Geography As A Level

AS/ A Level Geography

Physical geography: Hazards

This resource is a scheme of work for our accredited AS and A-level Geography specifications (7036, 7037). It is not exhaustive or prescriptive, it is designed to suggest activities and resources that you might find useful in your teaching.

3.1 Physical geography

Physical option

3.1.5 Hazards

Specification content Week Number Subject-specific  skills development Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities  (including ref to differentiation and extension activities) Resources
Week 1 The concept of hazard in a geographical context Nature, forms and potential impacts of natural hazards (geophysical, atmospheric and hydrological). Hazard perception and its economic and cultural determinants. Characteristic human responses – fatalism, prediction, adjustment/adaptation, mitigation, management, risk sharing – and their relationship to hazard incidence, intensity, magnitude, distribution and level of development. The Park model of human response to hazards. The Hazard Management Cycle. Use of key subject specific and technical terminology. To identify connections and interrelationships between different aspects of geography. Labelling and annotation of diagrams. Identifying, finding and using a variety of sources of geographical information. Using models in geography. Research skills. An overview of the concept of the terms ‘hazard’, ‘natural hazard’ and ‘disaster’ as used by geographers. Students to be able to identify examples of different types of natural hazards, including: geophysicalatmospherichydrological. Students will understand that natural hazards have common characteristics: each has clear origins and distinctive effectslittle or no warningexposure to the risk may be involuntarymost damage and loss of life occurs shortly after the hazard, but impacts may last into the futuretheir scale and impact requires an emergency response.   Students to understand the terms ‘risk’ and ‘vulnerability’ with reference to natural hazards. Students to be able to identify and understand factors influencing the perception of natural hazards, including: socio-economic statuslevel of educationemployment statusreligion, cultural backgroundfamily situationpast experiencepersonal values and personality. Students to understand three key responses to natural hazards: fatalismadaptationfear. Students to understand the difference between primary and secondary (short term and long term) impacts of natural hazards. Students to understand key ideas relating to the management of natural hazards, including: community preparedness/risk sharingintegrated risk managementmitigationmonitoringpredictionpreventionprotectionreconstructionrehabilitationreliefresilience. Students to understand and be able to explain the Park Response Model and the Hazard Management Cycle. Students to understand the terms ‘distribution’, ‘frequency’ and ‘magnitude’ as they are used by geographers in relation to natural hazards. It is vital that these generic themes relating to the concept of ‘hazards’ are reinforced throughout the following on volcanic, seismic, storm and fire hazards. Small group discussion/Q&A followed by feedback – what does the term ‘hazard’ mean?  What natural hazards are students familiar with?  What is a disaster? Students to use textbooks or the internet to identify types of each category of hazard. Class discussion to identify common features that help define events as natural hazards. Ensure students have definitions of key terms used so far. Small group discussion – Why might populations be vulnerable to natural hazards and exposed to risk? Opportunity to use textbooks or the internet to research a model of vulnerability; students to draw/construct a mind-map or model identifying the variables that affect vulnerability. Paired/small group discussion with feedback for students to identify factors that influence people’s perception of natural hazards. Opportunity to ask students to explain the three key responses to natural hazards. Q&A to establish that students can define primary and secondary (short term and long term) impacts of natural hazards. Opportunity for independent research task.  Students given a brief to research and create a short report on the key ideas relating to the management of natural hazards (listed in previous column).  They should also find a copy of a model of the ‘process of risk management’, the Park Response Model and The Hazard Management Cycle and give a written explanation of each.  This could be presented as a wall display, PowerPoint/Prezi presentation, video/animation (to share on the VLE), or written report. Short discussion/Q&A to ensure students can define the key terms relating to distribution, frequency and magnitude of natural hazards. Various opportunities above to assess learning with a range of exam style questions and peer assessment. Introductory article on “natural hazards”   5 minute video clip on how natural hazards affect humans   Definitions of types of hazards and excellent links to further information on each   List of natural hazards experienced in different countries around the world.     National Geography feature length documentary on the world’s “top 10”  natural disasters   US Homeland Security has summarized different types of natural hazards. These links are also useful for mitigation and response.   Short introduction on concept of risk with links to academic resources on risk perception   An introduction to risk perception   Article about ‘Living with risk’ in the Philippines as the result of natural hazards   RGS discussion of natural hazards and resilience with videos and diagrams   Useful list of hazards terminology from United Nations   Some interesting links and resources on hazards, risks and mitigation from the World Bank   A short academic article on generic hazard management but includes original version of a disaster management diagram that is widely repeated online   Interesting information about risk assessment and responses to hazards, including an interpretation of the “disaster, or hazard, response curve” – Park (1991).   An entertaining TED talk about managing hazard response  
Week 2-3 Plate tectonics Earth structure and internal energy sources. Plate tectonic theory of crustal evolution: tectonic plates; plate movement; gravitational sliding; ridge push, slab pull; convection currents and seafloor spreading.Destructive, constructive and conservative plate margins. Characteristic processes: seismicity and vulcanicity. Associated landforms: young fold mountains, rift valleys, ocean ridges, deep sea trenches and island arcs, volcanoes.Magma plumes and their relationship to plate movement. Use of key subject specific and technical terminology. Opportunities to develop skills such as drawing, labelling and annotating diagrams. Online research into plate tectonic theory. Construct and annotate a range of graphs and use statistical skills. Developing extended writing skills. Using atlas maps. Producing annotated maps. Practicing exam style questions. Including the use of peer assessment. Conducting independent and group research tasks. Making links within, across and beyond this area of the specification.   Opportunity to discuss the age of the Earth and assess students’ prior knowledge of the structure of the Earth. Opportunity to use internet/audio-visual resources to briefly explore early theories (pre-plate tectonics) of the formation of the Earth and its structure. Students to understand the structure of the Earth and internal energy sources, including: Internal structure and the characteristics of:crustlithosphereasthenospheremantleouter coreinner coreThe distribution of the major tectonic plates and plate boundaries.Internal sources of heat, including:residual heat from Earth’s formationradioactive decay of elements in the core. Students to understand the characteristics and origin of continental and oceanic crust. Students to be able to describe and explain the nature of plate movement, including: Speed and direction of movement of the major platesThe evolution of various theories to explain plate movement.  To include:gravitational slidingridge pushslab pullconvection currentssea floor spreading (possibly paleomagnetism). Students to understand that the movement of tectonic plates gives rise to different plate margins: destructiveconstructiveconservative. Students to be able to describe and explain the characteristic processes associated with each type of plate margin, including: seismicityvulcanicity. Whilst learning about each type of plate boundary students should also understand the range of landforms that are associated with each type of plate boundary, including: young fold mountainsrift valleysocean ridgesdeep sea trenchesisland arcsvolcanoes. Students should understand that movement of magma within the mantle is not as simple as some easier/older texts may suggest and that, although still valid and relevant, earlier ideas of simple convection cells are only part of the explanation.  Students should understand the theory and proposed role of magma plumes.  It may suffice to focus on the idea of Hot Spots as proposed by J T Wilson in the 1960s or more able students may wish to engage with the more recent and broader debate that exists about the nature and role of magma plumes. Paired/small group discussion followed by feedback – how old is the Earth? How did it form?  What is the structure of the Earth? Opportunity for a short research task: using a range of textbook and internet resources students to produce a short report/set of notes/display/electronic presentation to include information, notes and diagrams covering the structure of the Earth. Students produce annotated sketches explaining the different characteristics of continental and oceanic crust and their origin.  Possibly annotate a map indicating the distribution of different ages of crust. Students annotate a map of plate boundaries to indicate the direction and speed of movement of the major tectonic plates. Using a range of resources students to produce detailed annotated diagrams to explain plate movement.  An opportunity for students to research different theories and then peer teach to each other. Using an atlas/textbook/ internet resources students to produce an annotated map to locate the different kinds of plate margins. Q&A/discussion to ask students what kinds of processes they would expect to find at each type of margin, and why, including seismicity and vulcanicity. Students to add a tracing overlay to their map of plate boundaries to indicate the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes.  Opportunity to assess learning with exam style questions to explain the nature of plates, plate boundaries, plate movement and associated processes. Opportunity for small group research task.  Each student given one landform associated with a different type of plate margin to research.  The group then produces a display/report/ electronic presentation/set of revision notes etc. that describes the distribution of, describes the characteristics of and explains the formation of the range of landforms listed. Opportunity to direct students to short articles to research the idea of magma plumes and “hot spots”.  Students could illustrate this with detailed annotated maps/cross-sections through the island chain of Hawaii and remnant seamount chains to help explain hot spots and their relationship to plate movement.  Some students may be able to research more detailed academic articles to explore the more recent debate in the literature. Simple interactive diagrams of the structure of the earth and plate tectonics   Background to plate tectonic theory with a multiple choice quiz and extra reading   More sophisticated background information on drivers of plate movement (ridge push, slab pull etc.)   Excellent map and summary of types of plate boundaries and other areas of tectonic theory with interactive maps and video/animation clips:   Short introductory video on plate boundaries and theory from National Geographic, with some questions and extra reading                                                                                                                         The contemporary academic literature has quite a debate about the idea of “magma plumes”. Resources below signpost A-level students to the traditionally accepted view of J T Wilson (1969) of magma plumes linked to hot spot volcanoes, followed by some information that highlight that the debate exists: Video about magma plumes and hotspots in the Hawaiian Islands   Information and diagrams explaining ‘How volcanoes work’   Brief overview of mantle thermal plumes   CT scans link deep mantle plumes with volcanic hotspots   Debate over the ‘question of mantle plumes’  
Week 3-4 Volcanic hazards The nature of vulcanicity and its relation to plate tectonics: forms of volcanic hazard: nuées ardentes, lava flows, mudflows, pyroclastic and ash fallout, gases/acid rain, tephra. Spatial distribution, magnitude, frequency, regularity and predictability of hazard events.Impacts: primary/secondary, environmental, social, economic, political. Short and long-term responses: risk management designed to reduce the impacts of the hazard through preparedness, mitigation, prevention and adaptation.Impacts and human responses as evidenced by a recent volcanic event. Use of key subject specific and technical terminology. Opportunities to develop skills such as drawing, labelling and annotating diagrams. Online research into volcanic hazards. Construct a range of graphs and use statistical skills. Developing extended writing skills. Using atlas maps. Producing annotated maps. Practicing exam style questions. Including the use of peer assessment. Conducting independent and group research tasks. Making links within, across and beyond this area of the specification. Engage with remotely sensed satellite data.   Students to understand that most volcanic activity is associated with plate tectonic processes and occurs along plate boundaries. Students to be able to describe the distribution of volcanic activity as being mainly associated with: ocean ridges and sea floor spreadingdestructive plate boundaries and subduction zonesrift valleysintraplate vulcanicity – hot spots. Students should understand that the nature of volcanic events and volcanic features are the result of a combination of factors, including: type of plate boundary – constructive, destructive or intraplatenature of magma, ieviscosity – silica, gas and water contentexplosivity – Volcanic Explosivity Indexacidic à basic, rhyolitic à andesitic à basic. Ensure students understand what is meant by ‘spatial distribution’, ‘magnitude and frequency’ in relation to volcanic events.  Reinforce previous map work locating volcanic activity and the Volcanic Explosivity Index.  Introduce idea of how familiar a population is and active, dormant and extinct. Students should be able to describe, explain and assess the impact of a range of volcanic hazards, including: primary hazards (impacts)ashlava flowsnuées ardentespyroclastic eventstephravolcanic gasessecondary hazards (impacts)acid rainclimate changefloodingtsunamis. Students to understand volcanic hazards can be categorised (possible opportunity to discuss the usefulness of classification in geography).  Categories to include: primary/secondaryenvironmental, social, economic, political. Students to understand that responses to volcanic hazards can be categorised as ‘short and long-term’. Students to appreciate that risk management is designed to reduce the impacts of volcanic hazards via: preparationmitigationpreventionadaptation. Students to develop a detailed understanding of one recent volcanic event (to be chosen by individual students/centres).  Students must be able to: describe the spatial and temporal setting of the eventdescribe and explain the association of the event to plate boundaries and plate movementassess the perception of the event, and the factors affecting those perceptions at a range of scales – eg, magnitude, frequency, population characteristics etc.explain the causes of the eventexplain and assess the impacts of the eventexplain, assess and justify the response to the event – including the factors affecting this response. Opportunity for students to research the distribution of volcanic events and annotate a base map of the Earth accordingly (may have been done above). Mapping activity completed in previous lesson – students to ensure their maps are accurate, detailed and complete. Students to use textbooks/online resources to research the nature of different types of magma and produce a classification table to help compare each type. Ensure students have notes on the key ideas around magnitude and frequency of volcanic events.  There is an opportunity here, or elsewhere, for students to explore how the experience of these ideas will vary from place to place and so links to ‘experience of place’ in the Changing Places unit. Opportunity for a small group research task – each group is given the list of volcanic hazards and individuals research one/two. This information is shared within their group and possibly with the class as a whole. Opportunity to produce a short report/wall display/electronic presentation etc. Paired/small group discussion – how can the impacts of volcanic hazards be categorized?  Students to try and think of examples of each. Continuation of discussion above to ask, what is meant by short and long-term responses? In pairs students to think of examples of each. Opportunity for a group discussion and mind-mapping activity.  Ask students to discuss the following terms in relation to managing volcanic hazards, and to suggest examples of each: preparationmitigationpreventionadaptation. Students to be given clear instructions and guidance about creating a detailed case study of one recent volcanic event.  Students could be encouraged to be creative in the method used to present their findings, but as a guide it should include the information listed in previous column.   Range of websites and online resources covering the nature of volcanic hazards: Hazard information about volcanoes in the USA   Factsheet on volcano hazards   Details on hazardous events caused by volcanic activity   Geohazards information on volcanoes   Brief summary of some volcanic hazards  relating to an eruption in Auckland New Zealand   Simple interactive map of earthquakes, volcanoes and plate boundaries   Interactive map of earthquakes, volcanoes and plate boundaries linking to further information about different features   A range of resources on volcanoes, including podcasts and presentations   Live and up-to-date information on volcanic activity in the USA   Magnitude and frequency of volcanic eruptions, including diagrams showing the explosivity index   Interactive presentation on predicting volcanic eruptions   Article on development of new method for predicting volcanic eruptions   Short video clip on predicting volcanoes   Short video clip on predicting volcanic eruptions in Iceland   Information on effects of volcanic events   Detailed academic article on the effects and consequences of very large explosive volcanic eruptions   + 60 mins lecture from the Open University on various impacts of volcanoes   45 minute documentary covering most aspects of volcanic activity   Human response to volcanoes: Key facts about preparing for a volcanic eruption   Short video on responses in Congo as a low income country   Some links and ideas about teaching about response to a volcano   Open University information about mitigating the effects of volcanoes worldwide, with links to mitigating volcano impacts   National Geographic information on living with/adapting to volcanoes   Short but in-depth academic article on living with volcanoes and potential opportunities for sustainable livelihoods   Resources for specific case studies will depend on those chosen by the individual student/centre.
Week 5-6 Seismic hazards The nature of seismicity and its relation to plate tectonics: forms of seismic hazard: earthquakes, shockwaves, tsunamis, liquefaction, landslides. Spatial distribution, randomness, magnitude, frequency, regularity, predictability of hazard events.Impacts: primary/secondary; environmental, social, economic, political. Short and long-term responses; risk management designed to reduce the impacts of the hazard through preparedness, mitigation, prevention and adaptation.Impacts and human responses as evidenced by a recent seismic event. Use of key subject specific and technical terminology. Opportunities to develop skills such as drawing, labelling and annotating diagrams. Online research into seismic hazards. Construct a range of graphs and use statistical skills. Developing extended writing skills. Using atlas maps. Producing annotated maps. Practicing exam style questions, including the use of peer assessment. Conducting independent and group research tasks. Making links within, across and beyond this area of the specification. Engage with remotely sensed satellite data.   Students to understand that much seismic activity is associated with plate tectonic processes and occurs along plate boundaries. Students to be able to describe the distribution of seismic activity as being mainly associated with: destructive plate boundaries – and subduction zonesconservative plate margins/transform faults. Students should understand that the nature of seismic events and resulting hazards is the result of a combination of factors, including: type of plate boundary – constructive, destructive or conservativenature and rate of movementdepth of focus. Ensure students understand what is meant by ‘spatial distribution’, ‘magnitude and frequency’ in relation to seismic events.  Reinforce previous map work locating seismic activity and the scales used to measure the magnitude of seismic events, including: Richter ScaleMercalli ScaleMoment Magnitude Scale. Students should be able to describe, explain and assess the impacts of seismic hazards, to include: Primary hazards (impacts)EarthquakesShockwavesGround shakingGround ruptureSecondary hazards (impacts)Soil liquefactionLandslides/avalanchesTsunamisFiresEffects on people and the built environment. (Students should also understand the almost randomness associated with some seismic hazards). Students to understand that seismic hazards can be categorized (possible opportunity to discuss the usefulness of classification in geography).  Categories to include: Primary/secondaryEnvironmental, social, economic, political. Students to understand that responses to seismic hazards can be categorized as ‘short and long-term’. Students to appreciate that risk management is designed to reduce the impacts of seismic hazards via: preparationmitigationpreventionadaptation. Students to develop a detailed understanding of one recent seismic event (to be chosen by individual students/centres).  Students must be able to: describe the spatial and temporal setting of the eventdescribe and explain the association of the event to plate boundaries and plate movementassess the perception of the event, and the factors affecting those perceptions at a range of scales – eg, magnitude, frequency, population characteristics etc.explain the causes of the eventexplain and assess the impacts of the eventexplain, assess and justify the response to the event including the factors affecting this response. Opportunity for students to research the distribution of seismic activity and annotate a base map of the Earth accordingly (may have been done above). Mapping activity completed in previous lesson – students to ensure their maps are accurate, detailed and complete. Students discuss factors affecting the nature of an earthquake including type of plate boundary, nature of plate movement and focus depth. Opportunity for students to research the different scales used to measure the magnitude or scale of seismic events including Richter Scale, Mercalli Scale and Moment Magnitude Scale. Ensure students have notes on the key ideas around magnitude and frequency of seismic events. There is an opportunity here, or elsewhere, for students to explore ideas of how the experience of these concepts will vary from place to place and so links to ‘experience of place’ in the Changing Places unit. Opportunity for a small group research task: each group is given the list of seismic hazards and individuals research one/two. This information is shared within their group and possibly with the class as a whole.  Opportunity to produce a short report/wall display/electronic presentation etc. Paired/small groups discussion – how can the impacts of seismic hazards be categorized?  Students to try and think of examples of each. Continuation of discussion above to ask what is meant by short and long-term responses?  In pairs, students to think of examples of each. Opportunity for a group discussion and mind-mapping activity.  Ask students to discuss the following terms in relation to managing seismic hazards, and to suggest examples of each: preparationmitigationpreventionadaptation. Students to be given clear instructions and guidance about creating a detailed case study of one recent seismic event.  Students could be encouraged to be creative in the method used to present their findings, but as a guide it should include the information listed in previous column.   British Geological Survey summary of many of the key ideas around seismicity and earthquakes   Short introductory video to earthquakes from National Geographic   Brief summary of some earthquake/seismic hazards   Overview of the four main earthquake hazards   More detailed information on types of earthquake hazards, with diagrams   Simple video clip on types of seismic wave   Computer animation of the travel of seismic waves (shockwaves) following an earthquake in California   16-page summary information sheet on many aspects of tsunamis   Short introductory video on tsunamis from National Geographic   Brief video explaining the ‘anatomy of a tsunami’   Short summary of liquefaction with two video clips   Prof. D. Petley’s Landslide blog: some interesting blogs, with great images and illustrative examples   USGS maps, magnitude, statistics and details of current/recent seismic events   Short animation on techniques and scales for measuring earthquakes   Brief summary of Richter, MM and Mercalli Scales   Excellent simple statistics of earthquake magnitude and frequency   British Geological Survey discussion about whether earthquake activity is increasing   Information about the long term trends of earthquakes   The Geological Society information on predicting, forecasting and mitigating earthquakes   Short video from Harvard Museum of Natural Science on predicting earthquakes   Dara O’Briain’s Science Club: short video clip on predicting earthquakes including crowd sourcing data   Overview and definitions of hazards, and their primary and secondary impacts   More detailed information on some of the impacts of earthquakes   Earthquake Country Alliance information and resources about preparing for, surviving and recovering from earthquakes   Detailed booklet with guidelines on preparing for, responding to and recovering from earthquakes   Article about ‘7 ways the response to a devastating earthquake has changed’   An excellent list of resources to help prepare for and respond to earthquakes   Short Geological Society article on hazard mitigation   Resources for specific case studies will depend on those chosen by the individual student/centre.
Week 7-8 Storm hazards The nature of tropical storms and their underlying causes. Forms of storm hazard: high winds, storm surges, coastal flooding, river flooding and landslides. Spatial distribution, magnitude, frequency, regularity, predictability of hazard events.Impacts: primary/secondary, environmental, social, economic, political. Short and long-term responses: risk management designed to reduce the impacts of the hazard through preparedness, mitigation, prevention and adaptation.Impacts and human responses as evidenced by two recent tropical storms in contrasting areas of the world. Use of key subject specific and technical terminology. Opportunities to develop skills such as drawing, labelling and annotating diagrams. Online research into storm hazards. Construct a range of graphs and use statistical skills. Developing extended writing skills. Using atlas maps. Using weather maps. Producing annotated maps. Practicing exam style questions, including the use of peer assessment. Conducting independent and group research tasks. Making links within, across and beyond this area of the specification. Engage with remotely sensed satellite data.   Students to understand that the nature of tropical storms is determined by their origins within the tropics.  To be able to explain the causes of tropical storms, to include: ocean location where sea temperatures are above 27ococean depth of at least 70m to provide moisture and latent heata location beyond 5o north and south of the equator where the effect of the Coriolis force is greatestlow level convergence of airrapid outflow of air in the upper atmosphere. Students to be able to describe the distribution of tropical storms, noting their different names in different oceans. Ensure students understand what is meant by ‘spatial distribution’, ‘magnitude and frequency’ in relation to tropical storms.  Reinforce previous map work locating storms and the scale used to measure the magnitude/intensity of tropical storms – The Saffir-Simpson Scale.   Students should understand that the nature of tropical storm hazards relates to the marine and coastal locations involved, and hazards include: high windsstorms surgescoastal floodingriver floodinglandslides. Students should be able to describe, explain and assess the specific nature of these impacts of tropical storms. Students to understand tropical storm hazards can be categorized (possible opportunity to discuss the usefulness of classification in geography).  Categories to include: primary/secondaryenvironmental, social, economic, political. Students to understand that responses to storm hazards can be categorised as ‘short and long-term’. Students to appreciate that risk management is designed to reduce the impacts of tropical storm hazards via: preparationmitigationpreventionadaptation. Students to develop a detailed understanding of TWO recent tropical storms from contrasting areas of the world (to be chosen by individual students/centres).  Students must be able to: describe the spatial and temporal setting of the tropical stormsassess the perception of the tropical storms, and the factors affecting those perceptions at a range of scales – eg, magnitude, frequency, population characteristics etc.explain the causes of the tropical stormsexplain and assess the impacts of the tropical stormsexplain, assess and justify the response to the tropical storms – including the factors affecting this response. Opportunity for students to use textbook/internet resources to ensure they have detailed notes to explain the underlying causes of tropical storms. Opportunity for students to research the distribution of tropical storms and annotate a base map of the Earth accordingly. Students discuss factors affecting the nature of hazards posed by tropical storms. Opportunity for students to research how the scale and magnitude of tropical storms is measured including the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Ensure students have notes on the key ideas around magnitude and frequency of tropical storms.  There is an opportunity here, or elsewhere, for students to explore ideas of how the experience of these concepts will vary from place to place and so links to ‘experience of place’ in the Changing Places unit. Opportunity for a small group research task: each group is given the list of hazards posed by tropical storms and individuals research one/two. This information is shared within their group and possibly with the class as a whole.  Opportunity to produce a short report/wall display/electronic presentation etc. Paired/small groups discussion – how can the impacts of tropical storm hazards be categorized? Students to try and think of examples of each. Continuation of discussion above to ask what is meant by short and long-term responses?  In pairs students to think of examples of each. Opportunity for a group discussion and mind-mapping activity.  Ask students to discuss the following terms in relation to managing storm hazards and to suggest examples of each: preparationmitigationpreventionadaptation. Students to be given clear instructions and guidance about creating detailed case studies of two recent tropical storms.  Students could be encouraged to be creative in the method used to present their findings, but as a guide it should include the information listed in previous column.   Good summary information on tropical storms from the Met Office   Life cycle of hurricanes and tropical storms   Short introductory video on tropical storms from National Geographic   Summary from National Hurricane Center of some impacts of tropical storms   Information on tropical storms and how to assess/categorise their impacts   United States Department of Labor information on hurricane preparedness and response   Various links to resources on preparing for, responding to and recovering from hurricanes   Information on predicting tropical storms   Information with diagrams on tracking and forecasting tropical storms   How tropical storms are forecast by the National Hurricane Center   Live imagery mapping tropical storm activity around the world   Short article about adapting to tropical storms             Resources for specific case studies will depend on those chosen by the individual student/centre.
Week 9 and 10 Fires in nature Nature of wildfires. Conditions favouring intense wild fires: vegetation type, fuel characteristics, climate and recent weather and fire behaviour. Causes of fires: natural and human agency. Impacts: primary/secondary, environmental, social, economic, political. Short and long-term responses; risk management designed to reduce the impacts of the hazard through preparedness, mitigation, prevention and adaptation.Impact and human responses as evidenced by a recent wild fire event. Use of key subject specific and technical terminology. Opportunities to develop skills such as drawing, labelling and annotating diagrams. Online research into fire hazards. Construct a range of graphs and use statistical skills. Developing extended writing skills. Using atlas maps. Producing annotated maps. Practicing exam style questions, including the use of peer assessment. Conducting independent and group research tasks. Making links within, across and beyond this area of the specification. Engage with remotely sensed satellite data.   Students to understand that the nature of wildfires is determined by the geographical characteristics of the area affected. To be able to explain the causes/conditions leading to intense wildfires, to include: vegetation typefuel characteristicsclimaterecent weatherfire behavior. Students to be able to describe the distribution of wildfires. Students to understand the causes of wildfires, including: natural agencyhuman agency . Students should be able to describe, explain and assess the specific nature of impacts of wildfires. Students to understand wildfire hazards can be categorised (possible opportunity to discuss the usefulness of classification in geography).  Categories to include: primary/secondaryenvironmental, social, economic, political. Students to understand that responses to wildfire hazards can be categorised as ‘short and long-term’. Students to appreciate that risk management is designed to reduce the impacts of wildfire hazards via: preparationmitigationpreventionadaptation. Students to develop a detailed understanding of ONE recent wildfire event (to be chosen by individual students/centres).  Students must be able to: describe the spatial and temporal setting of the wildfireassess the perception of the wildfire, and the factors affecting those perceptions at a range of scales – eg, magnitude, frequency, population characteristics etc.explain the causes of the wildfireexplain and assess the impacts of the wildfireexplain, assess and justify the response to the wildfire – including the factors affecting this response. Opportunity for students to use textbook/internet resources to ensure they have detailed notes to explain the underlying causes of intense wildfires. Opportunity for students to research the distribution of wildfires and annotate a base map of the Earth accordingly. Students to research the main causes of wildfires, including human and natural agency.  Findings could be used to develop a class debate about the relative importance of each. Students discuss factors affecting the nature of hazards posed by wildfires. Opportunity for a small group research task: each group to research hazards posed by wildfires and individuals research one/two. This information is shared within their group and possibly with the class as a whole.  Opportunity to produce a short report/wall display/electronic presentation etc. Paired/small group discussion – how can the impacts of wildfire hazards be categorized?  Students to try and think of examples of each. Continuation of discussion above to ask what is meant by short and long-term responses?  In pairs students to think of examples of each. Opportunity for a group discussion and mind-mapping activity.  Ask students to discuss the following terms in relation to managing wildfire hazards, and to suggest examples of each: preparationmitigationpreventionadaptation. Students to be given clear instructions and guidance about creating detailed case studies of one recent wildfire event.  Students could be encouraged to be creative in the method used to present their findings, but as a guide it should include the information listed in previous column.   National Geographic photo gallery and summary of wildfires   Natural Disasters Association information about wildfires   Overview of wildfires   Interactive global map of wildfires spanning from March 2000 to January 2016   Accounts of wildfires on each of the different continents   Simple introductory information on many aspects of wildfires   Information on ‘how wildfires work’   Causes of wildfires   Causes and effects of wildfires and solutions for dealing with them   Earth Unplugged video on causes of wildfires   SciShow video on the science behind wildfires   Environmental impacts of forest fires: Short article on the environmental effects of wildfires     CBS article on the long term environmental impacts   Social and economic impacts of wildfires: Article summarizing the economic impacts of wildfires   Wildfires and health: Information on research into the effects of wildfires on respiratory health   Long distance impacts of wildfires on health and climate change   Managing wildfires: Factsheets on how to respond to the various hazards associated with wildfires   Information on managing wildfires from the US Forest Service   Canadian perspective on how to manage wildfires   Preventing wildfires: Recommended methods of preventing wildfires in California   National Geographic wildfire safety tips   Information on forest fire prevention   Adapting to wildfires: Lecture on adapting to wildfires in California, with a video, podcast and PowerPoint   Article on living in areas prone to wildfires   Article on learning to live with wildfires, including diagrams   Resources for specific case studies will depend on those chosen by the individual student/centre.    
Week 11 Case study 1 Case studyof a multi-hazardous environment beyond the UK to illustrate and analyse the nature of the hazards and the social, economic and environmental risks presented, and how human qualities and responses such as resilience, adaptation, mitigation and management contribute to its continuing human occupation.                             Case study 2 Case studyat a local scale of a specified place in a hazardous setting to illustrate the physical nature of the hazard and analyse how the economic, social and political character of its community reflects the presence and impacts of the hazard and the community’s response to the risk. Collect, analyse and interpret a range of qualitative and quantitative data from a range of secondary sources. Report writing.                                   Collect, analyse and interpret a range of qualitative and quantitative data from a range of secondary sources. Report writing.   Much of what is taught here will depend on the multi-hazardous environment chosen. Students should understand the idea that some locations are multi-hazardous environments and are exposed to more than one category of natural hazard. Students should be able to identify areas of the world that are vulnerable to multiple natural hazards. Once a multi-hazardous environment has been selected (probably a small country or region within a larger country) students must be able to: Describe and assess the nature of the hazardsAssess and explain the social, economic and environmental risks presented by the hazardsExplain how local populations remain able to live in the environment due to their:Human qualitiesResponses – resilience, adaptation, mitigation and management.   Much of what is taught here will depend on the hazardous setting chosen. Ensure students understand that if Case Study 1 related to a small country or region within a larger country then Case Study 2 must relate to a smaller local scale place – a named place/location. Students should understand that the nature of a hazard, its impacts and the response to it is very much place specific and that a range of factors in that place will determine these. Once a specified place at a local scale in a hazardous setting has been selected (probably named settlement, or maybe very small island) students must be able to: Describe and analyse how the following affects the impacts of the hazard and the community’s response to the risk:The economic, social and political character of the community Opportunity for group discussion – what is meant by the term ‘multi-hazardous environment’?  Can students identify possible natural hazards? Opportunity for students to engage with GIS and/or online mapping tools to locate and identify multiple hazard locations Students should reflect on how they completed the case studies above, then be given clear instructions and guidance about creating a detailed case study of one multi-hazardous environment.  Students could be encouraged to be creative in the method used to present their findings, but as a guide it should include the information listed in previous column.  (There are opportunities for students to work together, or independently)       Opportunity to discuss what factors at a local scale affect the nature of a natural hazard, its impacts and responses to it in relation to the local community. Students should reflect on how they completed the case studies above, then be given clear instructions and guidance about creating a detailed case study of one local place in a hazardous setting.  Students could be encouraged to be creative in the method used to present their findings, but as a guide it should include the information listed in the previous column.  (There are opportunities for students to work together, or independently).   Resources for specific case studies will depend on those chosen by the individual student/centre. Some resources that relate to multi-hazardous environments: Excellent interactive map of live/recent natural hazard events across the world   Interesting maps and data on global distribution of different natural hazards   Discussion of some issues surrounding the approach taken in multi-hazardous environments   Information on multi-hazard mapping using GIS   Article on the multi-hazardous environment of the Pacific Northwest                                 Resources for specific case studies will depend on those chosen by the individual student/centre.    

Quantitative and qualitative skills

Students must engage with a range of quantitative and relevant qualitative skills, within the ‘Hazards’ theme.  Students must specifically understand simple mass balance, unit conversions and the analysis and presentation of field data.

Making connections Students must consider connections between the subject matter studied and be able to apply their geographical knowledge and understanding in different contexts including within a unit, between units and to novel situations, ie. geographical contexts beyond

Geography – Physical geography: Water and carbon cycles

This resource is a scheme of work for the draft A-level Geography specification (7037). On accreditation of the final specification any revisions will be published on the website. This scheme of work is not exhaustive or prescriptive, it is designed to suggest activities and resources that you might find useful in your teaching.

3.1 Physical geography

Core topic

3.1.1 Water and carbon cycles

Specification content Week Number Subject-specific  skills development Learning outcomes Suggested Learning activities  (including ref to differentiation and extension activities) Resources
Week 1 Systems in physical geography: Systems concepts and their applications to the water and carbon cycles inputs-outputs, energy, stores/components, flows/transfers, positive/negative feedback, dynamic equilibrium. Use of key subject specific and technical terminology. To identify connections and interrelationships between different aspects of geography. Constructing and using systems and models. Labelling and annotation of diagrams. An overview of the concept and use of ‘models‘ by geographers as simplifications of a complex world. Understanding of the concept of ‘systems frameworks‘ as a type of model fundamental to most areas of geographical understanding. Students will be able to identify, describe and explain the elements of geographical systems, including: Stores/ComponentsFlows/ConnectionsElementsAttributes   Relationships Students will be able to identify, describe and explain common characteristics of systems including: BoundariesInputsOutputsFlows Students will understand systems that are classified as: Isolated systemsClosed systemsOpen systems Students will understand systems as being in a state of dynamic equilibrium that includes: Positive feedbackNegative feedback Students will be able to identify the four major subsystems of the earth: AtmosphereLithosphereHydrosphereBiosphere To understand that these are interlinked as a ‘cascading system’.   Small group discussions followed by feedback – what models used in geography do students know? Students to draw and annotate a model system to show the key elements of a system. Students to draw and annotate a diagram of an example of a positive feedback system and a negative feedback system. Repeat group discussion to see if students can now think of any more examples of systems in geography. Students to work in pairs/small groups to think of ways in which the 4 ‘spheres’ are interlinked. To feedback and share ideas. Opportunity here for a short research task for interconnections between geographical systems. Practice low-tariff exam questions to assess learning – peer assessment opportunity.   Introductory presentation on Natural Systems   Website with simple summaries of a number of earth systems   A summary of the features of the lithosphere   A summary of the features of the hydrosphere   A summary of the features of the cryosphere   More information on the cryosphere   A summary of the features of the atmosphere   An online lesson activity investigating connections in the atmosphere      
Week 1-3 The Water Cycle Global distribution and size of major stores of water – lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and atmosphere.Processes driving change in the magnitude of these stores over time and space, including flows and transfers: evaporation, condensation, cloud formation, causes of precipitation and cryospheric processes at hill slope, drainage basin and global scales with reference to varying timescales involved.Drainage basins as open systems – inputs and outputs, to include precipitation, evapotranspiration and runoff; stores and flows, to include interception, surface, soil water, groundwater and channel storage; stemflow, infiltration overland flow, and channel flow. Concept of water balance.Runoff variation and the flood hydrograph.Changes in the water cycle over time to include natural variation (including storm events, seasonal changes) and human impact (including farming practices, land use change and water abstraction). Use of key subject specific and technical terminology. Opportunities to develop skills such as drawing, labelling and annotating diagrams. Opportunity to study soil infiltration rates. Online research. Construct and interpret line graphs and bar graphs.   Students will understand that on earth water exists in three forms: Solid iceLiquid waterGaseous water vapor Students will understand the idea of latent heat and energy in the context of evaporation and condensation and how they relate to major atmospheric processes like cloud formation and precipitation. Students will understand the distribution of water on earth in terms of: Oceanian and fresh waterThe limited amount of water economically and physically accessible for human use.  Students will understand that the Earth’s water is distributed between: Oceanic waterCryospheric waterTerrestrial waterAtmospheric water Students will explore the nature of the dynamic equilibrium between these stores.   Students will be able to describe and explain the characteristics of each of these stores. Students will be able to describe and explain the characteristics and inputs, stores, transfers and outputs of a drainage basin system, including: PrecipitationInterception storeThroughfallStemflowInfiltrationSoil storageVegetation storageTranspirationInfiltrationSurface storageEvapotranspirationOverland flow/sheet flowThroughflowPercolationGroundwater store and flowChannel flowRun off Students to be able to describe and explain the global water cycle. Students will be able to describe and explain the water balance to include: Inputs, outputs and storesRiver regimeSoil moisture budget Students will be able to describe and explain the characteristics of and human and physical factors affecting a storm and flood hydrograph.  To include: Rising limbPeak dischargeLag timeReceding limb To understand specific factors affecting the water cycle, to include: DeforestationSoil drainageWater abstraction Brief Q&A/paired discussion – in what ‘states’ does water exist? Construct a diagram to illustrate water changing state, including latent heat. An opportunity to conduct research into each of the major stores of water – in small groups each student given one store to research and return to the group to share and snowball. Construct and annotate a range of diagrams to illustrate hydrological cycles, drainage basin hydrological cycles and slope drainage systems Construct and annotate a model of the soil moisture budget – opportunity to stretch students with thinking skills to identify and analyse factors affecting the SMB. Opportunities to study local level case studies of drainage basins, storm hydrographs, etc. Opportunities to assess all aspects with a full range of exam style Qs.   An interactive website that summarizes the water cycle   A simple summary of the changing state of water including latent heat   More detailed information on the properties of water   A link to some lesson ideas on the hydrosphere     A summary of some of the key themes within the water cycle   A summary of cloud formation   Information on cloud formation and precipitation   Met Office video clip on precipitation   A range of Met Office videos on many aspects of the weather and atmosphere   A summary of global water stores   Further information on global water stores  / hydrosphere and global water stores   A summary of the characteristics of drainage basins   A resource for creating a storm hydrograph: Impacts of flooding activity   Search for information on and flow data for gauging stations in the UK – data can be downloaded to create hydrographs: Search for gauging stations   The National river flow archives and UK river and flow regimes
Week 4-6 The  Carbon Cycle Global distribution and size of major stores of carbon – lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere biosphere, atmosphere.Factors driving change in the magnitude of these stores over time and space, including flows and transfers at plant, sere and continental scales. Photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, combustion, burial, compaction, carbon sequestration in oceans and sediments, weathering.Changes in the carbon cycle over time, to include natural variation (including wild fires, volcanic activity) and human impact (including hydrocarbon fuel extraction and burning, farming practices, deforestation, land use changes).The carbon budget and the impact of the carbon cycle upon land, ocean and atmosphere, including global climate. Interpreting a variety of charts, data, graphs and maps (especially atlas maps). To develop extended writing skills to explore issues relating to changes in the carbon cycle. Opportunity to create line graphs of amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere over time.   Opportunity to discuss the nature of geographical data and methods of collection of the type of data relevant here, including GIS.   Opportunity to analyse and present geographical data employing a variety of graphical techniques and descriptive statistics. (see skills checklist). Students to understand the features of carbon as an element, its versatility and importance as a component of organic and inorganic compounds. Students to understand that as geographers the study of carbon dioxide (CO2) is of most importance currently due to its perceived role in controlling climate. Students to understand the origins of the carbon that we study in the carbon cycle. Students to be able to describe and explain the global stores of carbon, including: LithosphereHydrosphereCryosphereBiosphereAtmosphere Students to be able to describe and explain the movement of transfer between the carbon stores, studied above, at a range of scales.  Including: PlantSereContinental. Students to be able to describe and explain the processes involved in these transfers, including: PhotosynthesisRespirationDecompositionCombustionBurialCompactionCarbon sequestrationWeathering. Students to be able to describe, explain, analyse and comment on factors leading to change in the carbon cycle, including: Wild firesVolcanic activityHydrocarbon fuel extractionLand use changes. Students to be able to describe and explain, and draw conclusions about the nature of the impacts of carbon cycle, and possible future changes, for: the landthe oceansthe atmosphere and global climate. Students to be introduced to the idea of “enhance greenhouse effect”. Introductory discussion/Q&A to establish what students know about carbon and its importance and versatility as an element. Opportunity for group research activity, with each student given a carbon store to study and then feedback shared with the group. Opportunity for students to engage with a range of charts, diagrams, graphs and maps to be able to describe the characteristics of different carbon transfers. Opportunity for independent research into natural and human impacts on the carbon cycle.  With illustrations of examples from different places around the world. Opportunity for students to read around the impacts of changes in the carbon cycle and the possible impacts.  Students to categorize the impacts according to: Human or physicalSocial, economic, environmental, demographic, political, etc. With an opportunity for students to investigate the possible effects of the disruption of the North Atlantic ocean currents on the climate of NW Europe. The greenhouse effect should be prior knowledge for A-level students – in pairs ask students to produce a diagram and accompanying annotations and text to explain to each other the Greenhouse effect.  Students to ‘peer assess’ each other and identify strengths and weaknesses of each other’s explanation.   Ensure all students have access to a “correct” description and explanation, followed by multimedia or research opportunity to explore the idea of the “enhanced greenhouse effect”. An article that summarizes many of the key aspects of the carbon cycle: Global carbon cycle   Web page with a diagram summarizing the main stores of carbon   An interactive multiple choice quiz on the carbon cycle (with links to other reading and resources)   The full length lesson on the carbon cycle from TED Ed lessons: ‘The carbon cycle’ full length by Nathan Manning   ‘The carbon cycle’ A summary of changing carbon emissions and sinks since 1750: Global carbon emissions and sinks since 1750 (2013)   Changes in the carbon cycle over different time scales, including natural cycles   Links between carbon and climate (links include an interactive carbon budget between 1960 and 2100)       Met Office summary of a range of impacts of climate change   Interactive resource on the greenhouse effect, with various articles on climate change   Interactive map of possible impacts of climate change
Week 7 Water, Carbon, Climate and Life on Earth The key role of the carbon and water stores and cycles in supporting life on Earth and particular reference to climate.  The relationship between the water cycle and carbon cycle in the atmosphere. The role of feedbacks within and between cycles and their link to climate change and implications for life on Earth.Human interventions in the carbon cycle designed to influence carbon transfers and mitigate the impacts of climate change. Comparative graphing techniques. Extended writing to levels descriptors. Collect, analyze and interpret information from a range of secondary sources – including factual, numerical and spatial data. Critical questioning of information, and sources of information. Evaluating and presenting findings from research. Students to understand the positive feedback between CO2 led warming leading to higher evaporation rates and a wetter atmosphere. Students to understand the significance of water (water vapour and clouds) and carbon (CO2) as greenhouse gases. Students to understand the dominance of CO2 in controlling the scale of the greenhouse effect. Students to understand and explain why there is a lag between increased emissions of CO2 and any resulting temperature increase. Students to have a clear understanding of the concept of “mitigation”. All students will be able to identify a range of possible human interventions to reduce or prevent emissions.  Differentiation could be used when getting students to identify categories or groupings of strategies/approaches – eg local, regional, national, global etc. Students to be able to describe and explain in detail a range of specific strategies that are employed to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Possibly including: Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)Changing rural land useImproved transport practices. An opportunity for students to construct comparative graphs – to show increases in greenhouse gases and atmospheric temperatures. Students could construct feedback diagrams to illustrate relationships between water and carbon cycles and climate change. Following discussion and reading students to write an extended prose exam style answer to explain the role of carbon and water in the greenhouse effect.  Opportunity for peer assessment. Opportunity for group work for students to identify as many mitigation strategies as possible, and to then categorise.  This information once shared could be used to produce a summary Mind map. An opportunity for a research or individual learning activity for students to explore different mitigation strategies – this learning could be shared with the group in a range of ways including wall display, group/individual presentation, PowerPoint/Prezi presentation, YouTube video, or blog, etc.   An opportunity to discuss the differing views relating to climate change, and any ethical, moral or socio-political issues arising.  Also to be critical of the sources of data. Website with resources, lesson ideas and interactive activities about a range of issues relating to the role of carbon   Website with a range of pages exploring links between the water and carbon cycles and climate         Studying the effects of changes in the carbon cycle   Met Office climate scientist explores the idea of climate feedbacks     Video clip of Met Office climate scientist exploring the idea of climate feedbacks (9 mins): ‘Climate feedback’ by Ben Booth (2009)   Ted-Ed video exploring the role of clouds in climate change: ‘Cloudy climate change’ by Jasper Kirkby (2014)   Video looking at the Human Role in climate change (11 mins): ‘Human role in climate change’ Richard Alley (2008)   Carbon capture and sequestration in the USA   Link to the Imperial College Centre for Carbon Capture and Storage website   A lengthy 2005 IPCC report on Carbon capture and storage, runs to +400 pages, but the “Summary for Policymakers” introduces a range of key ideas with accompanying diagrams: Carbon dioxide capture and storage report     The UNEP website for Climate Change Mitigation, with links to different sectors including Agriculture and Transport:   IPCC video clips:   Working Group II – Fifth Assessment Report – Climate change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability: Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability (2014)   Working Group III – Fifth Assessment Report – Climate change 2014: Mitigation of climate change: Climate change: Mitigation of climate change (2014)        
Week 8-9 Case Study 1 Case study of a tropical rainforest setting to illustrate and analyze key themes in water and carbon cycles and their relationship to environmental change and human activity.                                                       Case Study 2 Case study of a river catchment(s) at a local scale to illustrate and analyze the key themes above, engage with field data and consider the impact of precipitation upon drainage basin stores and transfers and implications for sustainable water supply and/or flooding. Collect, analyse and interpret a range of qualitative and quantitative data from a range of primary and secondary sources – this could include discursive/creative material when looking at the experiences of people in place.                                 As above, including fieldwork data collection, presentation and analysis techniques, to come to valid conclusions. Techniques to evaluate the geographical enquiry process. Students will be able to describe, explain and evaluate a number of themes relating to water and climate in the Amazon tropical rainforest, including: how changes in the water and carbon cycles have changed the tropical rainforest environmentthe relationships between hydrology, the carbon cycle and the environmenthow human activity affects the tropical rainforest. Students will be able to describe and evaluate a range of strategies employed in the Amazon tropical rainforest to reduce the effects of climate change.                               Students could either study a local river through the use of secondary data sources – including online and digital mapping, or students could engage first hand and complete fieldwork to collect primary data, or a combination of both.  The aim of such work is to: illustrate how the hydrological system affects channel flowanalyze the relationships between inputs and outputs in a local river.to understand implications for flooding on a local river. If students complete a fieldwork investigation they will be able to follow through a complete geographical investigation and route to enquiry. Opportunity for individual, paired or group research task, using a range of textual, digital or audiovisual resources.  Findings could be shared in traditional classroom approaches or shared through a VLE on a blog for example. For a more active learning approach students could research from the point of view of different stakeholders.  Feedback could then take the form of a debate/roleplay or construction of SWOT analysis in groups etc.                                   An opportunity to either create a “virtual fieldwork investigation” and provide students with a range of data relating to a local river for students to investigate and address the themes of the enquiry. Or, an opportunity for students to conduct a short fieldwork enquiry of a local river to investigate the main themes of the lesson. Students could write up a mini-fieldwork enquiry to act as a case study of a local river. (This could feed into the completion of coursework for the Non-examination assessment element of the specification).   Deforestation and carbon cycles in the Amazon rainforest:   Deforestation: facts, causes & effects   Amazon river breathes carbon dioxide from rain forest   Simple introductory video clip about the Amazon rainforest and water and carbon   Presentation exploring the impacts of land use change on the hydrological cycle in the Brazilian Amazon region: ‘The Hydrological cycle’ by Woods Hole Research Centre (2014)         Exploring the impacts of climate change in the Amazonian tropical rainforest:   Amazon and climate change   Understanding climate change impacts on the Amazon rainforest   Climate change and the Amazon rainforest   Addressing climate change   Search for information on flow data for gauging stations in the UK – data can be downloaded from the National to create hydrographs.       The National river flow archives and UK river and flow regimes: UK river and flow regimes   The Field Studies Council (and other similar organizations) may also provide guidance and resources to help undertake fieldwork here.  

Quantitative and qualitative skills

Students must engage with a range of quantitative and relevant qualitative skills, within the theme water and carbon cycles.  Students must specifically understand simple mass balance, unit conversions and the analysis and presentation of field data.

Scheme of work

Physical geography: Coastal systems and landscapes

This resource is a scheme of work for our accredited AS and A-level Geography specifications (7036, 7037). It is not exhaustive or prescriptive, it is designed to suggest activities and resources that you might find useful in your teaching.

3.1 Physical geography

Core topic

3.1.3 Coastal systems and landscapes

Specification content Week number Subject-specific  skills development Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities  (including ref to differentiation and extension activities) Resources
Week 1 Systems in physical geography (If students have already studied the unit on Water and Carbon cycles, they should revisit the introductory section of that unit on ‘Systems in Physical Geography’ and then return to the end of this section to introduce ‘Coasts as natural systems’.   If this is the first physical geography element studied, complete an introductory lesson covering the ‘systems in physical geography’ material outlined in this section) Systems in physical geography: Systems concepts and their application to the development of coastal landscapes: inputs-outputs, energy, stores/components, flows/transfers, positive/negative feedback, dynamic equilibrium.The concepts of landform and landscape and how related landforms combine to form characteristic landscapes.   Use of key subject specific and technical terminology. To identify connections and interrelationships between different aspects of geography. Constructing and using systems and models. Labelling and annotation of diagrams. An overview of the concept and use of ‘models‘ by geographers as simplifications of a complex world. Understanding of the concept of ‘systems frameworks‘ as a type of model fundamental to most areas of geographical understanding. Students will be able to identify, describe and explain the elements of geographical systems, including: – stores/components – flows/connections – elements – attributes -relationships. Students will be able to identify, describe and explain common characteristics of systems including: boundariesinputsoutputsflows. Students will understand systems that are classified as: isolated systemsclosed systemsopen systems. Students will understand systems as being in a state of dynamic equilibrium that includes: positive feedbacknegative feedback. Students will be able to identify the four major subsystems of the earth: atmospherelithospherehydrospherebiosphere.   To understand that these are interlinked as a ‘cascading system’.   Coasts as natural systems Students will be able to identify coastal environments as open systems. Students will be able to identify the different elements of a coastal system, including: inputscomponents/storestransfers/flowsoutputs. Students will be able to understand coastal landscapes as being in dynamic equilibrium that includes: positive feedbacknegative feedback.                       Coasts as characteristic landscapes Students will understand the concepts of: landformlandscape. Students will appreciate that characteristic coastal landscapes are the combination of related landforms. Small group discussions followed by feedback – what models used in geography do students know? Students to draw and annotate a model system to show the key elements of a system. Students to draw and annotate a diagram showing an example of a positive feedback system and a negative feedback system. Repeat group discussion to see if students can now think of any more examples of systems in geography. Students to work in pairs/small groups to think of ways in which the four ‘spheres’ are interlinked, then feedback and share ideas. Opportunity here for a short research task for interconnections. Practice low-tariff exam questions to assess learning – peer assessment opportunity.                       Small group discussion/Q&A to understand coasts as open systems. Construct and annotate a diagram to illustrate various elements of the coast as an open system. Paired/small group task to identify examples of positive and negative feedback in coastal landscapes. Students to draw and annotate a diagram showing an example of a positive or negative feedback in a coastal landscape. Once all students have illustrated one example of feedback at the coast, there is the opportunity for individuals/small groups to research for others. Small group discussion to identify prior knowledge of coastal landforms. Discuss what represents a characteristic coastal landscape. (Specific landforms and landscapes are studied in detail later.) Introductory presentation on water and carbon cycles as natural systems   Simple summaries of a number of earth systems   A summary of the features of the lithosphere   A summary of the features of the hydrosphere   A summary of the features of the cryosphere plus further information about the cryosphere   A summary of the features of the atmosphere   An online lesson activity investigating connections in the atmosphere                        
Weeks 2-3 Systems and processes Sources of energy in coastal environments: winds, waves (constructive and destructive), currents and tides.  Low energy and high energy coasts.Sediment sources, cells and budgets.Geomorphological processes: weathering, mass movement, erosion, transportation and deposition.Distinctively coastal processes: marine: erosion – hydraulic action, wave quarrying, corrosion/abrasion, cavitation, solution, attrition; transportation: traction, suspension (longshore/littoral drift) and deposition; sub-aerial weathering, mass movement and run off.       Use of key subject specific and technical terminology. Opportunities to develop skills such as drawing, labelling and annotating diagrams. Opportunity to measure/study characteristics of waves and other coastal processes including erosion, transportation, deposition and weathering. Handling primary and secondary sources of data. Online research. Constructing and interpreting a range of graphical and statistical techniques. Using a range of maps to identify coastal features. Opportunity to apply systems theory to identify the inputs, processes, and outputs operating at the coastal zone.     Students will be able to identify different zones of the coastline, to include: backshoreforeshoreinshoreoffshorenearshoreswash zonesurf zonebreaker zone. Students will be able to identify, and analyse the characteristics of the sources of energy in a coastal system, including: windwavestidessea currents. Students will be able to identify the sources of sediment for the coastal system, including: rivers and streams reaching the coastestuariescliff erosionoffshore sand banksmaterial from a biological origin. Students identify the features of coastal sediment cells – to understand these using a systems approach. Understanding of the concept of the coastal sediment budget, including: positive budgetsnegative budgets. To explore these using a systems approach. Students will understand that coastlines are affected by two main sets of geomorphological processes: marine processes, including:marine erosion – hydraulic action; Wave quarrying; abrasion/corrasion; attrition; contribution of solution/corrosionmarine transportation – traction; saltation; suspension; solution; longshore/littoral driftmarine and aeolian depositionSub-aerial processes, includingsub-aerial weathering – mechanical/physical; biological; chemicalmass movement – landslides; rock falls; mudflows; rotational slip/ slumpingrun-off. Construct a diagram to illustrate the different coastal zones. Paired/small group discussion to identify sources of energy at the coast. Students to explore energy at the coast including: Wind – idea of fetch, and global pattern of major winds – opportunity to study atlas maps to identify coasts exposed to large and small fetchWaves – discuss the characteristics of waves.  Opportunity to use the internet, text or VLE resources to research the characteristics of waves.  Construct diagrams of the characteristics of waves.Research constructive and destructive waves – annotate photographs and diagrams to identify characteristics.Use atlas or internet maps to produce a map of ocean currents, accompanied by video notes to describe/explain the pattern of ocean currents.Discuss different types of ocean currents in the coastal zone.Q&A/group discussion about tides.  Following short explanatory video, construct annotated diagrams to illustrate high and low tides, neap and spring tides, and the role of the alignment of earth, moon and sun.Research opportunity to find out about high and low energy coasts – possibly produce a short presentation/poster information sheet/electronic resource about each and identify an illustrative example of each.Q&A/paired discussion about where coastal sediment comes from. Following an introduction to sediment cells, research the sediment cells and sub cells of England and Wales – identify these on an outline map, then identify and map the characteristics of the most local cell.  Draw simple flow diagrams to illustrate the concepts of a positive and negative sediment budget. Practice low-tariff exam questions to assess learning – peer assessment opportunity. Q&A/paired discussion – how does the sea erode the land?  Ensure students have notes of the processes of coastal erosion. Group discussion to establish the factors affecting the rate of coastal erosion. In pairs/small groups research the processes of marine transportation and deposition and produce a revision resource: mind-map/ PowerPoint/Prezi presentation/animation/ information sheet/poster etc. Construct annotated diagram to illustrate the process of longshore/littoral drift. Q&A to think about the conditions under which material is deposited at the coast – may wish to think about wave and wind action. Possible fieldwork investigation into a range of these coastal processes on a local beach. Following mostly teacher led learning around marine erosion, transport and deposition, there is an opportunity for students to research the processes of sub-aerial weathering, mass movement and runoff affecting the coast. The outcome could be a written report, revision notes, video presentation to go on a VLE, large poster/information sheet, model answers to sample exam questions on the topic.  Also give named illustrative examples of places where the processes are occurring (not extended case studies). Again there are opportunities to visit a local coast and investigate which are the dominant weathering processes and why.   There are a huge range of resources online covering all aspects of coastal processes especially erosion and weathering. Some examples are given below:           Summary of fetch and the effect of wind   Interactive map of current surface winds           Summary of wave formation   Video explanation of many aspects of the features of waves                 Simple map of major ocean currents   Exploration of the causes and effects of surface ocean currents   Exploration of ocean currents in coastal areas   Detailed video explanation of ocean currents   3 minute video on “motion in the ocean” covering tides and ocean currents   Detailed video exploring tides, with links to activities and other information about tides     A summary of wave characteristics, including high and low energy coastlines         Short video on ‘where coastal sediment comes from’   US Geological Survey information on sediment cells and budgets   There is a Geofile article with a good summary of coastal systems including sediment cells. Maps of the sediment cells of England and Wales are easy to find online. US Geological Survey information on coastal land loss and sediment budgets   Video introduction to processes of coastal erosion   Brief summary of a range of coastal processes including a short video clip illustrating fluvial transport   Simple introduction to coastal deposition but also has links to landforms, climate change and fieldwork ideas.   A very simple summary of longshore drift   Short animation of longshore drift   A guide to completing an investigation into longshore drift                                             Summary information and video clips of sub-aerial weathering and mass movement   Lesson ideas for many aspects of coastal processes including weathering and mass movement.  
Weeks 4-5 Coastal landscape development This content must include study of a variety of landscapes from beyond the United Kingdom (UK) but may also include UK examples. Origin and development of landforms and landscapes of coastal erosion:  Cliffs and wave cut platforms, cliff profile features including caves, arches and stacks; factors and processes in their development.Origin and development of landforms and landscapes of coastal deposition.  Beaches, simple and compound spits, tombolos, offshore bars, barrier beaches and islands and sand dunes; factors and processes in their development.Estuarine mudflat/saltmarsh environments and associated landscapes; factors and processes in their development.Eustatic, isostatic and tectonic sea level change: major changes in sea level in the last 10,000 years.Coastlines of emergence and submergence.  Origin and development of associate landforms: raised beaches, marine platforms; rias, fjords, Dalmatian coasts.Recent and predicted climatic change and potential impact on coasts.The relationship between process, time, landforms and landscapes in coastal settings. Use of key subject specific and technical terminology. Develop knowledge and understanding of a range of related landforms that combine to form distinctive coastal landscapes. To identify connections and interrelationships between different aspects of geography. Opportunities to develop skills such as drawing, labelling and annotating diagrams. Opportunity to analyse and present geographical data employing a variety of graphical techniques and descriptive statistics (see skills checklist). Opportunity to use a range of sources of information to research the impacts of recent and predicted sea level change on coasts. Opportunity to construct arguments about the impacts of climate change and come to valid conclusions.     Students will revisit the idea of distinctive coastal landscapes resulting from a combination of related landforms. Students will be able to describe the characteristics and analyse the factors and processes in the development of landforms and landscapes of coastal erosion, including: cliffs and wave cut platformscliff profile features – caves, arches and stacks. Students will be able to describe the characteristics and analyse the factors and processes in the development of landforms and landscapes of coastal deposition, including: beachessimple and compound spitstombolosoffshore barsbarrier beaches and islandssand dunes. Students will be able to describe the characteristics and analyse the factors and processes in the development of estuarine mudflat/saltmarsh environments and associated landscapes. Students will understand the causes and impacts of eustatic, isostatic and tectonic sea level change, especially major changes in sea level in the last 10,000 years. Students will be able to describe the characteristics and analyse the factors and processes in the development of landforms of coastlines of emergence and submergence, including: raised beaches and marine platformsrias, fjords and Dalmatian coasts. Understanding of the nature and causes of recent and predicted climate change and the potential impact on coasts. Students will explore the relationship between process, time, landforms and landscapes in coastal settings.   Q&A/discussion to define ‘landforms’ and ‘landscapes’. For each erosional landform listed in the specification, use a range of resources to produce a revision card/sheet (or electronic resource).  To include: annotated sketch/ diagram showing its characteristicsa flow diagram giving a sequenced explanation of formation – explaining processes in their development.factors affecting their formationreference to inputs, processes and outputs of erosional coastal landscapesa named illustrative example (not developed case study) from a local UK area and one from beyond the UKa summary of the timescales involved in the formation of the landforms. Identify an area of the coast dominated by coastal erosion and the individual landforms that have combined to form the distinctive landscape they see. (There is an opportunity to investigate landforms/landscapes in the field.) For each depositional landform listed in the specification students should follow the same approach as above and use a range of resources to produce a revision card/sheet (or electronic resource).  Then identify an area of the coast dominated by deposition and identify the individual landforms that have combined to form the distinctive landscape they see. (There is an opportunity to investigate landforms/landscapes in the field). For each of estuarine mudflats and saltmarsh environments students should follow the same approach as above and use a range of resources to produce a revision card/sheet (or electronic resource).   A named illustrative example (not developed case study) from a local UK area and one from beyond the UK – identify an area of mudflats and saltmarsh and identify the individual features that have combined to form the distinctive landscape they see. Opportunities to assess all aspects with a full range of exam style questions, including peer assessment. Q&A/group discussion – what are the reasons for sea level rising and falling?  What are the reasons for global and more localized changes in sea level? Establish full definitions of ‘eustatic’ and ‘Isostatic’ sea level change, and the role played by tectonic processes. Opportunities to use a range of resources to map and understand changes in sea level throughout the last 10,000 years. Opportunity to research the British coastline to identify examples of emergent and submergent sections of coast. For each submergent and emergent landform listed in the specification follow the same approach as above and use a range of resources to produce a revision card/sheet (or electronic resource).  Then identify an area of the coast dominated by deposition and identify the individual landforms that have combined to form the distinctive landscape they see. (There is an opportunity to investigate landforms/ landscapes in the field.) Opportunity for a group research task – students given/find a range of resources on predicted future sea level rise. Questions could include: What is the range of predicted increase in future sea levels?Why is there uncertainty in future predictions?What will the impacts be on coastlines in general?For a specific location what will the impact be on the current landforms that combine to form the landscape?A comparison with the rates of sea level change in the last 10,000 years. Opportunities to assess all aspects with a full range of exam style questions, including peer assessment. Simple resources about various aspects of the coast with many effective images and a range of video clips and diagrams   Video clip discussing factors affecting coastal erosion and resultant landforms   How erosional landforms are linked with the impacts of climate change   Coastal erosion is widely covered in a range of paper or online resources.   Video presentation of the effects of coastal erosion including animations of erosional features   British Geological Society’s case studies of coastlines affected by erosion with interesting information and images                                           Coastal deposition is widely covered in a range of paper or online resources.   Summary of some depositional features   Information on coastal deposition with in-depth text and interesting images and photos   There is a good Geo Factsheet on coastal deposition.   Videos on coastal sand dunes and sand dune formation         Estuarine mudflats in Pembrokeshire   Background information on mudflats   Summary of saltmarshes   Simple animation illustrating the locational relationship between mudflats and saltmarshes   Video of estuarine environments in Cardigan Bay in west Wales   Estuarine environment beyond the UK: saltmarshes in the USA   Videos giving aerial views of estuarine mudflat and salt marsh landscapes at Morecambe Bay.           Summary of causes of sea level change: good images to explain change and sea levels through recent geological time   Video animation of sea level change around the British Isles in the last 12,000 years – plays in QuickTime   Summary of coastline features with good diagrams and images– including emergent and submergent features   Short video about fjords   National Geographic encyclopedia entry on fjords   Open University video on forming fjords   Information on raised beaches/marine terraces.   WizScience video on marine terraces   The Geological Society information on the raised beach at Loch Tarbert                                 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) videos on climate change: 2013 video provides good general background   IPCC presentation on possible impacts of climate change on sea levels   Maps of predicted sea level change over the next 20,000 years   National Geographic articles on sea level rise and how this will affect climate change talks   Coastal impacts of sea level change from the US perspective   Detailed information on ocean impacts of climate change and sea level rise.  
Weeks 6-7 Coastal management Human intervention in coastal landscapes. Traditional approaches to coastal flood and erosion risk: hard and soft engineering.Sustainable approaches to coastal flood risk and coastal erosion management: shoreline management/integrated coastal zone management. Use of key subject specific and technical terminology. Opportunity to conduct fieldwork to investigate the characteristics and effectiveness of different approaches to coastal management. Online research. Handling primary and secondary sources of data. Construct and interpret a range of graphical and statistical techniques. To use a range of maps to identify different management approaches. Opportunity to assess different coastal management approaches, including activities such as cost-benefit analysis etc, and come to valid conclusions.   Students will be able to understand why people manage different coastlines in different ways. Students will be able to identify and describe traditional approaches to coastal flood risk and coastal erosion, including: hard engineering – sea walls; rock armour/rip rap; gabions;  revetments; groynes; cliff fixing; offshore reefs; barragessoft engineering – beach nourishment; dune regeneration; managed retreat; land-use management; ‘Do nothing’. Paired/small group discussion with feedback/snowballing to the group as a whole.   Possible questions include: Why should people manage the coastline?Why might some stretches of coastline be managed differently?What techniques could be used to manage different coastlines?   Having studied a range of hard and soft engineering strategies (this is well covered in textbooks and online resources), there is an opportunity to develop understanding and illustrate learning by completing a study of a local coastline This could involve fieldwork or be classroom based.    Activities could include: finding a map of the areamapping the extent of different management strategies employeddescribing each strategyexplaining how each strategy protects the coastsuggesting why each strategy has been used in each locationIf field data is collected, this could be analysed alongside information on costs and benefits etc. Reminder of the definition of ‘sustainability’ and ‘sustainable development’. As part of the previous exercises, or following them, comment on the sustainability of each of the approaches studied. Opportunity to research sustainable approaches to coastal flood and erosion management in the 21st Century, including Shoreline Management Plans. Possible tasks include: research the background to SMPsidentify how the British coastline is separated into SMPsidentify the key aims and features of SMPsproduce a mini-illustrative example of the features of the SMP most local to them. Opportunity to conduct research into Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM).  Possible questions include: What are the origins of ICZM?What is the background to why an integrated coastal management is needed?Why is concentrating on people and economic activity putting pressure on coastal environments?What are the specific issues facing coastal environments in the future?Who are the stakeholders, who should be considered when thinking about coastal management?How can ICZM be viewed as a cyclical process? Opportunity to research the local ICZM plan for a local coastline. Opportunities to assess all aspects with a full range of exam style questions, including peer assessment – also skills and fieldwork assessment. Coastal management, and hard and soft engineering approaches are topics that are well resourced in books and online  – a sample of resources below:   Fieldwork Studies Council summary of approaches to coastal management strategies and different approaches available, with reference to fieldwork opportunities.   Summary article on some coastal management approaches   Strategies used along one stretch of coastline at Pevensey Bay in East Sussex   Simple video about Pevensey and sea defenses                                                                   Environment Agency information on Shoreline Management Plans   UK government information on how the Environment Agency and local councils are developing shoreline management plans to manage the threat of coastal change What is a Shoreline Management Plan? It is quite easy to find information about each of the SMP areas online like the last resource for the Southeast Coastal Group.         20min interview with Dr. Burbridge from Newcastle University on Integrated Coastal Zone Management   European Commission information on ICZM   Summary of the importance of ICZM for planning in the UK   European Commission presentation on ICZM and Maritime Spatial Planning with useful summary diagrams   Summary of the origin of the concept and policies of ICZM  
Weeks 8-9 Case study 1 Case study(ies) of coastal environment(s) at a local scale to illustrate and analyse fundamental coastal processes, their landscape outcomes as set out above and engage with field data and challenges represented in their sustainable management.                                     Case study 2 Case study of a contrasting coastal landscape beyond the UK to illustrate and analyse how it presents risks and opportunities for human occupation and development and evaluate human responses of resilience, mitigation and adaption. Collect, analyse and interpret a range of qualitative and quantitative data from a range of primary and secondary sources – this could include discursive/creative material when looking at the experiences of people in place. Present, analyse, draw conclusions and evaluate those findings using a range of geographical techniques (see skills checklist).             Collect, analyse and interpret a range of qualitative and quantitative data from a range of primary and secondary sources – this could include discursive/creative material when looking at the experiences of people in place.   Students could either study a local coastal landscape through the use of secondary data sources (including online digital mapping, secondary data, local authority websites and text book resources) or engage first hand or complete fieldwork to collect primary data, or a combination of both. The aims of such work are to: illustrate how the coastal landscape is distinctive and is the unique combination of the processes and environmental characteristics that created it at a local scaleto investigate and understand how the combination of local coastal processes and landscape features present specific challenges for sustainable management. If students complete a fieldwork investigation, they will be able to follow through a complete geographical investigation and route to enquiry.       This example is based on an investigation of the Sundarbans region of Bangladesh.   Students will be able to describe, analyse and evaluate a range of themes relating to how the human population of the Sundarbans interacts with their coastal landscape, including: an understanding of the coastal processes that combined to create this unique coastal landscapethe challenges and risks of living in the Sundarbansthe opportunities offered by living in the Sundarbansthe human response to the challenges of the Sundarbans, including strategies aimed at resilience, mitigation and adaptationthe potential for possible sustainable development in the future for the people of the Sundarbans.   An opportunity to create a ‘virtual fieldwork investigation’ and provide a range of data relating to a local coastal environment for students to investigate and address the themes of the enquiry. Or, an opportunity for students to conduct a short fieldwork enquiry of a local coastal environment to investigate the main themes of the lesson.  Students could write-up a mini-fieldwork enquiry to act as a case study of a local coastal environment. (This could feed into the completion of coursework for the Non-examination assessment element of the specification).               Opportunity for individual, paired or group research task, using a range of textual, digital or audiovisual resources.  Findings could be shared in traditional classroom approaches or shared through a VLE on a blog for example. For a more active learning approach students could research from the point of view of different stakeholders.  Feedback could then take the form of a debate/roleplay or construction of SWOT analysis in groups etc.     Many of the accompanying textbooks will have illustrative examples of possible coastal fieldwork opportunities and other guidance may be found below. RGS guidance on coastal investigation   RGS guidance on fieldwork techniques   Field Studies Council guidance on coastal fieldwork                                     Information is readily available about the Sundarbans, but a selection is given below: Overview information of the Sundarbans Welcome to the Sundarbans Encylopedia of Earth US Aid information on the environment and global climate change    

Quantitative and qualitative skills

Students must engage with a range of quantitative and relevant qualitative skills, within the theme landscape systems.  These should include observation skills, measurement and geospatial mapping skills and data manipulation and statistical skills applied to field measurements.

Making connections

Students must consider connections across the themes within the theme of coastal systems and landscapes, connections between this and other themes in the specification and connections with novel geographical themes beyond the specification.

Human geography: Changing places

This resource is a scheme of work for our accredited AS and A-level Geography specifications (7036, 7037).  This scheme of work is not exhaustive or prescriptive, it is designed to suggest activities and resources that you might find useful in your teaching.

3.2 Human geography

Core topic

3.2.2 Changing places

Specification content Week number Subject-specific  skills development Learning outcomes Suggested learning activities  (including ref to differentiation and extension activities) Resources
Week 1 Introduction to topicThe concept of place and the importance of place in human life and experienceInsider and outsider perspectives on place; categories of place: near and far, experienced and media places   Use of key subject specific and technical terminology. Core and ICT skills.   An overview of the concept of place. Students will learn that place is more than just a location but also incorporates the notions of locale and sense of place.  Students will understand the terms ‘insider’ and ‘outsider’ in relation to place and the different categories of place. Students understand the difference between sense of place and perception of place.       Small group discussions followed by feedback – what is place and what does it mean to different people? What is the difference between space and place? Why does place matter? Use photographs of a range of places (local-global scale) to illustrate how different places mean different things to different people, eg Old Trafford (Man Utd v Man City fan); Kos (seen through eyes of tourist or refugee); Jerusalem (seen through eyes of people from different religions). How do people develop a sense of place? This can be linked to the notions of experienced place and near place. Get students to think of a place special to them and write down a number of words to describe their feelings about that place. They might want to describe a few of their experiences there. In groups, ask them to compare their paragraphs. Are they positive/negative? Does everyone feel the same way? If not, why not? How might their different personal experiences affect the way they feel about it? How might factors such as gender, ethnicity etc affect feelings? They could use these words to produce a ‘Wordle’. Alternatively students could work collectively to produce a local ‘sense of place toolkit’ to highlight what is special about their local area. See Morecambe Bay and Snowdonia NP examples. Repeat the same exercise for a media place/somewhere the students have not visited. How would they describe it? How have they developed feelings/perceptions about this place?
Extension: research the three theoretical approaches to studying place: descriptive, social constructionist and phenomenological
The first three resources detailed here would be useful to read before starting to teach this module:   Introduction on defining place pp. 1-21, in Cresswell, T. (2015) Place: an introduction, second edition, Blackwell.   ‘Changing Places’ by Richard Phillips (2016) on the RGS website. It provides a useful introduction to the different aspects of place.   ‘Teaching about places’, Freeman, D. and Morgan, A. (2014) Teaching Geography, 39:3.   Cultural Geographer Jon Anderson has written a good book on place entitled Understanding Cultural Geography: Places and Traces, (2015). It is also worth looking at his ‘Spatial manifesto’ webpage which has useful resources and PowerPoints for teaching about Place. There are also ideas here for fieldwork.   Create word clouds by copying and pasting text into Wordle   Sense of Place toolkit for Morecambe Bay     Snowdonia sense of place     There are a number of TED talks focused on ideas around sense of place.   The RGS resource entitled ‘Creating a sense of place in the school grounds’ is more for younger students, but ideas could be adapted.   Useful ideas and discussion about perceptions of place can be found at GeogSpace    
Week 1-2 Factors contributing to the character of placesEndogenous factorsExogenous factors   Use of key subject specific and technical terminology. Online research. Evaluating and presenting findings from research. Core and ICT skills.     Students will be able to detail a range of human and physical factors which contribute to the character of place.   Students will be able to define the terms endogenous and exogenous.   Small group discussions followed by feedback – what factors contribute to a place’s unique character?  Could refer to languages, dialect, belief systems, rituals, clothing, products, services, etc. Using a local map (1:25000 OS map), get students to look at the physical geography of the local area: relief, height, aspect, drainage etc. Discuss how these have affected the development and character of the place and then consider the impact of humans. Compare old and new maps. How has the area changed? Why?
Show YouTube clip parody of ‘New York state of mind’ based on Newport, South Wales. Students could write a parody for their local place. What kind of factors affect place? Globalization and localization: follow the example of Doreen Massey and take a walk down your local high street. Does it have chain stores or independent shops? Are there signs of different cultures and languages? Produce an annotated photographic display. Is it a ‘clone town’ or is it holding on to its own identity? Short exam question practice, eg  distinguish between endogenous and exogenous factors. Focus on command word and key terms here. Extension: Authors have argued that tourist places like Disney World are not real places but ‘placeless’ places or ‘pseudo-places’ with no real sense of history or belonging. Discuss this idea. Which other places might be considered ‘placeless’? (airports, major hotels, etc). Have globalization and digital technology increased placelessness?  
The UK Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE) which ran from 1999 to 2011, highlighted the importance of architecture in defining place. It also promoted a place-based orientation to learning and produced lots of place-based resources for schools. These archived resources can be found at The National Archives website. A variety of maps from the past can be viewed at Old Maps. Vision of Britain shows how the country has changed over time. In the book, Space, Place and Gender, (1994), Doreen Massey uses her own local area (Kilburn High Street, London) to illustrate that place is influenced by constantly changing elements of a wider world.  
Week  3 – 4 How humans perceive, engage with and form attachments to place and how they present and represent the world to others.How places are represented in a variety of different forms such as advertising copy, tourist agency materials, local art exhibitions in diverse media (eg Film, photography, art, story, song etc) that often give contrasting images to that presented formally or statistically.Start to research and construct the local place study. For both place studies, there should be an equal focus on peoples lived experience AND EITHER changingdemographic and cultural OR economicchange.   NB The Place study (ies) could form the basis for the fieldwork investigation. Use of key subject specific and technical terminology. Collect, analyse and interpret information from a range of secondary sources – including factual, numerical and spatial data. Critical questioning of information, and sources of information. Online research. Evaluating and presenting findings from research. Core and ICT skills. Fieldwork potential here. Students can discuss the range of factors that influence perception of place and sense of place.   Students understand the term representation of place.   Students can provide examples of different resources which can be used to represent place and acknowledge that they may present contrasting images.   Students can distinguish between quantitative and qualitative resources and start to build up their local place study.   Students can critically evaluate the usefulness of a range of quantitative and qualitative resources.       Show some images of different places and discuss why place stereotypes may have occurred.   Ask students to reflect on the way their lives are intertwined with that of the places and the landscapes they inhabit or introduce them to the more subjective and personal responses of others through poetry, art, novels etc. They could then produce their own poems, pictures, pieces of prose showing their engagement with a particular place. This could be done as a cross-disciplinary exercise. Opportunity for individual or group presentations here.   Students will be keen to discuss the impact of social media on place representation and attachment. Show the Social landmarks around the world (from Facebook) image.   Use anecdotal evidence, web research, historical documents and / or newspapers and other media reports to build and compare different stories of a place. Find positive and negative articles/reports for the same place to illustrate different representations of place. Discuss the impacts this can have on an area.
Watch a series of TV clips from soap operas, crime dramas and sci-fi. How do they represent different places? Compare the different portrayals of urban and rural areas. Show students a collection of photographs or pictures of art/sculpture/buildings and ask students to research who they were produced/built for and why.  Students should then reflect on how this may affect their representation of that particular place. Examples include: The Angel of the North, GatesheadThe Kelpies, FalkirkOne World trade center, NYCBurj Khalifa, Dubai, UAETrafalgar Square, LondonGuggenheim museum, Bilbao, SpainDismaland temporary exhibition, Weston-Super-Mare 2015.   Extended exam question practice with opportunity for peer assessment here   Extension/cross-disciplinary: Think of places associated with Shakespeare’s plays. How did Shakespeare know of these places (he was rumoured to have travelled little)? Why were they set here? How has his work affected these places today (eg Verona: Romeo and Juliet)?    
An internet images search on ‘place stereotypes’ throws up some interesting and often amusing maps both within and beyond the UK.   Independent article on ‘Little Britain: How the rest of the world sees us’   Look at the London survey of regional stereotypes, 2014   You could look at examples of so-called green or environmental poetry aimed at alerting readers to environmental crises such as disappearing species, pollution and  climate change (Alice Oswald, Owen Sheers, Gillian Clarke) or new popular nature writing such as Roger Deakin (Wildwood), Robert Macfarlane (The Wild Places).   Eleanor Rawling suggests a number of strategies to engage senses, feeling and emotions about Place in her chapter entitled ‘Reading and writing Place’, in Butt, G. (2011) Geography, Education and the Future. Facebook documents social landmarks around the world using check-in data.   Look at the different ways in which Liverpool is represented in Smyth, F. (2016) ‘Representations of place’ in Geography Review: 29,4.     Read ‘A short introduction to Quantitative Geography’ by Richard Harris (2016) on the RGS website.   For extension, read ‘Globetrotting adventures with the Bard’, The Daily Telegraph, 12th April 2016.  
Week 5 – 6 The impact of relationships and connections on people and place with a focus on:   Changing demographic and cultural characteristics and Economic Change and social inequalities.   How the demographic, socio-economic and cultural characteristics of places are shaped by shifting flows of people, resources, money and investment.Local place study (ongoing).Start to research distant place study. Collect, analyse and interpret information from a range of secondary sources – including factual, numerical and spatial data. Online research. Evaluating and presenting findings from research. Core and ICT skills.     Students will appreciate that places are dynamic and they are always changing. Students will be able to discuss the impacts of globalisation on place. Students will be able to discuss how places are shaped by factors such as migration, employment opportunities and investment. Students will recognize that different places have responded to these changes in different ways. How and why does migration affect different places? Identify places which have experienced mass immigration and research the impacts of this. Students could produce a mind map here. This is also a good opportunity to use the census to produce geospatial data. You could use the example of East London here. It has experienced significant change in recent years as a result of migration and regeneration. There is also a wealth of quantitative and qualitative information to be found about the area.   Use local and national newspaper sources to research the different attitudes towards gentrification and regeneration in East London. There were some interesting editorials after the anti-gentrification protests in 2015. See also RGS online lecture on gentrification.     For census data and social and economic characteristics of places in the UK, go to ONS Neighbourhood statistics.   For interactive visualization of 2011 census data, go to the DataShine website. You can also use the ‘Maps’ section of the Consumer Data Research Centre website to explore different areas.   An internet search on East London Olympics regeneration will yield many interesting resources. The RGS website also has some useful links.   Time Out article ‘Stratford: then and now’ .   Follow the daily blog of ‘the gentle author’ who writes about life in and around Spitalfields and Brick Lane in East London.   Articles such as ‘How power, money and art are shifting to the East End’ (of London) can be found in The Guardian.   The RGS has produced an online lecture on gentrification  
Week 7 The characteristics and impacts of external forces operating at different scales including either government policies or the decisions of multi-nationals or the impacts of international or global institutions.How past and present connections within and beyond localities shape places and how past and present development influences the social and economic characteristics.Distant place study (ongoing). Collect, analyse and interpret information from a range of secondary sources – including factual, numerical and spatial data. Online research. Evaluating and presenting findings from research. Core and ICT skills.     Students will be able to describe and explain the impacts of either government policies or the decisions of multi-nationals or the impacts of international or global institutions on place. Students will be able to detail how past and present development influences social and economic characteristics of a place. Students to research examples of external forces on place: government policies such as regeneration schemes; decisions of MNCS (Tata Steel) or international or global institutions (UN, IMF, World Bank) and present findings to rest of the class. Opportunity for individual or group presentations here.   Detroit is a good example of somewhere affected (both positively and negatively) by the decisions of major car manufacturers (‘Motown’ nickname for Detroit). Ford have just started to redevelop large areas of Detroit – students could research this.   Get students to conduct a survey or search newspaper websites to compare the views of local people with the local government and corporate bodies involved in marketing and regenerating places? The London Olympics regeneration wasn’t welcomed by everybody for example. Resources about the impacts of the London Olympics on East London are useful and plentiful.   Find and discuss examples of places influenced by past development. These might include former industrial cities such as Birmingham, Liverpool, Sheffield, Manchester and Glasgow or mining towns. You could make links to rebranding/reimaging here as well as to the contemporary urban environments topic looking at urban regeneration and the use of industrial or heritage quarters (Sheffield industrial quarter). Consider how industrial cities attracted migrants and the subsequent impacts of mass migration to British cities.   Follow the developments after Tata Steel announced plans to sell off their British steel interests.   Look at current government regeneration projects in the UK     Three minute clip about the regeneration of Salford   The Guardian website is an excellent resource for researching topical issues.    Case study of Detroit: article about ‘the decline of Detroit’ and the Ford development in Detroit        
Week  8 – 9 How external agencies, including government, corporate bodies and community or local groups make attempts to influence or create specific place-meanings and shape the actions of people.   Distant place study (ongoing). Use of key subject specific and technical terminology. Collect, analyze and interpret information from a range of secondary sources – including factual, numerical and spatial data. Core and ICT skills.                               Students understand the terms place-marketing, rebranding and reimaging and can provide examples of where and why these strategies have been adopted.   Awareness of crowd-sourcing and big data.                       Discuss the meaning of the term branding and how and why it is done. Take The Guardian city logo quiz.   Students could investigate a place they know or one of the following to look at the causes and consequences of rebranding (GeoFile 619 Reimaging settlements suggests some fieldwork tasks): Liverpool, Manchester, Barcelona, Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Melbourne and Hong Kong.   Crowd-sourcing and social media was used in the 2013 rebranding of Glasgow – the ‘People make Glasgow …’ campaign. This campaign is also worth looking at in terms of peoples’ lived experience of place.   The Lake District National Park authority has wanted to brand the Lake District NP as the ‘adventure capital’ of the UK to attract younger visitors. What has it done and how successful has it been with this strategy? Watch BBC documentary Tales from the National Parks: Lake District.   Rebranding of other rural areas has been carried out – this is another area to research.   Local groups involved in change could include residents associations, heritage associations and social media. Students could research the presence and role of these in their local area.           See The Guardian city logo quiz   See The Guardian datablog on city branding   Glasgow rebranding resources at People Make Glasgow and BBC article on Glasgow’s new brand   ‘Case study of regeneration: the Jewellery quarter, Birmingham’ in GeoFile, 642, April 2011   A case study of rebranding – El Raval, Barcelona, GeoFile 635, Jan 2011   Reimaging settlements, GeoFile 619, April 2010   The Barcelona Field Studies Centre has some useful resources and web links about rebranding   Regenerating Liverpool: Information at Liverpool Vision   Article in The Guardian on negative stereotyping of Liverpool   How being ‘Capital of Culture transforms perceptions of Liverpool’   Investigating rural rebranding, GeoFile, 676, Sept 2012   Rural rebranding: a case study from Shropshire in Geograhy Review, 27:1, Sept 2013
Place studies (weeks 2 – 9)   Two place studies are required: one exploring the developing character of a place local to the home or study centre and the other exploring the developing character of a contrasting and distant place. It is a good idea to start constructing the place studies before the end of the topic. Presentation, interpretation, analysis and communication of data. Retrieval and manipulation of secondary datasets. Use of geospatial technologies such as digital cartography and G.I.S. The use of different types of data allows the development of critical perspectives on the data categories and approaches. Maths and numeracy. Crowd-sourcing and big data. Use and understanding of methodological approaches including interviews. Core and ICT skills.     Students will be familiar with the principles of research design and ways to collect data. Students will engage with a range of quantitative and qualitative resources. Students will be able to critically evaluate data categories and approaches.   Awareness of crowd-sourcing and big data. Students should think of quantitative geography as being about telling geographical stories with data. Q&A/discussion about potential sources of quantitative data and their limitations.   Students will need a lot of time here to research and construct their two place studies.   Extension: Get students to find examples of dodgy statistics, misunderstandings and misuse of data, for example on the Bad Science website or Full Fact website. Richard Harris also provides examples of these in his RGS paper.   For lived experience of place, get students to design and conduct a questionnaire/survey to give to local people. Alternatively, they can look at ways of analysing social media sources such as Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and Pinterest for experience of place.   It is important to discuss with the students the ethical and socio-political implications of collecting, studying and representing geographical data about human communities.   Crowd-sourcing was used in the 2013 rebranding of Glasgow – the ‘People make Glasgow …’ campaign. This is worth looking at as example of lived experience of place.   Look at the impact of and use of social media in representing place. Look at the social landmarks according to Facebook images.   Quantitative sources ‘A short introduction to Quantitative Geography’ by Richard Harris (2016) on the RGS website   An overview of quantitative skills is provided in Holmes, D. (2016) ‘Quantitative skills for Geographers’ in Geography Review: 29, 4.   Resources on the RGS website at ‘Teaching the census through GIS’     Holmes, D. 2016 ‘Using GIS with census data’ IN Geography Review, 29:3.   For census data and social and economic characteristics of places in the UK, go to ONS Neighbourhood statistics.   For interactive visualization of 2011 census data, go to the DataShine website. You can also use the ‘Maps’ section of the Consumer Data Research Centre website to explore different areas.   For localized data on information such as house prices, school results, council tax and crime, go to: Local Government Association   UK Local Area   Check My Area   For health-related data, see the Public Health Outcomes Framework   Unconventional sources of data have been used to produce maps about London and the lives of the people who live there at The Information Capital  
Qualitative sources Using mysteries to develop place knowledge in Teaching Geography: 41:1, Spring 2016.   The three chapters on Place in Butt, G. (2011) Geography, Education and the Future are useful in their discussion of teaching Place using qualitative resources.   Eleanor Rawling suggests a number of strategies to engage senses, feeling and emotions about Place in her chapter entitled ‘Reading and writing Place’, in Butt, G. (2011) Geography, Education and the Future.   Look at examples of photoshopped photographs at Mesogo.   Facebook documents social landmarks around the world using check-in data.

Human geography: Global systems and global governance

This resource is a scheme of work for our accredited AS and A-level Geography specifications (7036, 7037). This scheme of work is not exhaustive or prescriptive, it is designed to suggest activities and resources that you might find useful in your teaching.

3.2 Human geography

Core topic

3.2.1 Global systems and global governance

Specification content

Week Number

Subject-specific  skills development

Learning outcomes

Suggested Learning activities  (including ref to differentiation and extension activities)

Resources

Week 1

Globalisation

·         Dimensions of globalisation: flows of capital, labour, products, services and information.

·         Global marketing.

 

Use of key subject specific and technical terminology.

Cartographic skills – annotating base map or production of flow map.

Critical questioning of information, and sources of information.

Core and ICT skills.

Online research.

Potential for Fieldwork.

 

Students have a clear understanding of globalisation and its interconnected elements and scales of the global economy.

 

Students appreciate that globalisation has accelerated within their own lifetime, driven by companies based in countries all over the world. It’s not just an assumed outcome of improved technology.

 

Students can discuss the advantages and disadvantages of globalisation.

 

 

Students discuss their understanding of the term globalisation and consider its impact on their lives. You could discuss where their belongings are from, recent holidays, music, meals etc. Are there any patterns?

Initial discussion: Is globalisation a good thing? (It’s worth asking this question throughout the topic.) How might responses vary depending on the person asked?

Students could produce a poster detailing the global life/journey of a particular product. Try using/ adapting the following: Globalisation project: Follow that product!

When and why has globalisation occurred? The GA have an introductory lesson to globalisation where students discuss these questions and produce a globalisation timeline using a number of key events. Lesson details and resources can be found at RGS: Introducing Globalisation

Extension: Measuring globalisation -the KOF Index and A.T.Kearney index. Look at factors used to measure globalisation in rankings like these.

Fieldwork: Linked to Changing Places, students could follow the example of Doreen Massey and take a walk down the local high street. Does it have chain stores, independent shops, are there signs of different cultures and languages? What are the immediate signs of globalisation in the local area?

Read the RGS subject content overview on Global systems and global governance by Klaus Dodds before teaching this module. Find it at Royal Geographical Society (RGS): Global Systems and Global Governance

 

General global systems and governance websites:

The websites of the United Nations, World Trade Organisation and World Bank have material on various aspects linked to global systems.

The Economist is useful.. Interesting articles on globalisation and development can be found at Global Eye

International forum on globalisation ; Global Issues

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development  

Gapminder and worldmapper are useful for looking at global issues. This GA webpage details how you can use these websites Gapminder and Worldmapper

Townsend, J. (2013) ‘Remittances: an economic lifeline’ in Geography Review, 26: 4.

Jones, P., Comfort, D. and Hillier, D. (2013) ‘Data centres and globalisation’ in Geography Review, 26: 3.

Adams, K. (2011) ‘Hip hop: a culture and globalisation case study’ in Geography Review, 25: 2.

 

KOF Index of globalisation resources KOF Index of globalisation

 

 

 

 

 

 

Week 2

·         Patterns of production, distribution and consumption.

·         Factors in globalisation: developing technologies, systems and relationships including financial, transport, security, communications, management and information systems and trade agreements.

Use of key subject specific and technical terminology.

Critical questioning of information and sources of information.

Core and ICT skills

Online research

Presentation skills

Core skills – literacy

Cartographic skills – maps showing movement

Students will recognise that globalisation has led to divisions in patterns of production, distribution and consumption.

 

Students will be able to discuss the factors which have combined to increase the breadth and depth of links between nations and trading groups over the past 30 years.

 

Students will be able to describe and give examples of trading blocs and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of  trade agreements between countries.

 

Discuss the notion of global shift – the filtering down of manufacturing industry from developed countries to lower wage economies. Why has this happened and what have been the impacts of this? Students could research different industries in the UK affected by this movement. (Car manufacturing, steel, Cadburys …).

Split group into pairs to research the different factors which have driven globalisation. Each pair could present their findings on one factor? It would be worth the students producing a mind map to summarise the key factors and supporting material.

Get students to produce an annotated map to show the global regional trading blocs. Brexit discussion likely here.

Extended writing opportunity: Discuss the main factors that have contributed to the process of globalisation.

Extension: Discuss the extent to which flows of capital, labour, products, services and information are a cause rather than consequence of globalisation.

 

Dicken, P. (2007) Global Shift: Mapping the Changing Contours of the World Economy

Look out for newspaper and journal articles on examples and case studies on global shift

West, E. (2016) ‘Globalisation: what are the causes?’ in Geography Review, 29:3.

A summary of information about trading blocs can be found at: Economics Online

Oakes, S. (2015) ‘ICT and globalisation’ in Geography Review, 28: 3.

Nash, S. (2010) ‘The globalisation of services’, Geofile, 617.

Robert Morris has written an article and provided resources on the role of shipping containers in driving globalisation: Containerisation: The unsung hero of globalisation?

Two videos from TED Talks: Rose George ‘Inside the secret shipping industry’   How containerisation shaped the modern world  In 2008, the BBC tracked a shipping container for a year. More details/resources can be found at: BBC News: The Box 

Puddephatt, P. (2016) ‘What are localisation, globalisation and sustainability?’, Geoactive, 555.

Week 3

Global systems

·         Form and nature of economic, political, social and environmental interdependence in the contemporary world.

·         Issues associated with unequal flows of people, money, ideas and technology within global systems.

·         Issues associated with unequal power relations.

Core and ICT skills.

Online research.

Evaluating and presenting findings from research.

Lorenz curve line graph and GINI index.

Spearman’s Rank statistical technique and application of significance test.

Students can explain the role of the World Bank, IMF and World Trade Organisation.

 

Students can discuss the causes and consequences of inequality linked to globalisation.

 

Students can discuss the advantages and disadvantages of globalisation (in more detail and with a more critical eye).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research the role of the IMF, World Bank and WTO and assess their role in global systems. What are the main criticisms of these institutions?

Lots of resources detail inequality between and within countries. Issues of inequality are discussed in the Contemporary urban environments topic and Changing Places – you could make links here.

Inequality related activities (make sure to link to globalisation):

·         Get students to produce an infographic detailing global inequalities using the Oxfam 2016 report and other sources.

·         Get students to carry out a Spearman’s rank statistical test using GDP and economic growth data.

·         Get students to produce a Lorenz Curve showing inequality within a range of countries.

·         Describe the pattern of inequality shown by the latest global Gini coefficient map.

·         Using a variety of sources, research and discuss whether inequality is increasing?

·         Consider different methods of presenting data relating to inequality.

Extension: In the 1999 book, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, Thomas Friedman outlined the idea of the ‘Global Arches Theory of Conflict Prevention’ suggesting that ‘No two countries that both had McDonald’s had fought a war against each other since each got its McDonald’s.’ Is this true? Consider the extent to which economic integration decreases the likelihood of armed conflict between countries.

Useful websites for the international organisations section:

World Trade Organisation

World Bank

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)  

BBC profile on the IMF and World Bank   

Morrish, M (2014) ‘The effect of globalisation on population movement’, Geofile, 716.

West, E. (2016) ‘Globalisation: what are the causes?’ in Geography Review, 29:3.

62 people own the same as half the world (Report on inequality January, 2016) at OXFAM

Richard Harris has written an article for the RGS on Inequality, Statistics and the Spirit Level.

Gapminder have numerous resources (including TED talks) which consider inequality. Go to Gapminder.  

Search inequality related maps on worldmapper.org/

The website of the Equality Trust also has useful resources at

equalitytrust.org.uk

Richard Wilkinson has written and presented extensively on inequality. Read the book Pickett, K and Wilkinson, R. (2009) The spirit level: why more equal societies almost always do better and see his TED talk on how economic inequality harms societies at ted.com/talks/richard_wilkinson?language=en

Danny Dorling has written extensively on inequality. Go to dannydorling.org/

Rae, C. (2016) ‘Reducing global inequalities’, Geoactive, 550.

Weeks 4 – 5

International trade and access to markets

·         Global features and trends in the volume and pattern of international trade and investment associated with globalisation.

·         Trading relationships and patterns between large, highly developed countries, emerging major economies and smaller, less developed economies.

·         Differential access to markets associated with levels of economic development and trade agreements and its impacts on economic and societal wellbeing.

·         World trade in at least one food commodity or one manufacturing product.

 

 

 

Use of key subject specific and technical terminology.

Collect, analyse and interpret information from a range of secondary sources – including factual, numerical and spatial data.

Critical questioning of information, and sources of information.

Online research.

Core and ICT skills.

Cartographic skills – maps showing movement.

Students are able to define the term ‘trade’ and describe and explain general patterns in world trade.

Students appreciate the unequal nature of world trade and the dominance of a few countries.

 

Students are aware of barriers to trade and understand the term ‘protectionism’.

 

Students can discuss trading relationships and patterns and the conflicts which can result from these.

 

Students are able to describe world trade for a food commodity and/or manufactured product.

 

Look at recent maps showing world trade for a number of different items and get students to describe and explain the patterns shown. Which countries dominate world trade and why? Make links back to trading blocs and trade agreements.

Discuss the costs and benefits of trading relationships.

Build a case study on a food commodity or manufactured product: cash crops such as bananas, coffee and cocoa have great discussion potential here due to their production largely focused in LICs.

Define and discuss Fairtrade and alternative trading organisations such as Cafedirect and Traidcraft. Why are these organisations viewed as more ethical? How does Fairtrade differ to Free trade?

Play the chocolate game or trade game to make the point about unfair trade.

Extension: There has been much discussion about the increasing role of the Chinese in Africa. Research and discuss the different viewpoints on this investment.

Rae, A. (2009) ‘Global food production’, Geofile, 586.

Nash, S. (2010) ‘The geopolitics of food’, Geofile,  628.

Nagle, G. (2007) ‘The globalisation of food production’, Geofile, 541.

Guinness, P. (2004) ‘Globalisation: mini case studies’, Geofile, 464.

Worldwatch has some useful trade-related resources

Guinness, P. (2005) ‘Fair trade’, Geofile, 499.

Rutter, J. (2008) ‘A case study of a cash crop: coffee’, Geofile, 565.

Global issues The banana trade war

Nagle, G. (2001) ‘Maquiladora development in Mexico’, Geofile, 400.

Fairtrade has a huge resources library detailing their work and includes information on numerous food commodities

There are numerous examples of the chocolate/trade game. Two sources: People and Planet – Sweet Injustice: the chocolate game

Christian Aid: The Chocolate Trade Game

Week 6

·         The nature and role of Transnational corporations (TNCs).

·         Analysis and assessment of the geographical consequences of global systems to consider how international trade and variable access to markets impact on students’ and other peoples’ lives across the globe.

 

Collect, analyse and interpret information from secondary sources – including factual, numerical and spatial data.

Critical questioning of information, and sources of information.

Online research.

Evaluating and presenting findings from research.

Core skills – literacy.

Students can describe the characteristics of a TNC and discuss their costs and benefits.

 

Students will be able to detail the practices of one particular TNC in detail.

 

Students  acknowledge changing nature of 21st century TNCs – they no longer just originate from more developed regions.

 

Students are able to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of globalisation (in more detail and with a more critical eye).

 

 

Students research and prepare presentations on different TNCs outlining their spatial organisation, production processes and the social, economic and environmental impacts on the countries they operate.

Discuss why the role of TNCS in aiding development can be viewed  positively and negatively.

Extended writing opportunities here: ‘The benefits of globalisation outweight the costs.’ Discuss.

Or

Assess the extent to which international trade and variable access to markets have impacted upon people’s lives across the globe.

 

Global Policy has some good resources on TNCs

Oakes, S. (2012) ‘Globalisation: a risky business.’ In Geography Review, 25: 4.

Oakes, S. (2013) ‘TNCs, the geography of ownership, profit and identity’ in Geography Review, 26: 4.

Wraight, P. (2013) ‘The role of TNCs in food production and global trade in foodstuffs’, Geofile, 684.

Melbourne, B. (2006) ‘Transnational corporations’, Geofile, 513.

 

Week 7

Global governance and the global commons

·         The emergence and developing role of norms, laws and institutions in regulating and reproducing global systems.

·         Issues associated with attempts at global governance.

·         The concept of the global commons.

·         Acknowledgement peoples’ rights to sustainable development and the need to protect the global commons.

 

 

Use of key subject specific and technical terminology.

Collect, analyse and interpret information from a range of secondary sources – including factual, numerical and spatial data.

Critical questioning of information and sources of information.

Online research.

Evaluating and presenting findings from research.

ICT skills – use of crowd sourcing and big data.

 

Students define the term ‘global governance’ and are aware of the key ‘players’ in decision making.

Students outline the role of the United Nations.

Students understand the need for global governance and can give recent examples.

Students discuss negative issues associated with global governance.

Students understand the term ‘global commons’ and can name the four global commons.

Students understand the notion of ‘The tragedy of the commons.’


Students can give examples and describe the importance of laws and treaties aimed at preserving the global commons.

Students research the role of the United Nations and the advantages and disadvantages of global governance

 

Global governance has focused on a number of international issues. Get students to research and evaluate the success of different strategies adopted. Students could research efforts to tackle:

·         Environmental problems such as climate change

·         Reduction of poverty (MDGs, Post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals)

·         Trade and investment inequities

·         Human rights violations

·         Civil conflict and

·         Financial instability

International action on climate change would be a good focus – it can link to the carbon and water topic and reference recent international climate summits.

 

Discuss the notion of the global commons and how they can be protected. Look at examples of ways in which crowd sourced events or campaigns have sought to tackle global (environmental) problems.

 

Extension: Discuss the notion that cyberspace meets the definition of a global common and should be policed.

 

The United Nations website is a useful starting point for this part of the specification. It has resources on both global governance and the global commons

UN: Global Commons

UN: An early perspective – Our Common Future: managing the commons (1987)   

Other organisations operating internationally are connected to the UN such as the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP);  

UN: Evaluation of Millennium; Development Goals (2000-2015);

Post-2015 sustainable development goals;  

Intergovernmental panel on climate change;   

United Nations Framework Convention on climate change;  

The BBC: 2015 Climate change summit details;  

The wealth of the Commons

NGOs such as Greenpeace run campaigns to protect the global commons.

Weeks 8-9

Antarctica as a global common

·         The geography of Antarctica

·         Threats to Antarctica arising from climate change, fishing and whaling, the search for mineral resources and tourism and scientific research.

·         Critical appraisal of the governance of Antarctica including the UN, UNEP, International Whaling Commission, Antarctic Treaty, Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty and the  IWC Whaling Moratorium.

·         The role of NGOs in monitoring threats and enhancing protection of Antarctica

·         Analysis and assessment of the geographical consequences of global governance.

Use and annotate illustrative and visual material: base maps, sketch maps, geo-located and digital imagery.

Cartographic and graphical skills.

Collect, analyse and interpret information from secondary sources including factual, numerical and spatial data.

Critical questioning of information.

Online research.

Core and ICT skills.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Students can describe the human and physical geography of Antarctica

Students can discuss the different threats to Antarctica

Students detail and critically appraise the governance of Antarctica including the UN, UNEP, International Whaling Commission, Antarctic Treaty, Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty and the  IWC Whaling Moratorium.

 

Students can name different non-governmental organisations protecting the Antarctic.

 

Students assess the geographical consequences of global governance.

Get students to draw a detailed map of Antarctica, labelling key physical features and ice sheets. Students could also draw a climograph. This Maye as a large poster or student display outlining other key features.

Look at (NASA) satellite images showing recent changes in Antarctica such as ice break ups – why is this happening?

Investigate threats to Antarctica and the different organisations and treaties which protect it. How successful have these been? The BAS website Discovering Antarctica is an excellent source of information. Students could write an article for a magazine or blog outlining the threats facing Antarctica.

 

(Role play) debate on the future of Antarctica: students adopt the roles of different stakeholders (scientists, oil prospectors, tourists, Greenpeace, ASOC representatives, International whaling commission, climate scientists, fishermen) to discuss plans to develop Antarctica after the expiry of the ATS.

Extended writing opportunity: How successful has the Antarctic Treaty System been in protecting Antarctica from its many threats?

Extension: Should the Antarctic Treaty be extended post 2048?

 

 

The British Antarctic Survey (BAS) (educational website for the BAS) is a useful starting point for resources on Antarctica.

Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition (ASOC) is the website of ASOC, an NGO working to preserve the Antarctic continent and the surrounding Southern Ocean.

Cool Antarctica is also good.

Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) develops and coordinates scientific research efforts on Antarctica.

Garrington, S. (2009) ‘The exploitation of the Southern Ocean’, Geofile, AQA3.

Nash, S. (2008) ‘Antarctica – politics, resources and tourism: ‘More than ice and penguins’, Geofile, AQA1.

 

 

NASA has been monitoring ice break ups on Antarctica NASA: Antarctica’s Larsen B Ice Shelf   

 

See also Ecowatch: Nansen ice shelf Antarctica 

and Live Science: Antarctica Larsen ice shelf collapsing,

International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators.

News and teaching resources about Antarctica from The Guardian and British Antarctic Survey materials British Antarctic Survey materials from Greenpeace.