activity about Evolution. Watch BBC video clip illustrating survival of the fittest (see resources). Watch video clip about ancestor of horses from BBC Walking with Beasts. Draw a flow diagram to explain natural selection. Natural selection role play activities. Peppered moth game; explain in terms of natural selection. Look at pictures of Darwin’s finches and match up with the Galapagos Island they lived on based on food available there. Discuss how you could show that a donkey and a horse are different species. Interpret evolutionary trees. Use a model to explain natural selection.                                   Describe how to gather evidence for an evolutionary tree to describe relationships between organisms. Include the time scales involved in evolution. BBC Bitesize –Evolution activity Video clip BBC Bitesize – Natural selection and survival of the fittest Horse ancestor: BBC Nature – Propalaeotherium videos, news and facts BBC Bitesize –Evolution, extinction and biodiversity Darwin and evidence for evolution; extinction: BBC Bitesize – Charles Darwin BBC Nature – Species
4.6.3.2 Speciation. The work of Alfred Russel Wallace on natural selection, the theory of speciation and warning colouration in animals. New species arise as a result of isolation, genetic variation, natural selection and speciation. Describe the work of Wallace. Explain how new species arise using the terms: isolation genetic variation natural selection speciation. 1 Research the work of Alfred Russel Wallace (see resources). Produce a flow diagram or cut-out to illustrate how new species arise Discuss organisms that are only found in or are endemic to eg Australia, Madagascar and ask why this is. Support with projected images or video clips. Use a model to explain speciation. Charles Darwin & Evolution – What About Wallace? The Socotra Archipelago – regarded as modern day Galapagos: National Stem Centre | The Socotra Archipelago
4.6.3.1   Theory of evolution. Charles Darwin published his theory of evolution by natural selection in 1859. It raised much controversy. The theory of evolution by natural selection was only gradually accepted. There were other scientists who tried to explain evolution, eg Alfred Russell Wallace and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.     State when Darwin published his theory and explain why it was only gradually accepted. Describe the work of Alfred Russel Wallace on natural selection. Describe the work of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. Identify differences between Darwin’s theory of evolution and conflicting theories. Suggest reasons for the different theories. Explain the terms inherited and acquired characteristics. 1 + home-work Explain why Darwin did not publish his theory straight away and why it was only gradually accepted. Look at cartoons of Darwin drawn after he published his work and discuss the strength of opposition to his ideas. Interpret evidence relating to evolutionary theory. Sort pictures of organisms into an evolutionary timeline. Research and produce report on evolutionary theories, eg Darwin, Wallace and Lamarck.  ‘Who said what’ cards representing key ideas/evidence from each theory as revision activity. Compare the different theories and suggest reasons for these differences – turn into a ‘Question Time’ style role play. Model an evolutionary timeline.  
4.6.3.4 4.6.3.5 4.6.3.7         4.6.3.4 4.6.3.5 4.6.3.7                                   4.6.3.4 4.6.3.5 4.6.3.7 Evidence for evolution – Fossils and Resistant bacteria. The theory of evolution by natural selection is now widely accepted. The evidence to support Darwin’s theory. Fossils. Fossils are the ‘remains’ of organisms from many years ago, which are found in rocks. Scientists cannot be certain about how life began on Earth because many early forms of life were soft-bodied, so few traces remain. What traces there were have been destroyed by geological activity. Fossils show how much, or how little, organisms have changed over time. Resistant bacteria. Bacteria can evolve rapidly because they reproduce at a fast rate. Mutations produce new strains. Resistant strains are not killed by antibiotics, so they survive and reproduce. Resistant strains spread because people are not immune and there is no effective treatment. MRSA is resistant to antibiotics. How to reduce the development of resistant strains. Problems associated with the development of new antibiotics.     Describe the evidence for the theory of evolution by natural selection.     Define the term ‘fossil’. Describe how fossils may be formed: from parts of organisms that have not decayed because one or more of the conditions needed for decay are absentwhen parts of the organism are replaced by other materials as they decayas preserved traces of organisms, eg footprints, burrows and rootlet traces. Explain why scientists cannot be certain how life began on Earth. Explain how fossils provide evidence for evolution.               Explain what we should do to slow down the rate of development of resistant strains of bacteria. Describe the impact of antibiotic resistance.     1 Discuss the evidence we have to support Darwin’s theory and present in a suitable format.     Observe fossils or pictures of fossils. Model how a fossil can be formed.    Discuss how fossils provide evidence for evolution.                 Consider theories of how life on Earth began.               Explain how bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics. Explain how antibiotic resistance has impacted on cleaning practices in Britain’s hospitals. Interpret data about antibiotic resistance. Role play: life without antibiotics. Research MRSA and C. difficile infections and treatment. Discuss how the rate of development of resistant bacteria could be slowed down. Discuss why there are few new antibiotics being developed, and suggest how drug companies might be encouraged to develop some.           Draw fossils. Model how a fossil can be formed.                                Fossils and pictures of fossils. Fossil formation: shellsleaves and other artefactssandplaster of Paris.                                   BBC News – Q&A: Antibiotic resistance
4.6.3.6 Extinction. Extinction may be caused by: changes to the environment over geological timenew predatorsnew diseasesnew, more successful competitorsa single catastrophic event, eg massive volcanic eruptions or collisions with asteroids. Define the term extinction. Explain how extinction may be caused. Explain that organisms become extinct because something changes and the species cannot adapt quickly enough to the new circumstances. 0.5 Give a list of extinct organisms and ask students to print images. Suggest reasons to explain why they died out. Produce a poster of pictures of extinct organisms. Discuss the evidence we have that they looked like this. Explain why some organisms are endangered. Give examples. Give reasons why it is important to prevent species from becoming extinct. Research causes of extinction and write a report/PowerPoint presentation to present to the class.   PPT 1.8 Evolution BBC Bitesize – Evolution, extinction and biodiversity BBC News – In pictures: 100 most threatened species

Biology – Infection and response

This resource provides guidance for teaching the Infection and response topic from our new GCSE Biology (8461). It has been updated from the draft version to reflect the changes made in the accredited specification. There have been minor changes to the specification content to sections 4.3.1.1 Communicable diseases, 4.3.1.6 Human defence system, 4.3.1.9 Discovery and development of drugs and 4.3.3.2 Plant defence responses. These alterations have not required changes to be made to the scheme of work.

The scheme of work is designed to be a flexible medium term plan for teaching content and development of the skills that will be assessed.

It is provided in Word format to help you create your own teaching plan, you can edit and customise it according to your needs. This scheme of work is not exhaustive; it only suggests activities and resources you could find useful in your teaching.

4.3 Infection and response

4.3.1 Communicable diseases

Students should understand the differences between non-communicable diseases, covered in sections 4.2.2.5 to 4.2.2.7 and communicable diseases.

The structure of bacterial cells is covered in 4.1.1.1 Eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

The Required practical in section 4.1.1.6, to investigate the effect of disinfectants or antibiotics on bacterial growth, would logically fit into this section after students have learnt about antibiotics.

Antibiotics 4.3.1.8, links with antibiotic resistance covered in 4.6.3.7, but which could be taught here, after antibiotics and before drug development.

Students are only required to know specific details of the microorganisms listed in the specification. These could be taught together, or the plant diseases could be taught when teaching 4.3.3 Plant disease.


Spec ref.
Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.3.1.1 Communicable diseases Communicable diseases are infectious diseases caused by pathogens. Pathogens may be viruses, bacteria, protists or fungi. They may infect plants or animals. Pathogens can be spread by direct contact, by water or by air. The spread of diseases can be reduced or prevented by: simple hygiene measuresdestroying vectorsisolation of infected individualsvaccination (see 4.3.1.7). Define the term pathogen and state the four main groups of pathogen. Explain how pathogens can be spread to plants or animals and cause infection. Describe the main differences between bacteria and viruses. Explain how the spread of disease can be reduced or prevented. 1 Show BBC video clip on microorganisms (see resources). Mini-whiteboard recap – draw and label a bacteria cell. Provide images of bacteria, viruses, protists and fungi on the internet. Construct a table comparing fungi, virus, bacteria and protists to include size, site of reproduction and effects in the body. Show BBC video clip on effect of proper hand washing (see resources). Use card sort matching diseases to transmission and prevention. Prepare advice leaflet for a doctors’ surgery explaining how people can reduce their chances of catching diseases. Use UV powder on door handles at start of lesson and black light to show transfer of pathogen. BBC Bitesize video clips – Microorganisms Images of pathogens BBC Bitesize video clips – The importance of handwashing in food hygiene Exampro user guide Powerpoint
4.1.1.6 Culturing microorganisms Bacteria can be grown as colonies on agar plates or in a nutrient broth solution. Precautions taken when preparing an uncontaminated agar plate for use in investigations.   In schools a maximum incubation temperature of 25ºC is used to reduce the risk of growing pathogens that might be harmful to humans. Describe how microorganisms can be safely grown on agar plates. Explain the safety precautions you must take when growing microorganisms. Explain why cultures are incubated at a maximum temperature of 25ºC in schools. 1 Use agar plates to establish a safe method using aseptic techniques which will be used for the required practical in a later lesson. Students could investigate: different areas of schoolunwashed and washed handshow good toilet paper isthe effect of temperature on bacterial growth.   Explain the purpose of each step involved in the preparation of an uncontaminated culture of microorganisms. Students could sequence the steps and match to the correct reason using cards. Discuss what could happen if plates were incubated above 25ºC. Evaluate risks when growing microbial cultures. Observe the number and type of microbes that grow on agar plates from a choice of investigations. Observe results in a later lesson. Agar plates materials: sterile Petri-dishessterile molten agar in bottlesbiohazard tape hand-wash/ soap. Other materials: cotton buds to swab areas of schooltoilet paperincubator(s) and areas of different temperaturesthermometers. Nuffield Foundation Incubating and viewing plates Nuffield Foundation How good is your toilet paper For toilet paper?
4.1.1.6 Culturing microorganisms Bacteria can be grown as colonies on agar plates or in a nutrient broth solution. Bacteria multiply by simple cell division (binary fission) as often as once every 20 minutes if they have enough nutrients and a suitable temperature. Recognise bacterial and fungal colonies growing on agar plates. Describe safety precautions for microbial investigations. Describe the optimum conditions for bacterial growth. Calculate the number of bacteria in a population after a given time, when given the mean division time. 1 Watch BBC video clip showing bacterial cells dividing (see resources). Provide photograph plates to label and stick in books (see resources). Write a report on the investigation. Discuss the best way to present the results. Calculate bacterial population growth. Discuss what bacteria need for optimal growth. Interpret graphs showing bacterial population growth. Observe the results from the previous lesson, identifying bacterial and fungal growth. Make conclusions and suggest reasons. Analyse results from the agar plates, suggesting reasons for the results.   Calculate cross-sectional areas of colonies using. Model bacterial population growth. Interpret graphs. BBC Bitesize – Microorganisms and bacteria Science Buddies – Images of common bacteria/ fungal colonies   Agar plates materials: plates from previous lessonhand-washdisposal bag.
4.3.1.2 to 4.3.1.4 Viral, bacterial and fungal diseases in humans Viral diseases include measles and AIDS, which is caused by HIV. Viral disease cannot be treated with antibiotics. Bacterial diseases include salmonella food poisoning and the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhoea. Humans can also be infected with fungal diseases. Describe the symptoms, mode of transmission, prevention and treatment for measles, HIV and AIDS, salmonella and gonorrhoea. Describe colds and flu as viral diseases. Describe athlete’s foot as a fungal disease. 1 Small group project using ICT, researching to find out about the symptoms, mode of transmission, prevention and treatment for measles, HIV and AIDS, salmonella and gonorrhoea. Present findings in a table and illustrate with images of these microorganisms. Students prepare class presentations and fill out summary table for all. Carry out research and explain application of science and personal and social implications related to diseases. ABPI – Resources for Schools Infectious diseases Microbiology Online | Society for General Microbiology – Downloadable resources
4.3.1.5 Protist diseases – malaria Malaria is caused by a protist transmitted by mosquitos. Spread of malaria is controlled by preventing the vectors (mosquitos) from breeding and by using mosquito nets to avoid being bitten. Describe the life cycle of the malarial protist. Describe the symptoms, mode of transmission, prevention and treatment for malaria. 0.5 Watch BBC video clip showing the effect of the malarial protest on red blood cells (see resources). Card sort key ideas into correct order, or use for ‘back-to-back’ or collective memory activity. Research the symptoms, mode of transmission, prevention and treatment for malaria. See links and BBC reports. Produce an illustrated report on the findings. Role play – Aid workers visit a remote village to help educate residents on preventing malaria infection. Carry out research and explain application of science and personal, social, economic and environmental implications related to malaria. BBC Bitesize – Infested with malaria ABPI – Resources for Schools – Malaria TED Talk – Bill Gates: Mosquitos, malaria and education Parasitic Protists
4.3.1.6 4.3.1.1 Human defence systems The body defends itself against the entry of pathogens. Bacteria may produce toxins that make us feel ill and damage tissues. Viruses live and reproduce inside cells, causing damage. The immune system tries to destroy pathogens that enter the body. White blood cells help to defend against pathogens by: phagocytosisantibody productionantitoxin production. Describe the body’s first line defences. Explain how microbes make us feel ill and how viruses damage cells. Explain how the immune system defends against disease. Describe what white blood cells do. Explain why antibodies are specific for one pathogen/ antigen. 1–2 Post it notes on a body outline to recap KS3. Label a diagram to show how the body defends itself against the entry of pathogens. Watch BBC video clip showing phagocytosis (see resources). Research how white blood cells defend the body. ABPI animations of white blood cell activity. Observe white blood cells under the microscope or bio-viewer. Draw diagrams or a cartoon strip to show the actions of white blood cells using key words: ingest, phagocytosis, antibodies and antitoxins. Draw diagrams or use cut-outs to model antibody specificity. Observe prepared blood smears using a microscope or bio-viewer. Draw the cells. Use models to represent phagocytosis and antibody specificity. Blood smears materials: prepared slidesmicroscopesbio-viewers. BBC Bitesize video clips – White blood cells BBC Bitesize – Defending against infection activity ABPI – Resources for Schools – White blood cells/ response to infection
4.3.1.7 Vaccination A vaccine contains a small amount of dead or inactive pathogens. These stimulate white blood cells to produce antibodies. Immunity allows a person to produce specific antibodies quickly to prevent infection. If a large proportion of the population is immune to a pathogen, the spread of the pathogen is very much reduced. Describe what a vaccine contains. Explain how vaccines prevent disease. Explain the idea of ‘herd immunity’. 1 Watch BBC video about Edward Jenner. Evaluate the method he used in developing the first vaccine and compare with modern methods. Discuss what a vaccine contains and how it works. Use ABPI animation to show how a vaccine works. Role-play the level of immunity within a population and its effect on the spread of a pathogen. Interpret graph showing primary and secondary response to a pathogen (ABPI site). Consider the actions of Dr Wakefield and the MMR vaccine. Role-play whether to give your child vaccinations. Interpret data about vaccination rates and reported cases of diseases, eg whooping cough, MMR. Spain has had its first case of diphtheria in nearly 30 years – additional example. Consider the ethical issues and risks associated with Jenner’s method. Discuss how methods and theories develop over time. Use a model to explain herd immunity. Interpret graph showing primary and secondary response to a pathogen; explain the responses. Evaluate risk in relation to practical design and data review to avoid bias. Evaluate risks related to vaccinations. BBC Bitesize video clip – The life and work of Edward Jenner ABPI – Resources for Schools – Vaccination BBC search on MMR debate WHO/Europe – Diphtheria detected in Spain
4.3.1.8 Antibiotics Antibiotics, eg penicillin, are used to kill infective bacteria inside the body. Specific bacteria should be treated with specific antibiotics. The emergence of strains resistant to antibiotics is of great concern. Antibiotics cannot kill viral pathogens. Explain how antibiotics treat only bacterial diseases and how this has saved lives. Describe the problems associated with antibiotic resistance. See 4.6.3.7 Explain the difficulty in developing drugs that kill viruses without damaging body tissues. 2 Describe the importance of antibiotics and the impact of antibiotic resistance. Explain how this has impacted on cleaning practices in Britain’s hospitals. Research MRSA and C. difficile infections and treatment. Suggest what patients, doctors and scientists should do to ensure we will have effective antibiotics in the future. Discussion starter – imagine the world we would live in if antibiotics stopped working. Understand how scientific methods and applications develop over time. Evaluate personal, social and economic implications of antibiotics. BBC search on Antibiotic resistance
4.1.1.6 Required practical: Investigate the effect of disinfectants or antibiotics on bacterial growth. Plan and carry out a safe investigation into the effect of disinfectants or antibiotics on bacterial growth. 1 Required practical. Write up the plan. Required practical plan and carry out a safe investigation. Required practical (see Practical Handbook).
4.1.1.6 Required practical: Investigate the effect of disinfectants or antibiotics on bacterial growth. Calculate the cross-sectional areas of clear zones around disinfectant/ antibiotic discs using . Present and analyse the results. 1 Required practical. Observe, report and interpret results from the previous lesson. Required practical. Collect, present and analyse the results. Calculate the cross-sectional areas of clear zones around disinfectant/ antibiotic discs. Required practical materials: agar plates from previous lessonhand-washdisposal bag.
4.3.1.8 4.3.1.9 Painkillers Painkillers and other medicines are used to treat the symptoms of disease but do not kill pathogens. Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin from the Penicillium mould. Give examples of painkillers and other medicines used to treat symptoms. Interpret data about painkillers and other medicines. Describe Fleming’s discovery and explain its importance. 1 Samples of medicine packaging to stimulate discussion. Role play: Pharmacist/patient giving recommendation based on symptoms (cards prepared or students’ own ideas). Brainstorm symptoms of diseases and medicines used to relieve symptoms and treat disease; names of some antibiotics. Watch BBC video clip about Fleming. Research work of Fleming and/ or Florey and Chain and discuss the impact of their work on society. Interpret data about antibiotics, painkillers and other medicines. Draw a timeline to show how treatment of disease has changed over the years. Understand how scientific methods and applications develop over time. Evaluate personal, social and economic implications of drugs. Interpret data about antibiotics, painkillers and other medicines. Use secondary evidence from text books, the internet and other sources to draw a timeline. Samples of medicine packaging. Cards of common symptoms. BBC Bitesize – Modern medicine Classroom Resources BBC Bitesize – Fleming and the discovery of penicillin BBC search on Medicine through time BBC Four series – Pain, Pus and Poison: The Search for Modern Medicines
4.3.1.9 Discovery and development of drugs Traditionally drugs were extracted from plants and microorganisms. Most new drugs are synthesised by chemists; the starting point may still be a chemical extracted from a plant. New drugs are tested for toxicity, efficacy and dose. Preclinical testing in the lab, then clinical trials involving healthy volunteers and then patients. In a double blind trial, some patients are given a placebo; neither the doctors nor the patients know who has received a placebo and who has received the drug. State which drugs come from plants and microorganisms. Explain why drugs need to be tested before they can be prescribed. Describe the main steps in the development and testing of a new drug. Give reasons for the different stages in drug testing. Explain the terms placebo and double-blind trial. 1 Discuss drug safety and how drugs are tested today. Find information from ABPI and BBC websites. Use cards/cut-outs to sequence the stages in drug testing and trialling and explain the purpose of each stage. Create flow diagram of stages in process. Answer past questions about drug testing. Evaluate methods used in the development of a new drug. Use a model to explain the stages in the development of a drug. ABPI – Resources for Schools – Developing medicines BBC Bitesize – Drugs and the human body AQA resources: PowerPoint B1.3 Use and abuse of drugs


4.3.2 Monoclonal antibodies


Spec ref.
Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.3.2.1 4.3.2.2 Higher Tier only Production and uses of MABs MABs are produced from a single clone of cells. They are specific to one antigen, so target a specific chemical or cell in the body. A lymphocyte that makes a specific antibody is combined with a tumour cell to form a hybridoma cell. This is cloned to produce many identical cells which all produce the specific antibody. There are many uses for MABs. MABs can have serious side effects. Describe what MABs are, and how they are produced. Describe the uses of MABs and explain how these work when given appropriate information: Explain why MABs are not yet widely used in the body. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of MABs. 1–2 Research MAB production and uses using ABPI and cancer research websites. Draw a flow diagram to describe how MABs are produced. Produce a poster to describe the uses of MABs Marketplace activity: provide stations with information sheets and diagrams. Students fill in a summary table  and use info to create a poster: for diagnosis, eg to bind to HCG in pregnancy teststo measure levels of hormones and chemicals in the bloodto locate specific molecules in a cell using a fluorescent dyeto treat some diseases, eg to deliver a chemical to cancer cells without harming healthy cells.   Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of MABs. Discussion – would you choose to be treated with MABs? Use a model to describe how MABs are produced. Encourage students to appreciate the power and limitations of science by explaining technological applications of science and evaluate risks in relation to MABs. ABPI – Resources for Schools – Monoclonal antibodies Cancer Research UK – About monoclonal antibodies

 

4.3.3 Plant disease

Plant diseases mentioned in 4.3.1.2 and 4.3.1.4 are covered here.

Detection and identification of plant diseases are Higher Tier only.

Active transport, 4.1.3.3, should be linked to absorption of mineral ions. The investigation has been included in 4.2.3.2, Plant organs.

There are links with 4.6.2.4 Genetic engineering to produce crops that are resistant to disease or insect attack.


Spec ref.
Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.3.3.1 4.3.1.2 4.3.1.4                     4.3.3.1 Plant disease Plants can be infected by a range of viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens as well as by nematode worms and insects. Tobacco mosaic virus affects many plants, eg tomatoes. Symptoms and effects of infection. Rose black spot is a fungal disease spread by water or wind. Symptoms and effects of infection. Aphids feed on the sap of plants and affect plant growth. Ion deficiencies can damage plants, eg stunted growth by nitrate deficiency and chlorosis by magnesium deficiency. Describe the symptoms and effects of Tobacco mosaic virus and its effects. Describe the symptoms and effects of Rose black spot fungal infection Explain how aphids affect plant growth. Carry out a controlled investigation into the effects of nitrate and magnesium ion deficiencies and link to active transport (4.1.3.3 and see alternative investigations in 4.2.3.2). 1 Research the plant disease listed in the specification and produce a poster or presentation to include illustrations, symptoms and effects. Make a video segment for ‘Gardeners’ World’ on plant diseases – how to recognise them and why they harm your plants (include section 4.3.3.1 Higher Tier work here too). Use ICT to include images etc. or make ‘model’ infected/healthy leaves to show. Investigate the effect of mineral ions on plant growth and write a report (see 4.2.3.2). Investigate the effect of mineral ions on plant growth (see 4.2.3.2). Search internet using names of diseases. Materials: tomato plantspotscompost. Grow cultures in solutions with and without minerals, eg magnesium and nitrates.
4.3.3.1 Higher Tier only Detection and identification of plant diseases Detected by: stunted growthspots on leavesareas of decay (rot)growthsmalformed stems or leavesdiscolourationpresence of pests. Identification: using a gardening manualtaking infected plants to a laboratorytesting kits that use monoclonal antibodies. Describe visual indications of plant disease, as described in the specification. Describe methods that gardeners and scientists can use to identify the disease causing pathogen. 0.5 Observe an exhibition of plants or photographs showing evidence of plant disease (as listed in the specification) and garden manuals, internet websites, testing kits (HT). Search for illustrations on the internet to include in a report (HT). Make observations and drawings. Exhibition materials: garden manualstesting kitsplants or photographs showing disease. BBC Gardening – Advice: Pests and Diseases Gardenseeker.com – Plant Pests, Diseases and Garden Problems
4.3.3.2 Plant defence responses Plants have physical and chemical defence responses to resist the invasion of microorganisms. There are also mechanical adaptations to deter animals from eating or touching them. Describe the physical and chemical ways plants can resist microorganisms. Describe mechanical adaptations to deter animals. 0.5 Recap leaf structure covered in 4.2.3.1 and relate to resisting invasion. Mind Map – ideas about other plant defence responses and poisons produced by different plants. Discuss mechanical adaptations to deter animals from eating or touching plants. Observe an exhibition to include large labelled illustrations of leaf structure, waxy leaved plants, tree bark, plants or pictures of plants that produce toxic/ antibacterial chemicals and plants with mechanical adaptations. Design a ‘super plant’ – combining a range of defences. Make observations and hypotheses about plant defences. BBC Bitesize – Plant defences Exhibition materials: leaf structure model or pictureprivettree barkmintwitch hazeltobaccofoxglovedeadly nightshadehollyrosegorsemimosa etc. DVD– Private life of plants (episode with defences).

Biology – Homeostasis and response

This resource provides guidance for teaching the Homeostasis and response topic from our new GCSE Biology (8461). It has been updated from the draft version to reflect the changes made in the accredited specification.  There have been no changes to the required practicals. However, there have been minor changes to the specification content to sections 4.5.1 Homeostasis, 4.5.2.1 Structure and function, 4.5.2.2 The brain, 4.5.2.3 The eye, 4.5.3.4 Hormones and human reproduction, 4.5.4.1 Control and coordination and 4.5.4.2 Use of plant hormones. These alterations have not required changes to be made to the scheme of work.

The scheme of work is designed to be a flexible medium term plan for teaching content and development of the skills that will be assessed.

It is provided in Word format to help you create your own teaching plan – you can edit and customise it according to your needs. This scheme of work is not exhaustive; it only suggests activities and resources you could find useful in your teaching.

 

4.5.1 Homeostasis

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most students should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills   Opportunities to apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment Opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.5.1 Introduction to homeostasis Homeostasis is the regulation of internal conditions to maintain optimal conditions for enzyme action and cell function. Automatic control systems involve nervous responses and chemical responses. Control systems have receptors, a coordination centre and effectors. Explain what homeostasis is and why it is important. Describe examples of conditions that need to be controlled. Describe the roles of the nervous system and the endocrine system in homeostasis. Describe the main components of a control system and their functions. 0.25 Discussion starters: ‘What would happen if…’ eg, ‘you didn’t drink enough water, ate too many sweets.’ Use examples of diseases that can be controlled, eg diabetes, dehydration, gout. Draw a flow diagram to show the main components of a control system and label with the function of each component. Colour code and annotate given diagrams of body with functions related to homeostasis. Use a model to explain control systems. Exampro user guide PowerPoint    


4.5.2 The human nervous system

Mapping areas of the brain and investigating and treating brain disorders is Higher Tier only.

Control of body temperature links with enzyme activity in 4.2.2.1 and maintaining water balance in 4.5.3.3.

There are many possible practical activities. Select those which are most appropriate.

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most students should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment Opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.5.2.1 Structure and function of the nervous system. Functions: to detect and react to stimuli; to coordinate behaviour. Structure: the CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord; receptors, different types of neurones, coordinator as brain or spinal cord, effectors, synapses. Required practical: investigate the effect of a factor on human reaction time. Explain the importance of being able to respond to environmental changes and coordinate behaviour. Explain how the nervous system is adapted for its functions. Describe the functions of the main structures in the nervous system. Explain the role of chemicals at synapses. Describe and use different methods to measure reaction time. Required practical Make a plan to investigate a factor on human reaction time. 1 Starter: any short clip that has a ‘surprise’. Explain how detection of stimuli protects the body from danger. Demo: response to different temperatures. Detecting different tastes on the tongue – draw results on diagram of tongue. Investigate sensitivity of different areas of the body. Measure reaction time using different methods, eg Sheep Dash Activity (see resources). Plan for Required practical. Plan and manage a variety of stimuli to illustrate body responses. Present and analyse results, eg: response to temperaturetaste receptors skin sensitivity .               Evaluate different methods for measuring reaction time. Required practical Plan a controlled investigation. Body responses: three bowls of water – hot, warm and ice-cold salt, sugar, coffee and lemon solutions to taste hairpins, ruler, blindfolds. BBC Bitesize: The nervous system Reaction time test BBC Sheep reaction time test Nervous system
4.5.2.1 Required practical: Plan and carry out an investigation into the effect of a factor on human reaction time.     Carry out a controlled investigation, present and analyse the results. 1 Required practical write up. Required practical Carry out a controlled investigation, present and analyse the results. See Practical Handbook
4.5.2.1 Reflex actions: the  brain. Reflex actions are automatic and rapid to protect the body from harm. Explain the importance of reflex actions and give examples. Describe the differences between voluntary and reflex actions.   Describe the stages of a reflex action. 1 Use knee-jerk and pupil reflexes as a stimulus for discussion.  Students discuss their importance and gather other examples leading into explanation of why they are faster than a voluntary action. Label a diagram of a reflex arc. Draw a flow diagram or use cards to show the sequence in a reflex action. Use BBC activity (see resources) as a summary of the nervous system.   Use a model to describe a reflex action. Cards to sequence. BBC Bitesize – The nervous system PPT: B1.2 The nervous system
4.5.2.2 The brain The brain has billions of interconnected neurones. Different areas of the brain control different functions. HT: Mapping areas of the brain has been done using different methods. Investigating and treating brain disorders is difficult. Identify the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and medulla on a diagram and describe the function of each.       HT: Describe the techniques used to map areas of the brain to their functions. Evaluate the benefits and risks of procedures carried out on the brain and nervous system. 0.5 Label a diagram of the brain and give the functions of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and medulla. Homework: listen to ‘The lobotomists’ (see resources) and evaluate medical research methods.   HT: Discuss how areas of the brain can be mapped to their functions. Research modern procedures used for brain and nervous system disorders. Use a model brain to identify different areas. Evaluate the historical use of lobotomies, considering ethical issues. Model of brain BBC Radio 4 ‘The Lobotomists’
4.5.2.3 The eye The eye contains receptors sensitive to light and colour. The structure of the eye.   Accommodation is the process of changing the shape of the lens to focus on near and far objects. People may be long or short sighted. These can be corrected using lenses or surgery. Label a diagram of the eye and describe the function of each structure.         Define the term ‘accommodation’. Describe how the eye changes to focus on near and distant objects. Complete simple ray diagrams to show normal vision, long-sightedness and short-sightedness. 1 Use a model eye to name the structures and describe their functions limited to: retina, optic nerve, sclera, iris and pupil, ciliary muscles and suspensory ligaments. Recap iris reflex to bright light. Label a diagram of the eye. Dissect a bull’s eye. Observe the effect of different lenses on light rays. Use a model eye to demonstrate long and short sight and their correction. Complete ray diagrams to explain accommodation in order to focus on near and distant objects. Use a model of the eye.             Dissect a bull’s eye and consider safety issues.   Use a model eye to show long and short sight and their correction. Complete ray diagrams. Model eye. BBC Bitesize: The eye Eye: bull’s eyesglovesscalpel and scissorsdissecting boardsdisposal bags. Model eye demonstration Nervous system: light sensitive cells
4.5.2.4                         4.5.2.4                   4.5.2.4 Control of body temperature Body temperature is monitored and controlled by the thermoregulatory centre in the brain. It has receptors sensitive to the temperature of the blood. Temperature receptors in the skin send impulses to the thermoregulatory centre. The changes that occur when body temperature is too high, in order to transfer more energy from the skin to the environment, and when body temperature is too low, in order to reduce energy transfer to the environment.   Sweat cools the body as it evaporates from the skin. Describe different methods to measure body temperature. Explain how body temperature is monitored and controlled. Describe and explain the changes that happen when body temperature is too high or too low. Explain why we drink more fluid during hot weather. Plot cooling curves. 2 Use different methods to measure body temperature. Discuss which method was the best. Explain why skin temperature varies in different conditions. Discuss how the body detects and controls core body temperature.  Investigate how exercise affects body temperature and/or sweating and report on the findings.   Look at a model of the structure of the skin. Describe changes that occur when body temperature is too high and too low and write notes in the form of a table or a flow chart. Watch a video clip or computer animation showing changes that occur when body temperature is too high or too low and make notes (see resources). Discuss the effects of sweating on urine formation and why we drink more fluids in hot weather (links with 4.5.3.3). Watch a video clip about sweating (see resources). Demonstrate the effect of cooling by ethanol on the skin.  Investigate the effect of evaporation on cooling using ethanol or wet paper towels. Interpret information about sweating and body temperature. Evaluate different methods to measure body temperature. Calculate a mean and describe the range of body temperatures for the class. Measure skin temperature in different conditions. Investigate the effect of exercise on body temperature and/or sweating.     Use a model of the skin and relate to control of body temperature. Use the kinetic theory to explain cooling by evaporation. Investigate the effect of sweating on the rate of cooling using a model – tubes of hot water wrapped in wet and dry paper towels.  Plot cooling curves and make conclusions. Analyse data and interpret information about sweating and temperature. Body temperature: Clinical and digital thermometers, forehead thermometers. Skin temperature sensors and data loggers. Exercise: thermometers cotton wooltape balances. Skin model BBC Bitesize: Maintaining body temperature Animation: Maintaining a core body temperature BBC Bitesize: Skin and sweating Sweating: boiling tubespaper towelselastic bandsthermometers or temperature sensorspipettestimers. Interpreting information about sweating and temperature PPT B3.3.2 and 3 Temperature and sugar control    


4.5.3 Hormonal coordination in humans

Treatment for diabetes links with 4.1.2.3 Stem cells and 4.7.5.4 Biotechnology using genetically engineered bacteria.

Water and nitrogen balance links with 4.1.3.2 Osmosis and 4.1.3.3 Active transport.

ADH activity links with section 4.5.3.7 Negative feedback.

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most students should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills   Opportunities to apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment Opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.5.3.1 Human endocrine system The system is composed of endocrine glands that secrete hormones into the blood to be carried to a target organ where it has an effect. The positions of the pituitary, thyroid, adrenal glands, ovaries and testes. The pituitary is the master gland. It secretes many hormones that affect other glands. Hormones are chemical messengers. The effects of the endocrine system are slower, but longer acting than the nervous system. Describe the endocrine system and define the term hormone. Relate hormone release and hormone action to the control system model introduced in 4.5.1.1. Label a diagram of the organs in the endocrine system. Explain why the pituitary gland is often called the master gland. Compare the actions of the nervous and endocrine systems. 0.5 Collective memory or Card sort using hormone name, function and location. Self-assess. Pin the tail on the donkey type activity – give each student a card and get them to stick it on a large body outline, self-assess the end result. Label a diagram of the endocrine system using information on the cards Write definitions for endocrine system and hormone. Discuss why the pituitary gland is called the master gland. Compare the actions of the endocrine system with the nervous system. Relate hormone release and hormone action to the control system model. Torso and large image of the human body.  
4.5.3.2                         4.5.3.2 Control of blood glucose concentration Blood glucose concentration is monitored and controlled by the pancreas. It produces insulin, which causes glucose from the blood to enter cells. Glucose is converted to glycogen in liver and muscle cells for storage. HT: Glucagon is also produced by the pancreas to convert stored glycogen back into glucose when blood glucose levels fall. In Type 1 diabetes the pancreas does not produce enough insulin. Glucose levels may rise too high. Type 1 diabetes is usually treated with insulin injections. In Type 2 diabetes the cells do not respond properly to insulin. Type 2 diabetes is usually treated by diet, exercise and drugs. Obesity is a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes. Describe how blood glucose concentration is monitored and controlled. Explain when insulin is produced and how it helps to control blood glucose levels. Describe glycogen as a stored carbohydrate.   HT: Explain when glucagon is produced by the pancreas and its effect on blood glucose levels. Explain how insulin and glucagon work together to control blood glucose levels.   Explain the cause, effects, treatment and problems associated with Type 1 diabetes. Interpret glucose tolerance test results. Evaluate modern methods of treating diabetes.         Explain the cause, treatment and problems associated with Type 2 diabetes. Compare the causes, and treatments of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. 1 Class practical – investigating sugar levels in urine. What disease can cause glucose in urine? Research and produce a report to explain the cause, effects, treatment and problems associated with Type 1 diabetes. diabetes.org.uk is a good resource. Interpret data on glucose tolerance tests in healthy people and diabetics. Research the work of Banting and Best. Watch video clip about Banting and Best. Research how treatment of diabetes has developed including use of human insulin produced by bacteria, current research into pancreas cell transplants and stem cell research (links with 4.1.2.3 and 4.7.5.4). Discuss the causes, treatment and problems associated with Type 2 diabetes. Compare Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes and present the information in a suitable format. Watch a video animation about Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Demo: how doctors used to diagnose diabetes by tasting fake urine, then test with Benedict’s solution and glucose test strips.  Evaluate the methods. Demo materials: weak tea samples with and without glucoseglucose test stripsBenedict’s solutionwater bath. BBC Bitesize: Homeostasis Insulin and blood sugar control Banting and Best: Diabetes – a cure ‘Explaining diabetes’ animation  
4.5.3.3                                   4.5.3.3 Water and nitrogen balance Water leaves the body via the lungs during exhalation. Water, ions and urea are lost from the skin in sweat. There is no control over water, ion or urea loss by the lungs or skin. Excess water, ions and urea are removed via the kidneys in the urine. If body cells lose or gain too much water by osmosis they do not function efficiently.   HT: urea is produced in the liver by the breakdown of excess amino acids. Describe where water, ions and urea are lost from the body. Explain why there is no control over water, ion and urea loss by the lungs and skin. Explain when cells might gain or lose too much water, in terms of osmosis (links with 4.1.3.2). Describe the effect of too much or too little water on cells. Explain how the body responds to different temperature and osmotic challenges in terms of sweat and urine release.         HT: Describe how amino acids are deaminated in the liver to form ammonia, which is converted to urea for excretion. 0.5 Label a diagram. Link each organ to the condition it helps to control in the body. Starter: micrograph images animal cell in normal, concentrated salt and pure water – what caused the changes? Urine colour chart – how could the colour change depending on the time of year etc? Use past exam questions on Exampro to balance water loss.                   HT: Draw a flow diagram to explain how urea is formed. Draw animal cells exposed to saline, dilute and concentrated salt solutions. Explain the observations. Demo materials: prepared slides and microscopesbio-viewers or micrographs of animal cells in saline, dilute and concentrated salt solutions. Nutrition and hydration  
4.5.3.3 Kidney function The kidneys produce urine by filtration of the blood and selective reabsorption of useful substances. All the sugar and dissolved ions needed by the body and as much water as the body needs are selectively reabsorbed. Urea, excess ions and water are excreted in urine.   Label a diagram of the excretory system. Describe how urine is produced. Describe the absorption of glucose and ions by diffusion and active transport.   1 Locate the positions of the liver, kidneys and bladder in the human.Explain the need to excrete urea. Label a diagram of the excretory system. Observe the structure of a kidney. Use cards to sequence how urine is made and produce a flow diagram. Name the useful substances reabsorbed by the body and relate to diffusion and active transport.   Q11WY3H07 Use a model torso. Use a model kidney. Dissection of pig’s kidney. Use cocktail sticks and stickers to make ‘flags’ for the key features and photograph the labelled kidney to stick in books. Torso Model kidney Dissection: pig’s kidneysscalpelscissorsdissection boardgloves. BBC Bitesize: Excretion in plants and animals
4.5.3.3 ADH HT: ADH is released by the pituitary gland when the blood is too concentrated. It causes more water to be reabsorbed back into the blood. ADH control of water in the blood is an example of negative feedback. HT: Identify the site of production and target organs for ADH. Describe the effects of ADH on kidney tubules. Explain, with the aid of a diagram, how ADH controls the concentration of the blood using a negative feedback mechanism (links with 4.5.3.7). 0.5 Use a diagram or torso to describe the site of production and target organs for ADH. Describe the effect of ADH on the kidney tubules and relate to volume of urine produced if you are thirsty. Use the ABPI activities (see resources) to explain the negative feedback mechanism involved in control of water concentration in the blood. Draw a diagram to explain ADH negative feedback mechanism. Model of human body to identify organs.   Predict whether ADH secretion and volume of urine is high or low for different situations, eg person running on hot day. Torso Kidneys and water balance  
4.5.3.3           4.5.3.3         4.5.3.3 Kidney failure Kidney failure can be treated by kidney transplant or by using kidney dialysis.   How a dialysis machine works. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of a kidney transplant.       Explain how a kidney machine works. Explain why dialysis fluid contains sugar and ions at the same concentration as normal blood, but no urea.   Evaluate the use of kidney transplants and dialysis to treat kidney failure. 2 Discuss why a kidney transplant is not available for everyone. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a transplant. Design a poster to explain and encourage people to carry organ donor cards. Use ABPI resources on dialysis and kidney transplants. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of dialysis treatment. Research how a dialysis machine works and produce a script for a new nurse in the dialysis clinic to explain the procedure. Explain the results for the model dialysis machine (links with 4.1.3.1). Label a diagram of a kidney dialysis machine and add notes to explain the constituents of the fluid and how the machine restores the concentration of dissolved substances in the blood to normal. Discuss a moral dilemma – research cost of dialysis and transplants. Discuss considerations in terms of cost as to how kidney patients should be treated – lifetime dialysis, transplant, shortage of kidneys, buying kidneys from healthy people and prioritising lists for surgery. Produce arguments for and against the options. Identify urine samples from a healthy person, diabetic, person with kidney failure, healthy person who had drink a lot and person who had been doing hard work in hot weather. Set up a model for dialysis using cellulose tubing. Test for glucose, salt and protein.                   Describe the economic, ethical and medical considerations regarding treatment of kidney failure and evaluate the choice of treatments for kidney failure. Analyse urine samples and identify who each one came from. Give reasons for the conclusions. Dialysis: cellulose tubingpipettesfake urineboiling tubestest tubesBenedict’s solution or glucose test sticksbiuret reagent or albustixnitric acid and silver nitrate solutiondialysis fluidwatergoggles. What is dialysis?   Urine: artificial urine samples made with tea – sugar added, protein added, normal colour, dilute, concentrated biuret reagent or albustixBenedict’s solution or glucose test stickstest tubeswater bathgoggles.
4.5.3.4                                       4.5.3.4 Hormones in human reproduction During puberty hormones cause sexual characteristics to develop. In females oestrogen is produced by the ovaries. Eggs mature and are released (ovulation) every 28 days. In males testosterone is produced by the testes and stimulates sperm production. The roles of FSH, LH, oestrogen and progesterone in the menstrual cycle of a woman. HT: more detail is required for the roles of these hormones. Describe secondary sexual characteristics of boys and girls. Explain the cause of these changes in boys and girls and their relevance in reproduction. Describe the menstrual cycle and fertility including the role of hormones Oestrogen is secreted by the ovaries. It inhibits production of FSH and stimulates release of LH. It makes the uterus lining grow again after menstruation. Progesterone is secreted by the empty follicle in the ovary after ovulation. It inhibits FSH and LH production and maintains the lining of the uterus during the second half of the cycle.   HT: explain the interaction between these hormones in the control of the menstrual cycle. 1 Watch BBC video clip about puberty. Describe the changes that occur in boys and girls during puberty and discuss what causes these changes. Watch BBC video clips of ovulation and the menstrual cycle. Discuss how hormones control the changes seen. Use a month calendar page to colour code days according to hormone levels (make a flickbook to show changes) Use a model, eg diagram, chart, animation etc to show the names, sites of production and effects of FSH, LH, oestrogen and progesterone in the menstrual cycle. HT will require more detail.   BBC Bitesize: Puberty BBC Bitesize: Ovulation BBC Bitesize: Menstrual cycle PPT B1.2.2 Control in the human body  
4.5.3.5         4.5.3.5 Contraception Fertility can be controlled using hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptives. Hormonal, eg: oral contraceptivesinjectionimplant or skin patch. Non-hormonal, eg: barrier methodsIUDsspermicidesabstinencesterilisationsurgery. Describe hormonal and non-hormonal methods of contraception. Explain how hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptives work. Evaluate their use.         Evaluate their use. 1 Watch BBC video clip about history of contraception for women (contains distressing scene). Discuss issues raised. Look at an exhibition of hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptives. Complete a table summarising: method of action, hormone name, how they work, advantages, disadvantages. Produce a report for a teen magazine on the advantages and disadvantages of different types of contraceptives. Invite an outside speaker to discuss contraception, eg women’s health nurse. Consider personal, social, economic and ethical implications of contraceptive use. Study contraceptives in an exhibition and evaluate the different types.   BBC Bitesize: Development of the contraceptive pill   Exhibition materials can be obtained from the Family Planning Association.    
4.5.3.6                             4.5.3.6 HT: The use of hormones to treat infertility. Women can be given a ‘fertility drug’ containing FSH and LH to stimulate ovulation. In IVF treatment FSH and LH are given to stimulate many eggs to mature. These are collected and fertilised by sperm in a lab. Embryos form, and some are inserted into the woman’s uterus. The advantages and disadvantages of fertility treatment, eg stress, success rate and multiple births. Describe the use of fertility drugs in women with low FSH levels. Use a model, eg a flow diagram to explain the process of In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF). Evaluate the use of fertility treatments.       1 Discuss possible causes of infertility in men and women and treatments available. Research the process of IVF and produce a leaflet for a doctor’s surgery to describe the main stages involved in IVF treatment. UPD8 activity about womb transplants. Discuss the implications of IVF treatment for a couple wanting a baby.             UPD8 – apply different ethical approaches to making a decision about non-vital transplants.             UPD8 – Womb transplant
4.5.3.7 HT: Negative feedback. Adrenaline is produced by the adrenal glands in times of stress. It increases heart rate so oxygen and glucose are supplied to the brain and muscles faster. Thyroxine is produced by the thyroid gland. It stimulates BMR and plays an important role in physical and mental development. Adrenaline and thyroxine secretions are controlled by negative feedback mechanisms. Describe where and when adrenaline is released and its target organs. Describe the effects of adrenaline on the body. Draw a diagram to explain how levels of adrenaline are controlled by a negative feedback system. Describe where thyroxine is produced and its effects on the body. Draw a diagram to explain how its release is stimulated by thyroid stimulating hormone and the levels of these two hormones are controlled by a negative feedback system. 0.5 Use a model to show where adrenaline and thyroxine are produced, and their target organs. Research the effects of the two hormones on the body and present the findings in a suitable format. Include diagrams to illustrate negative feedback mechanisms for each hormone. Use ABPI site and internet. Investigate the effect of stress, and removal of stress, on heart rate. Identify organs on a model.               Measure heart rate and/ or blood pressure as indicators of stress. Relate the changes to adrenaline secretion. Torso ABPI – Adrenaline and ADH You & Your Hormones – Adrenaline       Stress


4.5.4 Plant hormones

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most students should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills   Opportunities to apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment Opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.5.4.1                         4.5.4.1 Control and coordination Hormones control and coordinate growth and responses to light and gravity in plants. Responses to light and gravity are controlled by the unequal distribution of auxin which causes unequal growth rates in shoots and roots.  Required practical: Reaction time Plan and carry out an investigation into the effect of a factor on human reaction time.     HT: Gibberellins are important in initiating seed germination. Ethene controls cell division and ripening of fruits. Required practical: Germination Investigate the effect of light or gravity on the growth of newly germinated seeds. Record results as both length measurements and as careful, labelled biological drawings to show the effects. Describe how plant shoots and roots respond to light and gravity.       Draw diagrams to explain the role of auxin in plant responses in terms of unequal distribution in shoots and roots.         Required practical: plan and carry out an investigation into the effect of light on plant shoots. Observe, present and analyse the results in a later lesson. Interpret results of plant hormone experiments using secondary sources. HT: Describe the functions of gibberellins and ethene in plants. 2 Discuss what plants are sensitive to. Demo a plant’s sense of touch. Demo response to water. Required practical: use diagrams to explain plant responses in terms of distribution of auxin.   Compare and contrast the ability of different plants to reach light – obstacle course.   Explain positive and negative phototropism.   Interpret Charles Darwin’s investigations into tropisms.         Research gibberellins and ethene and produce a short report. Use evidence from demos to suggest degrees of plant sensitivity.   Required practical: plan and set up an investigation into the effect of light on growth of shoots.    Optional investigations: Obstacle course.   Investigate which part of a shoot is sensitive to light.   Effect of gravity on growth of plants   Interpret experiments using agar blocks and seedlings with shoot tips removed. Demo: Venus fly trapMimosaHoneysuckle. Or from video clips. Water: trough of dry soil with clay plant pot full of water at centreplant broad beans around clay pot. Required practical: See Practical Handbook For practical ideas: Tackling tropisms Obstacle course: three identical shoe boxes with simple obstacle course and hole at one enddish of mustard seedlingsgerminating broad bean sprouting potato. Positive and negative phototropism: Broad bean seedling held by pin in jar with light entering through a slit. Light sensitivity: Three pots of oat seedlings in three light boxes – tips removed, tips covered and untreated. Gravity: Grow broad beans in dark jar in different positions, blotting paper. Broad bean seedling in clinostat in dark – rotating and still. BBC Bitesize: Plant and animal hormones B1.2.3 Control in plants
4.5.4.2         4.5.4.2 HT: Use of plant hormones. Plant hormones are used in agriculture and horticulture. The uses of auxins, ethene and gibberellins. Describe how auxins are used as weedkillers and rooting powders, and to promote growth in tissue culture. Describe the use of ethene to control the ripening of fruit during storage and transport. Describe the use of gibberellins to end seed dormancy, promote flowering and to increase fruit size. 1 Investigate the effect of rooting hormones on the growth of cuttings and write a short report.   Investigate the effect of weed killer on an area of lawn. Research the uses of auxins, gibberellins and ethene and produce a poster or PowerPoint presentation. Plan and carry out an investigation into the effect of rooting hormones on the growth of cuttings. Decide what will be the dependent variable. Plan and carry out an investigation into the effect of weed killer on an area of lawn. Use a suitable method to measure the results. Rooting hormone: rooting powderjars of waterplant cuttings. Weed killer: Selective weed killer solution. Plant hormones BBC Bitesize: Uses of plant hormones

Biology – Ecology

This resource provides guidance for teaching the Ecology topic from our new GCSE Biology (8461). It has been updated from the draft version to reflect the changes made in the accredited specification.  There have been no changes to the required practical.  However, there have been minor changes in the specification content to sections 4.7.1.1 Communities, 4.7.2.1, Levels of organisation, 4.7.2.2 How materials are cycled, 4.7.2.3 Decomposition, 4.7.3.4 Deforestation, 4.7.3.5 Global warming, 4.7.3.6 Maintaining biodiversity, 4.7.4.1, Trophic levels, 4.7.5.1 Factors affecting food security, 4.7.5.4 Role of biotechnology.  These alterations have not required changes to the scheme of work.

The scheme of work is designed to be a flexible medium term plan for teaching content and development of the skills that will be assessed.

It is provided in Word format to help you create your own teaching plan – you can edit and customise it according to your needs. This scheme of work is not exhaustive; it only suggests activities and resources you could find useful in your teaching.

4.6.4 Classification of living organisms

4.7.4, Trophic levels in an ecosystem, can be covered with 4.7.2, Organisation of an ecosystem, as described below.

4.6.4 Classification of living organisms – classification is a logical starting point for this section of the specification. The variety of life can be considered before going on to study how organisms interact with each other and their environment. Alternatively, it could be covered before 4.6.2.2, Evolution.

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop scientific communication skills Opportunities to apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment Opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.6.4                 4.6.4                         4.6.4 Classification Traditionally organisms have been classified into groups depending on their structure and characteristics. Organisms were classified into smaller and smaller groups. Carl Linnaeus studied the similarities and differences between organisms to classify them. He developed the binomial system to name organisms by genus and species. Today powerful microscopes are used to see internal structures. This and biochemical analysis has led to new classification systems. Carl Woese developed the three domain system to classify organisms as: Archaea (primitive bacteria)Bacteria (true bacteria)Eukaryota (protists, fungi, plants and animals). Classify organisms based on their similarities. Describe classification using: KingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies. Explain why the importance of the binomial system to name organisms. Explain how modern technologies have affected how organisms are classified today.                 Describe Carl Woese’s system of classification and classify organisms into the three mains. 1 Exhibition of organisms to classify, use post-it notes to explain groupings – observe and discuss choices made by other groups. Watch BBC video clips about Linnaeus and classification (see resources). Compare the classification of related and unrelated organisms using the Linnaeus system. Look at the variety of names given to the same plant and discuss why the binomial system is more useful. Watch BBC video clip about chemical analysis and its use in classifying organisms (see resources).               Sort picture cards into the three domains and give reasons.   Homework: Poster showing classification of organisms. Exhibition of organisms to classify into groups (this could be the first lesson on evolution). Compare classification information on related and unrelated organisms. Pictures and names of different plants to discuss.                               Card sorting activity. Exhibition of pictures and specimens of plants and animals. Video clips BBC Bitesize – Linnaeus and the first system of classification of plants BBC Bitesize – Classification BBC Four – Botany: A Blooming System BBC Bitesize – Classification techniques and the search for useful plants Cards to sort. Range of National Stem Centre resources – search ’classification’.

 

4.7 Ecology

4.7.1 Adaptations, interdependence and competition

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop scientific communication skills Opportunities to apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment Opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.7.1.1 Communities Organisms need a supply of materials from their surroundings and other organisms to survive and reproduce. One species depends on others for food, shelter, pollination, seed dispersal etc. This is called interdependence. Stable communities. Plants compete for light, space, water and mineral ions. Animals compete for food, mates and territory. Understand and use the terms ecosystem, community, competition, habitat, interdependence. Describe factors that affect the survival of organisms in their habitat. Explain how one species depends on others for survival. Describe a stable community as one where all the species and environmental factors are in balance, so population sizes remain fairly constant. Give an example of a stable community. Describe resources that plants and animals compete for in a given habitat. 1 Look at pictures of different habitats and brainstorm factors that affect the survival of organisms in a habitat.      Discuss how organisms depend on each other for survival and introduce the term ‘interdependence’. Resource competition – hide cards with resources around room – you have to obtain 3 different resources to survive. Investigate competition in radish or cress seedlings. Observe organisms in their habitats and suggest inter-relationships.                     Investigate the effect of planting density on height of seedlings. Measure height and calculate means. Present and analyse the results. BBC Bitesize – Ecosystems Videos                     Competition: radish or cress seedsseed trayscompostruler.
4.7.1.3                 4.7.1.2 Biotic factors  and  Abiotic factors Biotic factors are living factors that can affect a community.         Abiotic factors are non-living factors which can affect a community. Name biotic factors in a habitat and explain how a change in a biotic factor might affect a community, eg: availability of foodnew predators arrivingnew disease organismsone species out-competing another so the numbers are no longer sufficient to breed. Name abiotic factors in a habitat and explain how a change in a biotic factor might affect a community, eg: light intensitytemperaturemoisture levelssoil pH and mineral contentwind intensity and directioncarbon dioxide levels for plantsoxygen levels for aquatic animals.   0.5 Discuss factors that may affect the numbers or distribution of plants and animals in a habitat. Use interactive modelling to change an environment and explore the impact of factors on the interdependence of organisms, eg poisons, disease, food shortages etc. Model changes in an environment.  
4.7.2.1 Distribution of organisms Quantitative data on the distribution and abundance of organisms can be obtained by: random sampling with quadratssampling along a transect.               Required practical: Field investigation Measure the population size of a common species in a habitat. Use sampling techniques to investigate the effect of a factor on the distribution of this species. Describe how to carry out random sampling of organisms using a quadrat. Describe when and how a transect should be used. Evaluate data gathered by using a quadrat and transect. Calculate area, mean, median, mode and range. Explain why sample size is important to obtain valid results.             Required practical: plan and carry out a valid method to estimate a plant population. Present and analyse the results.   2 Links with 4.7.1.2 and 4.7.1.3. Look at distribution of Pleurococcus on walls, fences or trees. Estimate percentage cover using diagrams/ photographs and plastic squares as ‘mini quadrats’. or Investigate patterns of grass growth under trees and see if it is linked to abiotic factor(s). Use transect lines and quadrats to collect data. Analyse ecological data from quadrats and transects. Interpret various types of diagrams that illustrate the distribution of organisms in a habitat. Required practical.   Suggest reasons for the distribution of Pleurococcus.   Evaluate method to estimate cover and modify to estimate a plant population on the school field. Use quadrats and sensors; record and analyse results. Use a transect to investigate the change in type and number of plant species across a changing habitat, eg a footpath.         Required practical: plan and carry out a valid method to estimate a plant population. Present and analyse the results. BBC Bitesize – Sampling techniques and measurement of abiotic and biotic factors Using a quadrat can be found at: Intel Education Resources Abiotic factor: sensorsdata loggersquadratsthermometersclipboards. Transect: stringidentification chartsclipboards. Required practical: See Practical Handbook Questions on PPT B2.4 Organisms and their environment
4.7.1.4 Adaptations Organisms have adaptations for survival, they may be structural, behavioural or functional. Extremophiles can survive in very extreme environments, such as high temperature or pressure, or in high salt concentration. Describe and explain how structural, behavioural and functional adaptations, in a range of organisms, help them to survive in their habitat. Define the term extremophile and give general examples.     1 Watch video clip showing adaptations. In pairs, observe exhibition of organisms and discuss how each is adapted for survival. Produce a poster or media presentation to show plants, animals and microorganisms with labels to explain how their adaptations help them to survive in their habitat. Watch BBC video clip showing adaptations of predators and prey (see resources). Develop explanations for adaptations. Video clip BBC Bitesize – Interdependence and adaptation (clip compilation) Exhibition of specimens and pictures. BBC Bitesize – Predator prey relationships in rock pools PPT B1.4 Interdependence and adaptation Exampro user guide PowerPoint  

4.7.2 Organisation of an ecosystem

4.7.4 Trophic levels in an ecosystem should be taught with this topic.

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop scientific communication skills Opportunities to apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment Opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.7.2.1 Levels of organisation Feeding relationships can be represented by food chains. A food chain begins with a producer which synthesises, molecules. Producers are eaten by consumers. Consumers that eat other animals are predators, and those eaten are prey. In a stable community the numbers of predators and prey rise and fall in cycles. Explain what a food chain shows.       Explain that photosynthetic organisms are the producers of biomass for life on Earth.   Identify producers, primary, secondary and tertiary consumers in a food chain. Interpret and explain population curves, eg hare and lynx, red and grey squirrels, and native and American crayfish. 0.5 Watch BBC video clip about food chains and interdependence (see resources). Construct food chains and identify the producer and consumers. Research producers that are not green plants.           Interpret population curves.   QSB99.2.05 QCJ9714.12 Use a model to describe food chains.                     Interpret population curves and explain predator – prey relationships. BBC Bitesize Activity – Food chains    

 

4.7.4 Trophic levels in an ecosystem

This section overlaps with 4.7.2 Organisation of an ecosystem.

Producers link with 4.4.1, Photosynthesis.

Decomposition links with 4.7.2.2, How materials are cycled, and 4.7.2.3, Decomposition. The detail of decomposition should be taught with those sections.

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop scientific communication skills Opportunities to apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment Opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.7.4.1                 4.7.4.1 Producers, consumers and decomposers. Organisms obtain food as producers, consumers or decomposers. Producers are mostly plants and algae. They transfer about 1% of incident light for photosynthesis. Consumers include herbivores, carnivores and omnivores. Decomposers break down dead plant and animal matter. Use and explain the terms: producer, consumer, decomposer, herbivore, carnivore and omnivore.     Consider the effect on absorption of light, of plants being green in colour and often having a shiny surface.   Describe how decomposers secrete external enzymes to digest dead plants and animals, then the small molecules diffuse into the microorganism. 1.5 Identify the organisms in a food chain using the terms: producer, consumer, decomposer, herbivore, carnivore and omnivore.   Discuss why plants only absorb 1% of the incident light for photosynthesis. Demonstrate the effect of shining different colours of light on a plant. Compare the adaptations of herbivores, carnivores and omnivores and relate these to the food they eat. Watch time-lapse films showing a dead animal and decomposing. Discuss what causes it to happen. Use model to represent food chains.       Observe the colour of a plant in different coloured light and suggest which colours of light are absorbed by a green plant.           Light absorption: projectorcoloured filters.
4.7.4.1 4.7.4.2 4.7.4.3 Trophic levels and  Pyramids of biomass The stages in a food chain are called trophic levels. The producer is at level 1. Pyramids of biomass can be constructed to represent the relative amount of biomass at each level in a food chain. Trophic level 1 is at the bottom of a pyramid of biomass. Only about 10% of the biomass at each trophic level is transferred to the level above. Identify the trophic levels on food chains and pyramids of biomass.       Construct and interpret pyramids of biomass from data. Calculate the efficiency of biomass transfer between trophic levels. Explain what losses of biomass are due to.       0.5 Label the trophic levels on food chains and pyramids of biomass.       Construct scale drawings of pyramids of biomass. Interpret scale drawings of pyramids of biomass. Calculate the efficiency of biomass transfer between trophic levels in pyramids of biomass.   Produce a poster to explain how biomass is lost from a food chain. Use a model to describe pyramids of biomass.         Construct and interpret scale drawings.     Calculate efficiency of biomass transfer. PPT B1.5 Energy and biomass in food chains

 

4.7.2.2 How materials are cycled

The cycles link to many areas of the specification. The water cycle relates to osmosis and transpiration in plants and waste management. The carbon cycle relates to respiration, photosynthesis, decay, land use, deforestation and global warming. The decay cycle links to active transport and the use of mineral ions in plants.

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop scientific communication skills Opportunities to apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment Opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.7.2.2 How materials are cycled Materials are recycled to provide the building blocks for future organisms. The main processes involved in recycling carbon in the carbon cycle. The main processes in the water cycle. The decay cycle returns carbon to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide and mineral ions to the soil. Interpret and explain the processes in diagrams of the carbon, water and decay cycles. Explain the importance of these cycles to living things. Explain the carbon cycle.     Explain the water cycle.   Explain the role of microorganisms in cycling materials through an ecosystem. 1.5 Recap how carbon dioxide is used by plants in photosynthesis and why this is of use to animals. Discuss what happens next to eventually return carbon to the air. Demo: Show examples of fossil fuels. Discuss how they were formed. Discuss how to test for carbon dioxide. Demo: Use sensors to measure carbon dioxide levels in the air. Demo: The production of carbon dioxide when a fuel burns. Cut-out different coloured cards for processes and organisms. Arrange them as in the carbon cycle. Students use the idea to produce cards to make a model for the water cycle. Evaluate each other’s models.               Predict colour change of limewater. Use a model to represent the carbon cycle. Design and evaluate a model to represent the water cycle. Demos: Coal and oil. Carbon dioxide sensor and data logger. Fuel to burn, eg using a small Bunsen burner, inverted funnel connected to tube of limewater and pump. BBC Bitesize Activity – Water, nitrogen and carbon cycles Cards: one colour for processes, one for organisms and one for arrows.
4.7.2.3 Decomposition Factors which affect the rate of decay of organic matter.                     Required practical: investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of decay of fresh milk by measuring PH change. Describe the factors which affect the rate of decay as: temperatureavailability of oxygenavailability of moistureavailability of microorganisms to carry out decaypHbuild-up of toxic substances. Interpret data showing how factors affect the rate of decay. Calculate the rate of decay using data.   Required practical: plan and carry out a controlled investigation. Identify variables; record, present and analyse result; calculate rates of decay. 2 Describe how plants and animals return materials to the environment. Bread mould practical. Discuss what would happen if things didn’t decay when they die. Classify items as biodegradable and non-biodegradable and agree criteria for classification. Discuss how the rate of decay can be controlled by considering food preservation, bodies preserved in bogs, compost heaps. Demo: Investigate the rate of decay of grass clippings. Observe results in later lesson Interpret data about decay. Required practical.       Classify items and present conclusions with reasons. Apply scientific reasoning to unfamiliar situation. Demo: Explain why each flask was set up and predict the results. Consider what controls are set up. Interpret data and calculate rates.     Required practical: plan and carry out a controlled investigation. Identify variables; record, present and analyse result; calculate rates of decay. Science fair projects – Safe storage of bread Exhibition of objects and pictures to classify. Grass clippings: thermos flasks with thermometers/ temperature probesdisinfectantwet and dry grasscomposting agent. Required practical: See Practical Handbook. PPT B1.6  Waste materials from plants and animals
4.7.2.3 Decomposition Compost provides gardeners and farmers with a natural fertiliser for plants and crops.       Anaerobic decay produces methane gas. Biogas generators can produce methane which can be used as a fuel. Explain how decay is useful to plants (links with 4.4.1.3). Evaluate the necessity and effectiveness of recycling organic kitchen or garden wastes. Describe how gardeners and farmers try to provide optimum conditions for rapid decay of wastes. Explain the difference between aerobic and anaerobic decay. Define the term biogas. Evaluate the use of biogas generators. Explain why the output from a biogas generator is affected by climatic conditions. 2 Research how kitchen and garden wastes can be recycled. Competition – whose potato will decay the fastest?  Observe results in later lesson. Discuss where and why biogas generators are useful. Watch BBC video showing different biogas generators (see resources). Compare and evaluate different types of biogas generator. Design and build a simple gas generator. Evaluate the designs and select the best to demonstrate how the methane can be burned as a fuel. Competition: plan the best conditions for decay.                     Evaluate designs. Competition: Potatoes and equipment as described in plans. Biogas generator: BBC Bitesize – Biofuels BBSRC – Powering the future: Biofuels   Past exam questions on biogas generators.

 

4.7.3 Biodiversity and the effect of human interaction on ecosystems

Biodiversity could be taught with Classification, 4.6.4.1, to illustrate the wide variety of organisms and the need to classify them into groups.

There is a lot of useful information on the following websites: Natural History Museum, Greenpeace and WWF.

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop scientific communication skills Opportunities to apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment Opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.7.3.1 Biodiversity Biodiversity is the variety of all life on Earth. A great biodiversity ensures stability of ecosystems. The future of the human species relies on us maintaining a good level of biodiversity. Human activities can reduce biodiversity and we should try to stop this. Define the term biodiversity. Explain how great biodiversity maintains food supplies and shelter for organisms, and maintains the physical environment.   Describe examples of how a reduction in biodiversity can affect climate, food supplies for humans, useful chemical for the future etc. 0.5 Exhibition or video clips to show the variety of life, to include microorganisms and different plants and animals (links with 4.6.4.1 Classification) (see resources). Discuss how some of these help humans, directly and indirectly. Brainstorm human activities that are reducing biodiversity. Evaluate environmental effects and ethical issues related to human activities. BBC Bitesize – Biodiversity Natural History Museum – Biodiversity  
4.7.3.2                           4.7.3.2               4.7.3.2 Waste management Rapid growth in the human population means more resources are used and more wastes are produced, which could lead to more pollution. Pollution kills plants and animals which can reduce biodiversity. Waste may pollute water with sewage, fertilisers or toxic chemicals.   Waste may pollute air with smoke and gases such as sulfur dioxide, which contributes to acid rain.         Waste may pollute land with toxic chemicals such as pesticides and herbicides, which may be washed from the land into water. Describe the problems associated with an increasing human population. Interpret graphs showing human population growth.         Describe how water can be polluted with sewage, fertiliser or toxic chemicals. Analyse and interpret data about water pollution. Describe examples of air pollutants and where they come from. Describe the effects of smoke on buildings, humans and plant photosynthesis.             Describe how acid rain is formed and the effects of acid rain on living organisms. Analyse and interpret data about air pollution. Evaluate the use of fertiliser on plant growth and oxygen levels. Describe what herbicides and pesticides are used for. 2 Discuss the effects and problems associated with an increasing population. Interpret graphs showing human population growth globally and in different parts of the world. Watch BBC activity videos (see resources).     Show images of sewage, industries, eutrophication and effects on water life. Brainstorm types of water pollutants and where they come from.   Show images illustrating the effects of acid rain on buildings, trees, lakes and images of smog. Brainstorms what air may be polluted with and where the pollutants come from. Measure the pH of rainwater samples. Investigate the effect of sulfur dioxide on seed germination. Discuss the Clean Air Act. Produce poster(s) or diagrams to describe the causes and effects of sulfur dioxide and smoke pollution to complete for homework. Show images of how land is used or damaged by man. Discuss the sources and effects of toxic chemicals; what pesticides and herbicides are used for. Demo to investigate the effect of fertiliser on growth of duckweed and oxygen levels. Monitor results over next few lessons. Interpret and analyse data about water, air and land pollution. Show how fast the human population is increasing globally and in different countries using the counter on the Worldometers website. Interpret graphs showing human population growth – look for patterns and trends, extrapolate and make predictions.   Interpret colour change of indicator. Carry out a controlled investigation, present and analyse the results. Consider the social, economic and environmental implications of advances in technology over the centuries. Plan a controlled investigation; present and analyse the results.       Interpret and analyse data. Population – Worldometers BBC Bitesize Activity – Water pollution and deforestation BBC Bitesize – Human impact on environment   Rain water: rainwater samplesindicator paper or pH probe. Sulfur dioxide: Petri dishescotton woolwatersmall pots of sodium metabisulfite solutioncress seedsplastic bags with tiesgoggles.     Demo: beakers containing different concentrations of fertiliserduckweed plantsoxygen sensorsdata loggers. PPT B3.4.1 Waste from human activity (Also for global warming)
4.7.3.3 4.7.3.4           4.7.3.3 4.7.3.4                           4.7.3.3 4.7.3.4 Land use and Deforestation Humans reduce the amount of land available for other plants and animals by building, quarrying, farming and dumping waste. The destruction of peat bogs to produce compost releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. It destroys habitats and reduces biodiversity. Large scale deforestation occurred to: provide land for cattle and rice fields to provide more foodgrow crops from which biofuel can be produced.       This destruction of large areas of trees has: increased the release of carbon dioxide by burning and microbial activityreduced the rate at which carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis to be ‘locked up’ in woodled to a reduction in biodiversity.               Explain what peat is and why it is important to preserve areas of peat. Explain why peat should not be burnt.                         Define the term deforestation. Explain why vast tropical areas have been cleared of trees. Explain how deforestation increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and leads to a reduction in biodiversity.   2 Brainstorm how humans use land.           Observe a block of peat and some peat compost.  Discuss what peat is used for and why. Demo burning peat. Show images of a peat bog, peat drying and peat being burnt. Explain why the destruction of peat bogs is harmful to the environment. Investigate the growth of plants in ‘peat free’ and peat based composts. Describe deforestation using evidence from images or video clips of deforestation taking place – clearing, burning, rotting and destruction of habitats.   Discuss the effects deforestation has on the environment. Observe images or video clips of land used for timber, biofuel crops, cattle and rice. Explain why areas of tropical rain forest are being cleared. Prepare a newspaper article for either: a scientific journaltabloid newspaperenvironmental newsburger chain. Present a bias of choice to suit the article for or against deforestation.               Consider the need for cheap fuel and cheap compost for food production, against the need to conserve peat bogs as habitats and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Carry out a controlled investigation; decide what the dependent variable(s) will be; present and analyse the results.                 Demo: Block of peat and compost.   Composts: ‘peat free’ compostpeat based compostplant potsseedlings.   BBC Bitesize – Water pollution and deforestation           PPT B3.4.2  Deforestation and the destruction of areas of peat  
4.7.3.5 Global warming Levels of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere are increasing and contribute to ‘global warming’. Consequences of global warming include: loss of habitat when low lying areas floodchanges in the distribution of species where temperature of rainfall changeschanges in migration patterns. Explain the terms greenhouse effect and global warming. Explain with the aid of a diagram how levels of carbon dioxide and methane contribute to global warming. Describe the possible effects of global warming. 1 Research the causes and effects of global warming. Produce a poster to explain the greenhouse effect including sources of carbon dioxide and methane. Describe the possible effects of global warming. Show a computer simulation of the greenhouse effect. Measure the temperature inside and outside a greenhouse over 24 hours. Demonstrate how a black object absorbs and re-radiates heat using sensors or hold near the skin.   Draw a model to explain the greenhouse effect. Use results to explain the greenhouse effect using the words or phrases ‘absorb’ and ‘re-radiate’. Video clip BBC Bitesize – Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere BBC Bitesize – Greenhouse effect Greenhouse: temperature sensors data loggers.     Demo: black objectinfrared lamptemperature sensors.
4.7.3.6                   Maintaining biodiversity Programmes have been put in place to reduce the negative effects on ecosystems and biodiversity. Describe programmes introduced to maintain biodiversity: breeding programmes for endangered speciesprotection and regeneration of rare habitats, eg coral reefs, mangroves, heathlandreintroduction of field margins and hedgerows in agricultural areasreduction of deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions by some governmentsrecycling resources rather than dumping waste in landfill. Explain and evaluate conflicting pressures on maintaining biodiversity. 1 Recap what biodiversity is and how all the topics covered in 4.7.3 might affect biodiversity.   Research the list of programmes that could help to maintain biodiversity.   Brainstorm what individuals, businesses and governments could do to slow down the reduction in biodiversity.   Discuss why it is difficult to make changes that will maintain biodiversity.      
4.7.2.4 Impact of environmental change Environmental changes affect the distribution of species in an ecosystem. Describe how environmental changes, such as water availability, temperature and atmospheric gases may be seasonal, geographic or caused by human interaction. Explain the possible impact of each environmental change on the distribution of species in an ecosystem. 1 Discuss in groups variation in water availability, temperature and atmospheric gases due to: the seasonsgeographic positionhuman interaction. Consider how they could affect the distribution of organisms in an ecosystem. Produce a presentation to the class in a suitable format. It should include references to some named organisms.    

4.7.5 Food production

GM crops links to Genetic engineering, 4.6.2.4

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop scientific communication skills Opportunities to apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment Opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.7.5.1                                   4.7.5.1 Factors affecting food security These include: the increasing human populationchanging diets in developed countries means scarce food resources are transported around the worldnew pests and pathogens affect farmingenvironmental changes affect food productioncost of agricultural inputsconflicts in some parts of the world over the availability of water or food. New ways must be found to feed all people without endangering the ecological balance of the planet. Explain how factors affect food production and food security locally and globally. Interpret population and food production statistics to evaluate food security. 1 Give each group one factor that affects food production and security to discuss. Consider whether anything can be done to address each problem. Present their findings to the class. List each factor with possible solutions. Research the work of Oxfam and other charities. Produce an advert in suitable format to encourage people to donate to famine relief. Consider the pros and cons of eating foods that have travelled a long way.    
4.7.5.2 Farming techniques The efficiency of food production can be improved by restricting energy transfer from food animals. Battery chickens and calves raised in pens are examples of ‘factory farming’. Fish grown in cages can be fed high protein food and have restricted movement. There are moral and ethical objections to some ‘factory farming’ techniques. Explain how restricting the movement of animals and controlling the temperature of their surroundings improves efficiency of food production.     Define the term factory farming and give examples of animals farmed in this way.     Evaluate modern farming techniques. 1 Discuss the food and energy requirements of animals raised outdoors and those raised by ‘factory farming’. Suggest reasons for the difference. Consider the rate of meat production, flavour and health considerations of the animals. Role play: a conversation between a battery hen and a free range hen or a farmer and an animal rights supporter. Carry out a survey to find out what sort of eggs people buy and why.               Model – role play.     Design a questionnaire, carry out a survey, present and analyse the results. Consider whether the survey would produce valid results.  
4.7.5.3 Sustainable fisheries Fish stocks are declining and need to be maintained at levels where breeding continues or some species may disappear. Net size and fishing quotas play important roles in conservation of fish stocks. Explain why some fish stocks are declining and why this is a problem. Describe ways that fish stocks can be conserved. Give an example of sustainable food production. 0.5 Competition – who can catch the most fish? Discuss the problems of catching both large and small fish and relate to the fishing industry. How can we maintain fish stocks? Research fishing quotas for different types of fish and display the information. Research what has happened to bluefin tuna and what we could do to increase fish stocks. Model fishing nets. Present and analyse data. Fishing: Different sized nets and different sized fish or objects to represent fish, troughs or buckets of water.
4.7.5.4 Role of biotechnology Modern biotechnology techniques enable large quantities of microorganisms to be cultured in industrially controlled vats for food or medical purposes. The fungus Fusarium is useful for producing mycoprotein, a protein-rich food suitable for vegetarians. The fungus is grown on glucose syrup, in aerobic conditions, and the biomass is harvested and purified. GM crops could provide more food or food with improved nutritional value, eg Golden rice.   Describe how microorganisms can be grown in large vats to produce useful products. Explain how the conditions in the vat are monitored and controlled for optimal growth.       Describe how the fungus Fusarium can be grown to produce mycoprotein that can be eaten.   Evaluate the use of mycoprotein as a food.     Describe the process of genetic engineering to produce better crops. Describe what Golden rice is and how it was produced. Interpret information about genetic engineering techniques. Make informed judgements about the economic, social and ethical issues concerning genetic engineering. 1 Label a diagram of an industrially controlled vat for microbial growth. Explain all the sensors and control features.   Do a taste comparison of a mycoprotein based food and its ‘real’ counterpart.    Compare values for protein, fat and fibre found in beef and mycoprotein. Produce a marketing strategy to sell more mycoprotein. Research how foods such as Quorn are produced and describe in a flow diagram. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using mycoprotein as a food and produce a poster. See the activities for 4.6.2.4. Research Golden rice – what it is, how and why it was produced? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of Golden rice. If not already done in 4.6.2.4, draw a diagram to explain how a plant can be genetically modified to have a desired characteristic, eg Golden rice. Model an industrially controlled vat.                 Design a valid comparison, record and present the outcomes and analyse them. Use a model to describe a process. Evaluate the use of mycoprotein. Evaluate the production and use of Golden rice.      

Scheme of work

Biology – Cell biology

This resource provides guidance for teaching the Cell biology topic from our new GCSE in Biology. It has been updated from the draft version to reflect the changes made in the accredited specification.  In particular minor changes have been made to the wording of the required practical – Microscopy in section 4.1.1.2, In addition some minor changes have been made in the specification made to sections 4.1.1.2 Animal and plant cells, 4.1.1.4 Cell differentiation and section 4.1.2.3  Stem cells. These alterations have not required changes to the scheme of work.

The scheme of work is designed to be a flexible medium term plan for teaching content and development of the skills that will be assessed.

It is provided in Word format to help you create your own teaching plan – you can edit and customise it according to your needs. This scheme of work is not exhaustive; it only suggests activities and resources you could find useful in your teaching.

4.1 Cell biology

4.1.1 Cell structure

The specification mentions a range of specialised cells and offers opportunities to use a microscope again later on in the course.

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most students should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.1.1.2 Animal and plant cells   Section 4.2.1 Principles of organisation, is covered at KS3 so the content could be recapped now, rather than later in the course.   Most animal cells have a nucleus, cytoplasm, membrane, mitochondria and ribosomes.   Plant and algal cells also have a cell wall and often have chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole.   Functions of the organelles. Required practical: Microscopy Use a light microscope to observe, draw and label a selection of plant and animal cells. A magnification scale must be included.   Label diagrams of animal and plant cells.   Describe the function of the main organelles.   Prepare slides of plant and animal cells and describe the procedure.   Correctly use a microscope to observe cells under different magnifications.   Describe the order of size of: cell, nucleus, chromosome and gene. 2 Recap cell structure from KS3 by drawing an animal and a plant cell on mini white boards. Class to vote on which are the best and why.   Display diagrams of a plant and animal cell – students spot the difference between the two.   Label diagrams of plant and animal cells. Complete a card sort to match the organelle to the function.   Construct a table to compare animal to plant cells. Include organelles and processes that they carry out (eg respiration, photosynthesis and protein synthesis).   Prepare slides and observe using a microscope. Watch video clips on plant and animal structures.   Make a plant or animal cell model. Prepare slides of onion epidermis, rhubarb epidermis, cheek cells, spirogyra, moss etc.Observe under a microscope. Make labelled drawings   Model plant and animal cells. Observation activity materials: microscopesslidescoverslipstilesforcepsmounted needlescotton budsiodine solutionmethylene blueonionrhubarbspirogyramoss.   National Stem Centre – Cells and organ systems     Video clips: BBC Bitesize –Cells and their uses Classroom Resources
4.1.1.3 4.1.1.4 Cell specialisation Cell differentiation   Cells differentiate to form different types of cells. Animal cells differentiate at an early stage, whereas many plant cells can differentiate throughout life. Differentiation is the generation of specialised cells which acquire different organelles to enable them to carry out specific functions.   Cells may be specialised to carry out a particular function.   Explain the need for differentiation in a multicellular organism. Describe the differences between differentiation in plants and in animals.   Explain how specialised cells are adapted for their function. 1 Write a job description for a newspaper for each type of specialised cell (xylem, sperm cell, red blood cell etc), eg: ‘Sperm cell wanted- must be a strong swimmer…’ This could be done using ICT.   Watch video clips showing specialised plant and animal cells.   What am I? Describe the key features of different specialised cells – students guess the cell type. Observe prepared slides of specialised cells under the microscope, or use bioviewers.   Observe root hair cells under a microscope in sprouting mung beans. Observation activity materials: microscopesslidescoverslipssprouting mung beansprepared slidesbioviewersslide strips.   Video clip: BBC Bitesize –Plant and animal cell structures
4.1.2.3 Stem cells   Topic can be delivered after Cell differentiation, or later in the course as the technology involved relates to 4.6.2.5 Cloning.   Stem cells are unspecialised cells that can differentiate to form many different types of cells. Stem cells from human embryos and adult bone marrow can be cloned and made to differentiate into different cells, eg nerve cells. Stem cells may be used to treat paralysis and diabetes in the future.   In therapeutic cloning an embryo with the same genes as the patient is produced. Cells from this embryo will not be rejected by the patient.   Risks eg transfer of viruses, associated with the use of stem cells in medicine.   Stem cells from meristems in plants are used to produce clones quickly and cheaply. Define the term ‘stem cell’.   Describe where stem cells can be found in animals and plants.   Describe in simple terms how nerve cells genetically identical to a patient could be obtained.   Describe how stem cells could be used to help treat some medical conditions.   Evaluate risks and benefits, as well as the social and ethical issues concerning the use of stem cells from embryos in medical research and treatments. Stem cells in plants – see 4.6.2.5 Cloning. 1 Watch a video clip showing cell differentiation in plants and animals.   Watch the stem cell story at Europe’s stem cell website.   Tell the story of Christopher Reeve (show photos of Superman or watch the Superman trailer) and get students to suggest how stem cells could be used to treat other people with paralysis.   Provide a circus of different stem cell related articles which cover current uses, potential uses as well as pros and cons. Students circulate to complete a summary table on uses, pros and cons.   Watch the Teacher’s TV video about the use of stem cells and Parkinson’s treatment.      Students have different roles and must prepare and present their arguments in favour of or against the use of embryonic stem cells (eg doctor, person with diabetes, human rights activist). Use of models. Europe’s stem cell hub – Stem cell videos and films   Wellcome Trust –Medical uses of stem cells   BBC Bitesize –Stem cells   National Institute of Health – Stem Cell Information   Teachers TV: KS3/4 Science – Stem Cell Research – Resources – TES   Daily News Articles – stem cells | The Scientist Magazine®     Stem cells | Science | The Guardian
4.1.1.1 Plant and animal cells are eukaryotic cells which have a membrane, cytoplasm and a nucleus.   Bacterial cells are prokaryotic cells. They are smaller than eukaryotic cells and have a cell wall, membrane and cytoplasm, but do not have a nucleus. Their genetic material is a single loop of DNA or several small rings of DNA called plasmids in the cytoplasm. Identify plant, animal and bacterial cells and classify them as eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells. Label diagrams of bacterial cells.   Describe the differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells in terms of structure and size. 1 Develop an argument for and against bacteria cells to be classified as plants or animals. Label a diagram of a bacterial cell.   Construct a table to compare the structure of plant, animal and bacterial cells.   Use Teachit interactive resources about cells of animals, plants and bacteria. Observe images of different types of bacterial, plant and animal cells and classify them as plant, animal or bacterial; eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells. Assessment material: Cells and simple cell transport B2.1 Powerpoint
4.1.1.5 Microscopy   An electron microscope has a much higher magnification and resolution than a light microscope, so it can be used to study cells in much finer detail and show organelles.       Describe the differences in magnification and resolution of light and electron microscopes.   Explain how electron microscopy has increased understanding of organelles.   Calculate the magnification of a light microscope. Carry out calculations using the formula:       Rearrange the equation to calculate image size or magnification. Convert values for the units: cm, mm, µm and nm.     1 Use a variety of resources to research the differences between a light microscope and an electron microscope. Use online materials to make a display of cell images from a light microscope and from an electron microscope.   Write a newspaper article entitled: ‘Microscope…..the best invention ever!’ where students explain the significance of the microscope and discuss what the world would be like if microscopes were never invented. Calculate the real size of microscope images, and convert units as appropriate. Rearrange the equation to calculate a different unknown. Use online and printed materials to calculate the real sizes of cells and structures.
Limited to the differences in magnification and resolution.   Extension work Use a microscope with graticule to measure cells and calculate their real size.
Observation activity materials: microscopegraticuleprepared slidescalculator.
4.1.1.6 Culturing microorganisms   Links with sections 4.3.1.1, 4.3.1.8 and 4.3.1.9 which could be taught with section 4.3 Infection and response. Students will require some knowledge of antibiotics before carrying out the Required practical. See sections 4.3.1.8 and 4.6.3.7.   Bacteria multiply by simple cell division (binary fission) as often as once every 20 minutes if they have enough nutrients and a suitable temperature. Bacteria can be grown in a nutrient broth solution or as colonies on an agar gel plate.   Uncontaminated cultures of microorganisms are required for investigating the action of disinfectants and antibiotics.   Procedure to prepare an uncontaminated culture.   Required Practical: Microbiology Investigate the effect of antiseptics or antibiotics on bacterial growth using agar plates and measuring zones of inhibition.       Know that bacteria multiply by simple cell division.   Know how bacteria can be grown.   Know procedure to prepare an uncontaminated culture. Explain why cultures are incubated at a maximum temperature of 25°C. Describe why uncontaminated cultures are necessary in research. 1 How many bacteria would be made during the lesson if there was: 1  or 10 bacteria to start with.   Discuss what bacteria would need to multiply.   Demo the techniques of producing inoculated agar plates.   Explain importance of each step to partner or produce a technician’s guide to inoculating plates for research. If you’re not doing required practical at this point, do further work on comparing growth of bacteria on different students’ plates.   Calculate the number of bacteria in a population after a certain time given the mean division time.   Calculate cross sectional area of colonies. Preparation of inoculating plates.  


4.1.2 Cell division

This section of the specification contains some difficult concepts, which you may want to teach later in the course.

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most students should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.1.2.1 Chromosomes   Chromosomes are found in the nucleus. They are made of DNA. Each chromosome carries a large number of genes.   In body cells chromosomes are found in pairs. Describe what a chromosome is and where chromosomes are found in the cell. 0.5 Draw and label diagrams showing cell, nucleus, chromosome and gene. Consider the scale of these structures.   Observe images of human karyotypes as seen under the microscope and arranged into pairs. Students could attempt to arrange chromosome images into pairs. This could be extended to show karyotypes of males, females, Down syndrome and Turner syndrome. Discuss the differences and suggest what the possible reasons and consequences of these differences are. Research on chromosome abnormalities. Observe chromosomes using bioviewers or prepared slides. Observation activity materials: microscopesprepared slidesbioviewers.   National Human Genome Research Institute: Chromosome Abnormalities Fact Sheet
4.1.2.2 Mitosis and the cell cycle   This topic could be left until later and taught with Asexual reproduction in 4.6.1.   Mitosis occurs during growth or to produce replacement cells. During mitosis: copies of the genetic material separate the cell then divides once to form two genetically identical cells. Mitosis forms part of the cell cycle. Describe simply how and why body cells divide by. Knowledge and understanding of the stages in mitosis are not required.   Draw simple diagrams to describe mitosis.   Draw a simple diagram to describe the cell cycle in terms of: cell growth, when the number of organelles increasesreplication of chromosomes, so the genetic material is doubledseparation of the chromosomes: division of the nucleusdivision of the cell to form two identical cells. 1 Watch video clip showing mitosis.   Discuss how organisms grow and relate this to cell division.   Observe mitosis in cells.   Role play the process of mitosis or use plasticine, pipe cleaners, beads etc to make a simple model.   Draw simple diagrams to describe the cell cycle and mitosis.   Activity: What would happen if…? eg ….DNA did not replicate?…..chromosomes did not line up down the middle?…..organelles did not replicate? Use bioviewers or root tip squashes to show chromosomes and mitosis. Model mitosis. Video clip: BBC Bitesize –Stages of mitosis or cell division BBC Bitesize – The building blocks of cells (first part of Mitosis and meiosis)   Observation activity materials: bioviewersmicroscopesslidescoverslipsroot tips.   Nuffield Foundation- Investigating mitosis in allium root tip squash   Animation: Animal Cell Mitosis
4.1.2.3 Stem cells   This topic is covered in section 4.1.1 – it links to Cell differentiation, 4.1.1.4. Alternatively, you may want to create a separate section about biotechnology where stem cell research, genetic engineering and cloning could be taught together.          

4.1.3 Transport in cells

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most students should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.1.3.1 Diffusion   Substances can move into and out of cells across membranes by diffusion.   Definition of diffusion and factors affecting rate.   Oxygen, carbon dioxide and urea passes through cell membranes by diffusion.   Single celled organisms have a bigger surface area to volume ratio than multicellular organisms, so transfer sufficient substances across their surface. Multicellular organisms require specialised organ systems to exchange sufficient substances.   Factors affecting the effectiveness of an exchange surface. Define the term ‘diffusion’.
Explain how temperature, concentration gradient and surface area affect the rate of diffusion.   Give examples of substances that diffuse into and out of cells.   Calculate and compare surface area: volume ratios.   Explain how the small intestine and lungs in mammals, and roots and leaves in plants, are adapted for exchange of substances.   Describe and explain how an exchange surface is made more effective.
2 Observe demos and suggest explanations: Time how long it is before students can smell a perfume placed in a corner of the room.Is the rate of diffusion different for different gases? Use concentrated ammonium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid in a large glass tube.Does temperature affect the rate of diffusion? Fresh beetroot placed in iced water and warm water. Record observations and suggest explanations.   Watch a video or computer simulation of diffusion on BBC or McGraw-Hill website.   Role play diffusion in gases and liquids at different temperatures and concentrations. Observe micrographs of exchange surfaces in plants and animals. Make drawings and relate structure to function.   Produce a mind map to summarise diffusion and exchange surfaces. Choose investigations as appropriate: potassium permanganate in beaker of water; potassium permanganate on agarinvestigate diffusion of different acids and alkalis through agarinvestigate rate of diffusion of glucose through cellulose tubinguse digital microscope to observe diffusion of particles in milk or yogurt solution. Model diffusion.   Observe slides or micrographs of villi, alveoli, root hair cells and leaves.   Calculate surface area: volume ratios for different sized objects or using data about organisms.   Demo materials: strong perfumeconcentrated NH4OHconcentrated HClglovesmaskforcepscotton woollong glass tube with strips of damp litmus along lengthbeetrootbeakerskettleicetwo gas jars of NO2two empty gas jars.       Optional demo materials: beaker of waterpot perm crystalsstrawforcepsagar in test tube or Petri-dishagar plates impregnated with UI solutioncork borerssolutions of acids and alkalisbeakerscellulose tubingglucose solutiontimerstest tubesBenedict’s solution and water bath or glucose test strips.   Activity: BBC Bitesize – Movement across cell membranes McGraw-Hill Higher Education: Animation: How Diffusion Works
4.1.3.2 Osmosis   Water may move across cell membranes by osmosis.   Osmosis is the movement of water from a dilute solution to a more concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane.   Required Practical: Osmosis Investigate the effect of a range of concentrations of salt or sugar solutions on the mass of plant tissue.     Define the term ‘osmosis’.   Apply knowledge of osmosis to unfamiliar situations and make predictions. 2 Set up a simple osmometer at the start of the lesson and measure how far the liquid in the capillary tube rises during the lesson. Explain the movement of water molecules as a special type of diffusion through a partially permeable membrane. Predict and explain what will happen to cellulose tubing bags filled with water or sugar solution, placed in beakers of water or sugar solution.   Observe and explain the effects of water and concentrated salt solution on cells of onion/ beetroot/ rhubarb.   Use a model to show osmosis or get students to make a model.   Watch a computer simulation of osmosis in plant and animal cells.   Watch a video clip of osmosis in blood cells. Make predictions with explanations.     Investigate the effect of water and concentrated salt solution on onion/ beetroot/ rhubarb cells.   Model osmosis. Demos: 1) Cellulose tubing filled with conc sugar solution attached to capillary tube held in clamp, beaker of water.   2) Four beakers (two of water and two of sugar solution); four cellulose sausages (two of water and two of sugar solution).   Observation activity materials: living plant cells: onion/ beetroot/ rhubarbmicroscopesslidescoverslipswaterconcentrated solutionpipettesblotting paper. Model materials: clear plastic boxplasticine for membranedifferent sized balls for water and solute.   Animation: How Osmosis Works   Video clip: BBC Bitesize – Movement across cell membranes
4.1.3.3 Active transport   This topic is covered in section 4.2.3.2 Plant organs and referred to when teaching digestion and absorption. There are links with 4.3.3.1 Plant diseases.          
  1.  

Biology – Bioenergetics

This resource provides guidance for teaching the Bioenergetics topic from our new GCSE Biology (8461). It has been updated from the draft version to reflect the changes made in the accredited specification. There have been no changes to the required practical. However, there have been minor changes in the specification content in sections 4.5.1 Homeostasis, 4.5.2.1 Structure and function, 4.5.2.2 The brain, 4.5.2.3 The eye, 4.5.3.4 Hormones and human reproduction, 4.5.4.1 Control and coordination and 4.5.4.2 Use of plant hormones. These alterations have not required changes to be made to the scheme of work.

The scheme of work is designed to be a flexible medium term plan for teaching content and development of the skills that will be assessed.

It is provided in Word format to help you create your own teaching plan – you can edit and customise it according to your needs. This scheme of work is not exhaustive; it only suggests activities and resources you could find useful in your teaching.

4.4 Bioenergetics

4.4.1 Photosynthesis

It would be sensible to teach the structure of a leaf (Section 4.2.3.1) when covering photosynthesis. Much of the rest of sections 4.2.3.1 (Plant tissues and organ) and 4.2.3.2 (Plant organ system) could also be taught here.

There are also links with Cell biology (4.1.1.2 Animal and plant cells and 4.1.3.1 Diffusion) and Ecology (4.7.2 Organisation of an ecosystem and 4.7.5 Food production).

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.4.1.1 Photosynthetic reaction Word and symbol equation for photosynthesis. Write the word and symbol equation for photosynthesis. Explain why photosynthesis is important for the survival of other organisms. Investigate the need for light, carbon dioxide and chlorophyll to make glucose. Explain why plants should be de-starched before photosynthesis experiments and describe how this is done. Describe experiments to show that plants produce oxygen in the light. 1 Collective memory activity for students on leaf structure – self assess. Recap food chains KS3 – draw simple food chains for suggested habitat on whiteboards. Watch BBC video clip to recap how leaves are adapted for photosynthesis. Discuss what plants need to survive and how plants are useful to other organisms in order to come up with the word equation for photosynthesis. Set up experiments or demos. Test leaves in following lesson. Set up a demo to show that plants produce oxygen. Observe results in following lesson. Write word and symbol equations for photosynthesis. Produce cards for equation and put into correct order. Watch BBC video clip about Van Helmont’s experiment. Put cards in order to create equation. Set up experiments to show that light, carbon dioxide and chlorophyll are needed to make starch – follow up with testing a leaf for starch in later lesson. Consider controls. Predict what will happen and why. Consider how theories develop over time. Exampro user guide PowerPoint   BBC Bitesize – Photosynthesis in plant leaves Cards Photosynthesis experiment: geraniumsplants with variegated leaveslampsblack paper and paper clipsbell jarssaturated KOH solution or soda lime.   Oxygen demonstration: Elodea/Cabombaglass funnellarge beakertest tube. BBC Bitesize – Van Helmont’s experiments on plant growth
4.4.1.1 Photosynthetic reaction Word and symbol equations Test to see if a leaf contains starch. Explain why the leaves are tested for starch and not for sugar. Describe the test for oxygen. Interpret results and relate to photosynthesis equation. 1 Test leaves for starch, putting the results for all the different experiments into a table. Use a cut-out to put the steps for the test on a leaf in order, and match a reason for each step. Observe demo set up previous lesson and test gas collected to see if it is oxygen. Discuss how this could be used to measure the rate of photosynthesis. Use computer simulation to investigate factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis. Carry out the test and interpret the results. Recall test for oxygen. Interpret results of test and relate to photosynthesis equation. Amend the method to measure rate of photosynthesis. Use a model to embed understanding of process. Oxygen demonstration plants from previous lesson. Leaf test: ethanolboiling tubesbeakersglass rodstilesiodine solutionheating apparatusgoggles. Oxygen test: splints to test several tubes of the gas collected.
4.4.1.2 Rate of photosynthesis The rate of photosynthesis may be limited by: low temperatureshortage of CO2shortage of lightshortage of chlorophyll. Required practical 4: investigate a factor that affects the rate of photosynthesis. State factors that can limit the rate of photosynthesis. Interpret data showing how factors affect the rate of photosynthesis. Required practical: plan a method. 1 Ask students to consider what would happen to a plant if we: put it in the fridge removed CO2put it in a cupboardtook chlorophyll from the leaves. Discuss how the rate of photosynthesis could be measured and consider different methods. Required practical: plan a method. Consider different methods of gathering evidence. Required practical: plan a controlled investigation. Interpret graphs and calculate the rate of photosynthesis. Required practical – see Practical handbook.
4.4.1.2 Required practical: Photosynthesis Investigate the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis using an aquatic organism such as pondweed.   Required practical: carry out an investigation, collect, present and analyse the results. Calculate the rate using numerical information or graphs. 1 Required practical: ask students to identify various factors, select one to control, plan investigation to investigate its effect and explain the procedure and conclusion. Required practical: carry out an investigation, collect, present and analyse the results. Required practical – see Practical handbook.
4.4.1.2 Limiting factors Factors that can limit the rate of photosynthesis are called limiting factors. Limiting factors are important economically in greenhouses. Interpret graphs to decide which factor is limiting the rate. Explain how conditions in greenhouses can be controlled to optimise the growth of plants. Relate limiting factors to the cost effectiveness of adding heat, light or carbon dioxide to greenhouses, Evaluate the benefits of artificially manipulating the environment in which plants are grown. 1 Interpret graphs and explain limiting factors. Design a greenhouse to maintain optimum growth of plants on the moon. Explain all its design features. Compare growth in different areas and relate to photosynthesis. Past paper questions showing data, practise drawing graphs from given data eg QM94R5.09 Debate – are underground or vertical farms the answer to providing food in cities? These are interesting approaches to space saving but how do we ensure the plants get everything they need? Students could design a farm of the future and peer assess. Plot and interpret data about limiting factors. Investigate growth of tomatoes in greenhouse, lab and outside. Use sensors to measure oxygen, light, temperature and carbon dioxide levels.   Mini-greenhouse: plastic food containerscress seeds for a faster turnaround. Greenhouses: tomato plantspotscompostfertilisersensorsbalance. The Telegraph – London’s first underground farm opens in WW2 air raid shelter
4.4.1.3 Use of glucose Glucose produced in photosynthesis may be: used for respirationconverted into starch for storageused to produce fats and oils for storage or cellulose to strengthen cell wallsused to produce amino acids for protein synthesis. To produce proteins plants also use nitrate ions from the soil (links with 4.1.3.3 and 4.3.3.1). List ways in which glucose is used by a plant. Describe functions of fats, oils, cellulose, starch and proteins in a plant. Explain how plants obtain nitrate ions and what they are needed for. Interpret data from the results of bicarbonate indicator experiment. 1 Use TV show style game format and ask ‘How many daily products come from plants?’ See which team can name the most. Observe exhibition of products (could be images). Could be a Q&A treasure hunt with images around the room, eg Which product is high in protein? Which product contains caffeine? Discuss uses of glucose and produce a Mind map or poster. Discussion idea: can a vegetarian diet provide all necessary nutrients? Link to chemical tests. Produce diagrams to illustrate the flow of carbon dioxide and oxygen in and out of a plant in bright light, dim light and darkness. Explain the link between photosynthesis and respiration using equations – use cards previously made for photosynthesis and rearrange to show respiration. Relate production of chemicals in plants to food chains. If not covered elsewhere investigate the effect of mineral ions on plant growth and write a report (based on results from few weeks later). Explain the purpose of the air tube and black paper around the containers. View exhibition of plant products and suggest where they came from and what useful chemical they contain. Carry out tests to show plants make glucose and store starch and protein. Investigate the effect of plants and invertebrates on bicarbonate indicator solution in light and dark. Explain the results. Carry out a controlled investigation using appropriate apparatus. Decide on suitable observations to evaluate the effect of ions on growth. Exhibition of plant products: sugarstarchy foodprotein rich foodplant oilspapercocoacoffeecottonrubberflournutsdrugs etc. Glucose test: plant in lightBenedict’s solutionboiling tubeBunsen burner. Starch test: pieces of apple and potatotilesiodine solution. Protein test: beans or nutsbiuret reagenttest tubes. Bicarbonate indicator experiment: bicarbonate indicator solutionacidalkalistrawboiling tubesbungsblack paperCabombasmall invertebratesgauzelamp. Minerals test: tomato plantspotscompost or grow cuttings in solutions with and without minerals (eg magnesium and nitrates) black papergas jars or boiling tubes with air tube.         Past BL2 exam questions. Animations, images and resources: SAPS Secondary Resources Homepage S-cool, the revision website Video clips: BBC Bitesize – Photosynthesis BBC Bitesize – Fertilisers and farming AQA resources: PowerPoint B2.3 Photosynthesis

 

4.4.2 Respiration

Links with 4.1.1.2 – mitochondria, and 4.5.3.7 – adrenaline.

Practical sheets available online – Biology Experiments | Teaching & Learning Resources

Spec ref. Summary of the specification content Learning outcomes What most candidates should be able to do Suggested timing (hours) Opportunities to develop Scientific Communication skills Opportunities to develop and apply practical and enquiry skills Self/peer assessment opportunities and resources Reference to past questions that indicate success
4.4.2.1 Aerobic respiration Respiration can take place aerobically or anaerobically to transfer energy. Respiration is an exothermic reaction. Organisms need energy for chemical reactions, movement and to keep warm. During aerobic respiration glucose and oxygen react to release energy. Word and symbol equation for aerobic respiration. State that all animals and plants produce carbon dioxide and water all the time as a by-product of aerobic respiration. Write the word equation for aerobic respiration. Define the term ‘aerobic’. Describe what organisms need energy for. Describe tests for carbon dioxide and water. State the site of aerobic respiration and be able to give examples of cells that contain a lot of mitochondria (links with 4.1.1.2). 2 Show energy drink, glucose tablets and a plant. Discuss substance the body uses as a source of energy and what aerobic means in order to build up the word equation for aerobic respiration. Demonstrate burning food is an exothermic reaction. Watch BBC video clip about respiration. Discuss how to show that humans transfer energy and produce water and carbon dioxide. Relate these observations to the word equation for aerobic respiration. Recap that mitochondria in cells are the site of aerobic respiration (links to 4.1.1.2). Discuss examples of cells that will contain many mitochondria. Consider a bottle of Lucozade, glucose tablets and a plant. Demonstrate the release of energy from food. Investigate inhaled and exhaled air. Demonstrate that animals and plants in the dark respire and release carbon dioxide. Demonstrate that germinating peas/seeds transfer energy as heat. Observe results in following lesson. Observe EM images of mitochondria in different types of cells and make conclusions. Discussion prompts for considering energy release: bottle of Lucozadeglucose tabletsplant. Demonstration of release of energy: mounted needle or tongspiece of foodboiling tube of waterthermometer. Video clip: BBC Bitesize – Aerobic respiration Exhaled air demonstration: carbon dioxide in inhaled and exhaled air apparatuslimewatermirrorscobalt chloride paperthermometers. Demonstrating evidence of respiration in an animal: two bell jars connected to two containers of limewater that air is passing through via tubes (first container is fitted with thistle funnel containing soda lime) pump to draw air through systemsmall animalplantblack paper. Demonstrating energy transfers as heat: soaked peas/seedsboiled and cooled peasthermos flasks with temperature probes.
4.4.2.1 Anaerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration is the incomplete oxidation of glucose so less energy is released than in aerobic respiration. Word equation for anaerobic respiration in muscle cells. Word and symbol equation for anaerobic respiration in some plant and yeast cells. Anaerobic respiration in yeast cells is called fermentation and has economic importance in the manufacture of bread and alcoholic drinks. Define the term ‘anaerobic’. Explain why anaerobic respiration is less efficient than aerobic respiration. Write the word equation for anaerobic respiration in animal cells. Write the word and symbol equation for anaerobic respiration in yeast cells. State that anaerobic respiration in yeast is called fermentation. Explain why yeast is used to make bread and alcoholic drinks. Interpret data from yeast investigation. 1 Anaerobic respiration in muscle cells – see section on exercise below. Discuss different ways to measure the rate of respiration in yeast cells. Interpret graphs on the rate of respiration in yeast cells. Research how yeast is used to make bread, wine and beer. Investigate the rate of respiration in yeast using carbon dioxide sensors and data loggers. Investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of respiration in yeast. How does temperature affect the amount bread dough rises? Make bread dough, place set amount in measuring beaker and observe. Yeast demonstration: water bathstimerflasks containing yeast and sugar solutiongas syringes.   Nuffield Foundation – Microbes and bread making using yeast
4.4.2.2 Response to exercise During exercise the heart and breathing rates increase and breath volume increases to supply oxygen to muscle cells faster. Muscle cells can respire anaerobically if there is insufficient oxygen. This produces lactic acid and creates an oxygen debt. Lactic acid can cause muscle fatigue. The cells stop contracting efficiently. When exercise stops, the oxygen debt must be repaid by continuing to breathe deeply. Blood transports lactic acid to the liver where it is converted back into glucose. The oxygen debt is the amount of oxygen needed to oxidise lactic acid. Describe and explain the changes that occur in the body during exercise. Design and carry out an investigation about the effects of exercise on the body. Present and interpret data about heart rate, breathing rate and breath volume. Interpret data relating to the effects of exercise on the body, eg spirometer tracings. Describe the effects of long periods of vigorous exercise on the body. Define the term ‘oxygen debt’. Explain what happens to lactic acid once exercise stops. 1 Mini-practical: start jumps, jog on spot for 1 minute – what do you notice? Why have these changes happened? Plan an investigation about the effects of exercise on the body. Interpret line graphs and spirometer tracings to compare rate of breathing before, during and after exercise. Use spirometer tracings to calculatebreathing rate and depth of breathing. Interpret data on heart rate, temperature and depth of breathing during exercise. Interpret data to compare how fit different people are. Discuss causes and effects of muscle fatigue and relate these to lactic acid build up. Watch a video showing sprinters and discuss how the body reacts at the end of the race – paying back the oxygen debt. YouTube has a variety of videos of marathon runners struggling over the finish line – use them as a discussion starter, eg: Fantastic Marathon finishes and the agony of the feet or Extraordinary Human Beings in Slow Motion at the Twin Cities Marathon Finish Line Investigate the effect of exercise on heart rate, breathing rate, depth of breathing and temperature. Investigate effect of muscle fatigue on muscle strength and produce an article for a fitness magazine. Investigate how long it takes muscles to fatigue – repetitive actions, eg step ups or holding masses at arm’s length. Interpret spirometer traces. Calculate breathing rate and depth of breathing. Interpret data and draw conclusions. BBC Bitesize – Aerobic and anaerobic respiration Timer, pulse sensor and spirometer if available. Muscle strength meters. Timers and masses. AQA resources: PowerPoint B2.6 Aerobic and anaerobic respiration
4.4.2.3 Metabolism Metabolism means all the chemical reactions happening in a living organism. Metabolism includes: the conversion of glucose to starch, glycogen and cellulosethe formation of lipidsthe formation of amino-acids and proteinsrespirationthe breakdown of excess proteins to form urea for excretion. Define the term ‘metabolism’. Give examples of reactions in metabolism. Name some chemicals formed from glucose molecules (links to 4.4.1.3). Describe lipid formation from a molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acids. Describe the use of glucose and nitrate ions to form amino acids, which form proteins. Describe the formation of urea. 1 Discuss what metabolism means and examples of the reactions that make up metabolism. Produce a mind map or poster to summarise metabolism and its reactions. Relate this metabolism to other parts of the specification.