GCSE Sociology

Scheme of work

This scheme of work for GCSE Sociology (8192) is designed to help you plan your teaching. Use this with the accompanying Resources list to plan your lessons.

Year 10

 Introducing Sociology

  Teach before Research

Lesson number Topic Lesson guidance Suggested activities Key concepts covered
1 What is sociology? How do we define what sociology is and what do sociologists study? How did sociology develop? (A brief history.) Looking at the world through the eyes of a sociologist. Use edited extracts from sociological texts/examples of published research/compare and contrast with examples of journalism. Role-play: looking at the world like a sociologist. Culture Norms Role Social construct Society
2 Emile Durkheim Why is Durkheim seen as a ‘founder’ of sociology and what were some of his important ideas? Durkheim and his world.   Anomie Crime and deviance Division of labour Functionalism
3 Karl Marx Why is Marx seen as a ‘founder’ of sociology and what were some of his important ideas? Marx and his world.   Compare and contrast with Durkheim (different ways of looking at the world). Simulation: a meeting between Durkheim and Marx. Bourgeoisie Capitalism Communism Economy Proletariat Wealth Working class
4 Max Weber   Why is Weber seen as a ‘founder’ of sociology and what were some of his important ideas? Weber and his world. Compare and contrast with Durkheim and Marx (different ways of looking at the world). Simulation: a meeting between Weber and Marx. Quick test to assess students’ knowledge and understanding of the important ideas of Durkheim, Marx and Weber. Extended writing: for example, write a paragraph to describe the key ideas of Max Weber. You may wish to provide students with some ‘success criteria’, including a list of key points that they should have covered in their answer together with opportunities for peer review. Authority Power
5 Functionalism An introduction to Functionalism. Was Durkheim a functionalist? Who was Talcott Parsons and what was his contribution to sociology? Criticisms of Functionalism. Mind-map: key functionalist ideas.   Social order Value consensus
6 Marxism An introduction to Marxism. Marxist sociology (explore examples). Historical attempts to create a society based on Marxist ideas. Criticisms of Marxism.   Marxism False class consciousness Ruling class ideology
7 Interactionism An introduction to Interactionism. Labelling theory (explore examples of how labelling can affect the behaviour of students). Criticisms of Interactionism. Reference: ‘Learning to Labour’, Paul Willis, (1975). Students to reflect on their own classroom experiences: focus on observed behaviour – link to participant observation as a research method. Labelling Master status
8 Feminism An introduction to Feminism. What is patriarchy? Are men and women  equal in Great Britain today? Comparison with the status of women in other societies. Discussion:  are men and women  equal in Great Britain today? Gender Patriarchy Polygamy
9 New Right   An introduction to the New Right. The culture of poverty. The underclass. Criticisms of the New Right. Reference: ‘The Children of Sanchez’, Oscar Lewis, (1961). Note: the specification only references New Right ideas in relation to the Social stratification topic. Quick test to assess students’ knowledge and understanding of Functionalism, Marxism, Interactionism and the New Right. Extended writing: for example, write a paragraph to explain Marxist ideas about social class. You may wish to provide students with some ‘success criteria’, including a list of key points that they should have covered in their answer together with opportunities for peer review. Culture Culture of dependency Culture of poverty Identity Neo-liberalism and neo-conservatism Underclass
10 Social structures What is a social structure? Different forms of social stratification. Race and ethnicity. Apartheid in South Africa (an example from history). Caste Ethnicity Feudal system Gender Social class Social stratification
11 Social processes What is a social process? Social control. Socialisation. Nature versus nurture.   Discussion: what makes us who we are?   Culture Mass media Sanctions Social control Socialisation Values
12 Social issues   What is a social issue? Poverty as a social issue. Crime as a social issue. Media amplification and moral panics. Content analysis: media coverage of poverty and/or crime. Quick test to assess students’ knowledge and understanding of social structures, social processes and social issues. Extended writing: for example, write a paragraph to explain what sociologists mean by a social issue. Provide model answers and opportunities for peer review. Poverty Crime Media amplification Moral panic Relative deprivation
13 Sociological debates What is a conflict perspective? What is a consensus perspective? ‘Grand theories’ and ideas about progress. Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists. Conflict Consensus Sociological debate
14 Quality and quantity What is qualitative research? What is quantitative research? Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists. Case study Official statistics Reliability Validity
15 Culture and nature What is culture? (Refer back to lesson 1.) Nature v nurture (refer back to lesson 11). Feral children. Sociobiology. Discussion: is there such a thing as ‘free will’?   Culture Socialisation
16 Sex and gender What is the difference between biological sex and gender? Culture and gender roles. Gender identity. Feminist perspectives on gender roles.   Culture Feminism Gender
17 Race and ethnicity What is race? (Link to lesson 10.) What is ethnicity? Racial prejudice and discrimination. Historical and contemporary examples of racial prejudice and discrimination. Content analysis: media coverage of related issues, such as immigration. Discrimination Ethnicity Immigration Racism Scapegoat Stereotype
18 Facts and values What is a sociological fact? What are values? Structure and agency – how are people motivated to act in the world? Link to Functionalism (lesson 5) and Interactionism (lesson 7). Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists. Quick test to assess students’ knowledge and understanding of debates in sociology. Extended writing: for example, write a paragraph to explain what sociologists mean when they talk about the difference between race and ethnicity. You may wish to provide students with some ‘success criteria’, including a list of key points that they should have covered in their answer together with opportunities for peer review. Functionalism Interactionism Values

Research

   Teach before 3.3 Families

  Teach after Introducing Sociology

Lesson number Topic Lesson guidance Suggested activities Key concepts covered
1 Research design What are the key decisions to make before beginning a research project? Establishing appropriate aims. Formulating a hypothesis. Discussion: what are appropriate research opportunities in your school or college? Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists. Bias Ethics Hypothesis Validity
2 The scientific method What is the scientific method? Why is peer review important? What is the importance of a pilot study (planning for success and avoiding problems)? What makes research ‘reliable’? What makes research ‘valid’? Alternative approaches, for example,  the interactionist perspective (asking people about their experiences and feelings) and gaining informed consent from research participants. Discussion: is sociology a science?   Informed consent Interactionism Reliability Validity
3 Practical problems How do we assess the success or failure of sociological research? Choosing the right research tools. Grounded theory (link to previous lesson – alternative approaches). Avoiding bias. Using secondary sources appropriately. Keeping costs under control. Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists (including summary reviews of published research identifying significant criticisms).   Bias Secondary sources  
4 Ethical problems What is the British Sociological Association Ethical Code (provide a summary of main points)? The principle of informed consent. The Nuremburg Code. The need for anonymity and confidentiality. The Data Protection Act (summary of key principles). Simulation: ‘ethics committee’ reviewing research proposals.   Ethics Informed consent Confidentiality  
5 Primary sources What are primary sources? Different types of primary data. Reliability (refer back to lesson two). Validity (refer back to lesson 2). Representative population samples (introduce this idea – to be followed up and developed at a later point). Research using mixed methods (advantages).   Case study Interview Longitudinal study Mixed methods Observation Questionnaire Representative sample Triangulation
6 Secondary sources What are secondary sources? Different types of secondary source material. The need for critical review when using secondary sources (provide examples of secondary sources demonstrating a lack of objectivity). Content analysis. Quick test to assess students’ knowledge and understanding of research design and associated issues. Extended writing: for example, write a paragraph to explain what sociologists mean when they talk about the need for informed consent. You may wish to provide students with some ‘success criteria’, including a list of key points that they should have covered in their answer together with opportunities for peer review. Content analysis Official statistics Secondary sources
7 Surveys What are surveys? Postal and online questionnaires. Telephone surveys. Opinion polls. Advantages and disadvantages of surveys.   Sample Representative data  
8 Sampling Why do sociologists use sample surveys (link to lesson 7)? What is a sampling frame? Different types of probability samples (known populations). Non-probability samples (unknown populations). Practical: students to gain practical experience of sampling procedures. Quota sample Random sample Representative Sampling frame Snowball sample Systematic sample
9 Questionnaires What is a questionnaire (as a research tool)? When is a questionnaire an appropriate research tool? How to design a questionnaire. What are the advantages of questionnaires? What are the disadvantages of questionnaires? Practical: students to gain practical experience of questionnaire design and use. Closed question Confidentiality Informed consent Open questions
10 Interviews What is an interview (as a research tool)? Different types of interviews (structured, unstructured and semi-structured). Focus groups. The problem of interviewer bias. The advantages of interviews. The disadvantages of interviews. Practical: students to gain practical experience of interviews as a research method.   Focus group Interview Unstructured interviews  
11 Observation What is observation (as a research tool)? Different types of observation (participant and non-participant). What is an observation schedule? The advantages of observation. The disadvantages of observation. Practical: students to gain practical experience of observation as a research method.   Non-participant observation Observer effect Participant observation  
12 Statistics   What is quantitative data (key terms and ideas)? Presenting quantitative data. Looking for patterns and trends. Practical: students to gain practical experience of gathering, analysing and presenting simple examples of quantitative data, for example, the results of a questionnaire (link to lesson 9). Quick test to assess students’ knowledge and understanding of research methods. Extended writing: for example, write a paragraph to explain the advantages and disadvantages of interviews as a research method. You may wish to provide students with some ‘success criteria’, including a list of key points that they should have covered in their answer together with opportunities for peer review. Quantitative data
13 Case studies What is a case study (as a research tool)? When is it appropriate to use a case study? What are the advantages of case studies? What are the disadvantages of case studies?   Case study
14 Longitudinal studies What is a longitudinal study (as a research tool)? When is it appropriate to use a longitudinal study? What are the advantages of longitudinal studies? What are the disadvantages of longitudinal studies?   Longitudinal study Representative data/sample Social mobility  
15 Ethnography What is ethnography (as a research tool)? When is it appropriate to use an ethnographic approach? What are the advantages of ethnography? What are the disadvantages of ethnography?   Ethnography  
16 Experiments What is an experiment (as a research tool)? Examples of famous (social science) experiments. Ethical problems associated with social science experiments.   Ethics  
17 Small scale research   Practical: students to design and then complete a small scale research project. Appropriate examples might include: investigating attitudes towards exercise and diet amongst students from different socio-economic backgrounds.investigating attitudes towards education amongst students from different gender groups. . The completed project can also be used as a formative assessment opportunity. Guidance on how to structure answers: use the sample assessment materials (SAMs) on the website to select appropriate examples, for example, Paper 1 Questions 7 and 18. Students to draft a plan for their answers. Discuss examples of how best to approach the questions before allowing students to complete their answers. You may wish to consider circulating examples of ‘anonymous’ edited extracts from some of the best answers and summarising common mistakes to be avoided. Attitude survey Questionnaire Interview

3.3 Families

  Teach before 3.4 Education

  Teach after Research

Lesson number Topic Lesson guidance Suggested activities Key concepts covered
1 What is a family? How do sociologists define a family? What is a household? Different family structures.   Cohabitation Family Family diversity Reconstituted (or blended) family Lone parent family
2 Family diversity What are the different types of family found in the UK? The Rapoports’ five types of family diversity (organisational, cultural, social class, life cycle and family life course). Criticisms of the Rapoports’ work.   Divorce Family diversity Marriage
3 Reasons for family diversity How have changes in the law affected the family. Think about divorce, equal pay and same-sex marriage. Changing social values and attitudes. Changing gender roles. Benefits for lone parents. Employment opportunities. Longer life expectancy. Decline in religion. Immigration.   Divorce Gender equality Gender roles Immigration Life expectancy Same sex marriage Lone parents Values and attitudes
4 The nuclear family What is a nuclear family? Is the nuclear family still important? The media and the nuclear family. The family life cycle. Content analysis.   Nuclear family Mass media  
5 Alternatives to the family Why might people live in a lone person household? Communal living. The Kibbutz. House shares. Residential homes.   Commune Kibbutz
6 Families in a global context How do families differ in other cultures?   Draw examples from a range of different cultures, including China, Southern Asia, the Caribbean. Quick test to assess students’ knowledge and understanding of family diversity. Extended writing: write a paragraph to explain the Rapoports’ ideas about family diversity. You may wish to provide students with some ‘success criteria’, including a list of key points that they should have covered in their answer together with opportunities for peer review. Culture
7 Functionalism and the family. What is the Functionalist theory of the family? The ideas of Murdock. The ideas of Parsons. Primary socialisation. The stabilisation of adult personalities. Criticisms of the functionalist theory of the family.   Functionalism Primary socialisation
8 Alternative theories on the functions of the family What is the Marxist theory of the family? Criticisms of the Marxist theory of the family. The ideas of Zaretsky. What is the Feminist theory of the family? The ideas of Delphy and Leonard. Criticisms of the Feminist theory of the family. Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists. Marxism Feminism
9 Relationships within families How have relationships within families changed over time? Pre-industrial families (1600 to 1800). Industrialised families (post-1800). Contemporary families. Relationships between parents and children.   Family relationships Symmetrical family Stratified diffusion Patriarchy  
10 Marriage Is marriage in decline? How important is marriage in contemporary British society?   Arranged marriage Cohabitation Monogamy Same-sex marriage Serial monogamy
11 Divorce Why has the pattern of divorce changed since 1945? Legal changes. Changing social attitudes and values. Loss of traditional family functions (loosening of the ‘ties that bind’). Secularisation.   Divorce Social attitudes Values Secularisation
12 Consequences of divorce What are the consequences of divorce? Consequences for parents and family members. Lone parent families. Consequences for children.     Divorce Lone parent family  
13 Theories about divorce What do functionalist sociologists say about divorce? What do Marxist sociologists say about divorce? What do feminist sociologists say about divorce?   Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists. Quick test to assess students’ knowledge and understanding of family functions, marriage and divorce. Extended writing: for example, write a paragraph to explain the reasons why more than 40% of marriages are expected to end in divorce. You may wish to provide students with some ‘success criteria’, including a list of key points that they should have covered in their answer together with opportunities for peer review. Functionalism Marxism Feminism
14 Conjugal roles What are conjugal roles? What are traditional family roles? Oakley on the idea of the conventional family. Joint conjugal roles. The dual burden.   Conjugal roles Dual burden Joint conjugal roles Segregated conjugal roles Traditional family roles
15 The symmetrical family What is the symmetrical family? The ideas of Young and Willmott. Suggested reasons for the rise of the symmetrical family. The principle of stratified diffusion. Criticisms of Young and Willmott. Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists (including summary reviews of published research identifying significant criticisms). Symmetrical family Stratified diffusion
16 Changing relationships within families How have relationships within families changed over time? Power relationships and decision making within families. Changing status of women in society. Domestic violence.   Power relationships Status  
17 Functionalist and Marxist theories about conjugal roles What do functionalist sociologists say about conjugal roles? Evaluating functionalist ideas. What do Marxist sociologists say about conjugal roles? Evaluating Marxist ideas. Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists. Conjugal roles Functionalism Marxism
18 Feminist theories about conjugal roles What do feminist sociologists say about conjugal roles? Evaluating feminist ideas. Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists (link to lesson 17). Conjugal roles Feminism
19 Research in action: conjugal role relationships   Practical: students to devise a questionnaire (possibly with follow-up interviews) designed to investigate who completes specific domestic tasks within the family household. The completed project can also be used as a formative assessment opportunity. Guidance on how to structure answers: use the sample assessment materials (SAMs) on the website to select appropriate, for example, Paper 1 Question 10. Students to draft a plan for their answers. Discuss examples of how best to approach the questions before allowing students to complete their answers. You may wish to consider circulating examples of ‘anonymous’ edited extracts from some of the best answers and summarising common mistakes to be avoided. Questionnaire Interview

3.4 Education – lessons 1-7

Teach before 3.4 Education – lessons 8-17

Teach after 3.3 Families

Lesson number Topic Lesson guidance Suggested activities Key concepts covered
1 Function of education Why do we have schools? Functionalism and education (Durkheim and Parsons). Social cohesion. Skills for employment.   Compulsory state education Functionalism Social cohesion
2 Schools as an agency of socialisation How do schools act as an agency of socialisation? Core values. Meritocracy.   Secondary socialisation Values Meritocracy
3 Education and capitalism What is the relationship between education and capitalism? What do Marxist sociologists say about education? The correspondence principle (Bowles and Gintis). Criticisms of the Marxist view of education. Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists (including summary reviews of published research identifying significant criticisms).   Capitalism Correspondence principle Marxism
4 Comparing different perspectives on education Evaluating functionalist views of education. Evaluating Marxist views of education. Evaluating feminist views of education. Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists. Feminism Functionalism Marxism
5 Different types of school Identifying various types of state school, including primary, secondary, comprehensive, academies and faith schools. Selective education. Private education.   School State school Selection Private school
6 Alternative education Identifying various alternative forms of education including: de-schoolinghome schoolingdemocratic schools, such as Summerhill.   De-schooling Home schooling  
7 State or private school? Arguments for and against private education. Comparing social costs, opportunities and outcomes. Quick test to assess students’ knowledge and understanding of the function and organisation of education. Extended writing:  write a paragraph to explain the correspondence principle. You may wish to provide students with some ‘success criteria’, including a list of key points that they should have covered in their answer together with opportunities for peer review. State school Private school

Year 11

3.4 Education – lessons 8-17

Students would benefit from a general awareness of the development of the education system and of significant changes to the structure of that system as a consequence of educational reforms.

Teach before 3.5 Crime and deviance

Teach after 3.4 Education – lessons 1-7

Lesson number Topic Lesson guidance Suggested activities Key concepts covered
8 Educational achievement How do we measure educational success? Public examinations and league tables. Ball on parental choice and competition between schools.   League table Public examinations SATs
9 External factors affecting educational achievement Outside the school what factors influence the chances of educational success? Gender socialisation. Material deprivation. Parental attitudes. Language development. Employment, for example, as a motivational factor. Government, for example, structural reforms to the education system.   Gender Social class Socialisation
10 Internal factors affecting educational achievement Inside the school what factors influence the chances of educational success? School ethos. Hidden curriculum. Setting and streaming. Labelling and the self-fulfilling prophecy. Pupil subcultures.   Counter school cultures Ethos Hidden curriculum Labelling Self-fulfilling prophecy Setting Streaming  
11 Social class and educational achievement (1) What is the link between social class and educational achievement? Patterns of educational disadvantage related to socio-economic class. The work of Halsey, Heath and Ridge. Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists. Educational achievement Socio-economic class
12 Social class and educational achievement (2) What is cultural capital? What is cultural deprivation? What is material deprivation? Working class subcultures. Parental attitudes and language development (link to lesson 10). Teacher/pupil interactions. Ball on teacher expectations. Quick test to assess students’ knowledge and understanding of how we measure educational success and factors affecting educational achievement. Extended writing. For example: write a paragraph to explain how socio-economic class can affect chances of educational success. You may wish to provide students with some ‘success criteria’, including a list of key points that they should have covered in their answer together with opportunities for peer review. Cultural capital Cultural deprivation Interactionism Social inequality Subculture
13 Gender and educational achievement (1) What is the gender based pattern of educational achievement? Comparing the performance of boys and girls over time. Patterns of subject choice.   Educational achievement Gender
14 Gender and educational achievement (2) How do we explain gender based differences in educational achievement? Legal changes. For example:, employment opportunities for women and the National Curriculum. Feminism and changing expectations/improved self-esteem. Socialisation. Hidden curriculum. Teacher expectations and teacher-pupil interactions. Gender based pupil subcultures. Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists. Feminism Gender Hidden curriculum Socialisation Subculture
15 Research in action: gender and subject choice   Practical: students to design and then complete a small scale research project investigating gender based differences when choosing optional subjects. An appropriate approach might be a questionnaire (possibly with follow-up interviews) asking students about their option choices and their motives for choosing particular subjects. The completed project can also be used as a formative assessment opportunity. Questionnaire Interview
16 Ethnicity and educational achievement What is the link between ethnicity and educational achievement? High achieving ethnic groups. Ethnic groups who are more likely to be excluded from school and to underachieve. Impact of various home and school based factors linked to ethnicity. Link to previous lessons on the impact of social class and gender on patterns of educational achievement.   Ethnicity Exclusion  
17 Education policies and their possible impact on patterns of achievement A brief overview of the history of educational reform. The introduction of compulsory education. The raising of the school leaving age. The tripartite system. Comprehensive schools. National curriculum. Academies, faith and free schools. Student grants/loans and access to higher education.   Assessment: select an appropriate example from the specimen paper. For example, Paper 1, Question 22. Allow students to draft an essay plan. Discuss examples of how best to approach the question and structure their essay. You may consider the introduction of timed assessments (the mark a minute rule). Teacher-marked assessment, feedback on standard achieved. You may wish to consider circulating examples of ‘anonymous’ edited extracts from some of the best answers and summarising common mistakes to be avoided. Academy Comprehensive school Compulsory state education Education reform Tripartite system

3.5 Crime and deviance

 Teach before 3.6 Social stratification

 Teach after 3.4 Education – lessons 8-17

Lesson number Topic Lesson guidance Suggested activities Key concepts covered
1 Crime and deviance What is the difference between crime and deviance? Defining crime and deviance. Time, place, culture and social situation.   Crime Deviance Culture  
2 Measuring crime (1) How is crime measured? Official crime statistics. Why do sociologists use official statistics on crime? What are the problems associated with official statistics on crime?   Dark figure Official statistics Recorded crime Reported crime  
3 Measuring crime (2) What are victim surveys? What are the advantages and disadvantages of victim surveys? What are the advantages and disadvantages of self-report studies?   Self-report study Victim survey
4 The social construction of crime and deviance What do sociologists mean when they say that crime and deviance are socially constructed? Refer back to lesson 1. Explore examples of the changing definition of crime and deviance. For example: drug and alcohol consumption, suicide and homosexuality.   Crime Deviance Social construct
5 Factors affecting criminal behaviour (1) How has criminal and deviant behaviour been explained? Biological explanations. Psychological explanations.    
6 Factors affecting criminal behaviour (2)   How has criminal and deviant behaviour been explained? Sociological explanations. The ideas of Merton and Becker. Socialisation. Anomie. Peer groups and criminal subcultures. Status frustration. Labelling.   Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists. Quick test to assess students’ knowledge and understanding of how we define and explain criminal and deviant behaviour. Extended writing: write a paragraph to explain some of the problems associated with official statistics on crime. You may wish to provide students with some ‘success criteria’, including a list of key points that they should have covered in their answer together with opportunities for peer review. Anomie Interactionism Labelling Subculture Socialisation Status frustration
7 Social class and crime How do sociologists explain differences in criminal behaviour between social classes? Link to sociological explanations of crime (lesson 6). Official statistics. White collar crime.   Anomie Interactionism Labelling Subculture Social class Socialisation Status frustration White collar crime
8 Gender and crime How do sociologists explain differences in criminal behaviour between men and women The ideas of Heidensohn. Link to sociological explanations of crime (lesson 6). Official statistics. Opportunity. Control theory. Chivalry thesis. Poverty.   Chivalry thesis Control theory Gender
9 Ethnicity and crime Statistical patterns of crime and criticisms of statistics Links to sociological explanations of crime (lesson 6). Official statistics. Institutional racism. Stereotypes (police and media).   Ethnicity Institutional racism Stereotypes
10 Age and crime How do sociologists explain differences in criminal behaviour between different age groups? Link to sociological explanations of crime (lesson 6). Status frustration. Risk taking behaviour by young people (‘edgework’). Stereotypes (police and media).   Status frustration Stereotypes
11 Informal social control What is informal social control? Family. Peer group. Schools. Workplace. Religion.   Social control  
12 Formal social control What is formal social control? Police. Court system. Home Office. Ministry of Justice. Serious Fraud Office. Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists. Quick test to assess students’ knowledge and understanding of how sociologists explain variations in criminal behaviour between different groups in society and how society controls criminal and deviant behaviour. You may wish to provide students with some ‘success criteria’, including a list of key points that they should have covered in their answer together with opportunities for peer review. Social control Criminal justice system Prison system
13 Treatment of young offenders How should society respond to criminal behaviour by young people? Albert Cohen on delinquent subcultures. Punishment or education? Age of criminal responsibility. Youth custody.   Youth crime  
14 The prison system What is the prison system designed to achieve? Punishment. Reform. Alternatives to prison.   Prison system Probation system  
15 Violent crime and sentencing How should society respond to violent crime? Sentencing violent offenders. Mandatory prison sentences. Fieldwork opportunity: visit to a Magistrates Court. Criminal justice system Prison system
16 Media reporting of crime How accurate is the reporting of crime by the media? Sensationalism. Deviancy amplification. Moral panic. Violence media content. Content analysis   Deviancy amplification Media Moral panic  
17 Functionalist theories about crime What are functionalist ideas about crime and deviance? Boundaries and values. Social cohesion. Deviant behaviour as a ‘safety valve’. Strain theory. Subculture theory. Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists (including criticisms of Functionalist explanations).   Functionalism
18 Alternative theories about crime.   How do Marxist sociologists explain criminal and deviant behaviour? Criticisms of Marxist explanations. How do Interactionist sociologists explain criminal and deviant behaviour? Criticisms of Interactionist explanations. How do Feminist sociologists explain criminal and deviant behaviour? The ideas of Carlen. Criticisms of Feminist explanations. Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists. Assessment: select an appropriate example from the specimen paper, for example Paper 2, Question 10. Allow students to draft an essay plan. Discuss examples of how best to approach the question and structure their essay. You may consider the introduction of timed assessments (the mark a minute rule). Teacher-marked assessment, feedback on standard achieved. You may wish to consider circulating examples of ‘anonymous’ edited extracts from some of the best answers and summarising common mistakes to be avoided. Feminism Interactionism Marxism

3.6 Social stratification

 Teach after 3.5 Crime and deviance

Lesson number Topic Lesson guidance Suggested activities Key concepts covered
1 Social stratification What is social stratification? Different types of social stratification: slaverycasteestatesclass.     Achieved status Aristocracy Caste Class Elite Feudalism (estates) Slavery Social inequality Stratification
2 Functionalism and social stratification Why do functionalists believe that social stratification is a ‘universal necessity’? The ideas of Davis and Moore. Criticisms of Davis and Moore. Inequalities in income between different groups.   Functionalism Income Inequality Stratification
3 Socio-economic class What is socio-economic class? Who is in the ‘upper class’? Who is in the ‘middle class’? Who is in the ‘working class’? National statistics and the classification of socio-economic class.   Elite National statistics Socio-economic class  
4 Marx on class What is the Marxist view of socio-economic class? Means of production. Division of labour. Capitalism. Class conflict. Polarisation of social classes. Alienation. Crisis of capitalism. Communism. Criticisms of Marx.   Bourgeoisie Capitalism Class struggle (conflict) Communism Marxism Petty-bourgeoisie Proletariat  
5 Weber on class What is Weber’s view of socio-economic class? Market situation. Life chances. Status, values and lifestyle. Party (any organised group that seeks to exercise power). Criticisms of Weber.   Life chances Lifestyle Market situation Status Values  
6 Life chances What are the various factors affecting life chances? Is Britain a meritocratic society? Social class. Various other factors affecting life chances. For example: gender, ethnicity and age. Quick test to assess students’ knowledge and understanding of social stratification. Extended writing. For example: write a paragraph to explain the Marxist view of socio-economic class. You may wish to provide students with some ‘success criteria’, including a list of key points that they should have covered in their answer together with opportunities for peer review. Ageism Meritocracy Racism Sexism  
7 The affluent worker Are the working class becoming more like the middle class (link to life chances)? The idea of embourgeoisement (Goldthorpe et al). Instrumental attitudes. Privatism (home centred). Class identity. Criticisms of the theory of embourgeoisement (Devine).   Affluence Embourgeoisement Social class Working class
8 Social mobility What is social mobility? Vertical mobility. Intra-generational mobility. Intergenerational mobility. Rates of social mobility. The Social mobility and Child poverty commission.   Social mobility  
9 Poverty What is absolute poverty? What is relative poverty? Measuring poverty. Explaining poverty.   Absolute poverty Poverty trap Relative deprivation (poverty)
10 Relative deprivation Why do sociologists use a relative measure of poverty? The ideas of Townsend on relative deprivation. Criticisms of Townsend.   Deprivation
11 Underclass Who is in the ‘underclass’? The ideas of Murray on welfare reform and the underclass. Criticisms of Murray. Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists. Lumpen proletariat New Right  
12 Globalisation   What is globalisation? Criticisms of globalisation. The impact of globalisation on the UK.   Quick test to assess students’ knowledge and understanding of social mobility and poverty.  Extended writing. For example: write a paragraph to explain the reasons why sociologists use a relative measure of poverty. You may wish to provide students with some ‘success criteria’, including a list of key points that they should have covered in their answer together with opportunities for peer review. Marxism Nation state Neo-liberalism Privatisation
13 Welfare state What is the welfare state? New Right perspectives on welfare. Centre-left perspectives on welfare. Marxist and feminist perspectives on welfare. Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists. Feminism Marxism New Right Welfare state
14 Weber on power How did Weber define power? Rational (legal) authority. Traditional authority. Charismatic authority. Criticisms of Weber.   Bureaucracy Charismatic authority Dictatorship Elite Traditional authority
15 Political power (1) What is political power? The nation state. Democracy. Constitution.     Dictatorship Feudalism Member of Parliament Monarchy Nation state Prime minister
16 Political power (2) What is a political party? Political parties in the U.K. Elections Voting behaviour Simulation: hustings/mock election.   Political party Political socialisation  
17 Power relationships What are power relationships? Various factors affecting power relationships. For example: social class and gender. Elite groups and power. Interest groups.   Elite Interest (or pressure) groups Power relationships
18 Patriarchy What is patriarchy? The ideas of Walby. Feminism. Gender and power. Comparison exercise: use extracts from the work of different sociologists. Assessment: select an appropriate example from the specimen paper, for example Paper 2, Question 21. Allow students to draft an essay plan. Discuss examples of how best to approach the question and structure their essay. You may consider the introduction of timed assessments (the mark a minute rule). Teacher-marked assessment, feedback on standard achieved. You may wish to consider circulating examples of ‘anonymous’ edited extracts from some of the best answers and summarising common mistakes to be avoided. Feminism Gender Patriarchy Power