Primary Geography

The O’Brien International School

Scheme of work for Geography 

∙ To have a high level of English and Maths skills reinforced in Geography sessions, evidenced in books 

∙ To display an end driver, high quality books and what children have learnt during the topic. 

∙ To inspire in children a curiosity and fascination about the world and its people. 

∙ To learn about the different countries of the world, know what is special about them and know how they are similar to and different from each other. ∙ To understand the processes that give rise to key physical and human geographical features of the world. 

∙ To know how landscapes are formed and changed. 

∙ To use fieldwork skills to explore our local area including Stanley Canal and the Marsh. 

∙ To recognise their own impact on our local environment and identify opportunities to improve it. 

∙ To experience using a wide range of secondary sources. 

∙ To be able to collect, analyse, interpret and communicate their findings in a variety of ways.

Geography 

Year 1

Statutory requirements ( National curriculum)  Our Essentials  Suggested Activities
Locational knowledge   ∙ Name, locate and identify characteristics of the  four countries and capital cities of the United   Kingdom and its surrounding seas. ∙ To introduce children to atlases and maps.  ∙ Use maps and globes of the world.  ∙ Use UK maps at a range of scales.  ∙ Use a range of secondary sources (for example,  internet, pictures, photographs, information texts,  videos, Google Earth) to identify characteristics of  the four countries and capital cities of the United  Kingdom and its surrounding seas.
Place knowledge  ∙ To study the human and physical geography of a  small area of the United Kingdom. ∙ To identify Stanley Grove School on a map and  identify a nearby river and canal. ∙ Local area study. What is it like to live in our local  area? Study the human and physical geography of  our school grounds and the local area. Describe  what it’s like in terms of landscape, jobs and   weather. Use maps of the school grounds and   local area to identify key features. Undertake   fieldwork skills at a local level (including a visit to  Stanley Marsh). Express their views about the local  area in terms of people, places and environments  (for example, seasonal changes in weather, the  quality of the environment in the street). Consider  how they and other people impact on the local   environment and what they might do to improve it.
Human and physical geography  ∙ Identify seasonal and daily weather patterns in the  United Kingdom and the location of hot and cold  areas of the world in relation to the Equator and  the North and South Poles.  ∙ Use basic geography vocabulary to refer to:  – Key physical features, including: season and  weather, river and sea.  ∙ To understand the difference between a river and  a canal.   ∙ Link to Science and seasons. ∙ Use maps of the UK and world maps to locate hot  and cold areas of the world in relation to the   Equator and the North and South Poles.  ∙ Study the UK weather in terms of seasonal changes  and in terms of daily patterns in the UK (focusing  on where we live). Set up a weather station to   observe and record daily weather findings at our 
– Key human features, including: village, town,   farm, harbour and shop. school. Use appropriate instruments including rain  gauge, weather vane and weather board.
Geographical skills and fieldwork  ∙ Begins to use world maps, atlases and globes to  identify the United Kingdom and its countries, as  well as its surrounding seas.  ∙ Begins to use simple compass directions (North,  South, East and West) and locational and   directional language [for example, near and far;  left and right], to describe the location of features  and routes on a map.  ∙ Use aerial photographs and plan perspectives to  recognise landmarks and basic human and physical  features; devise a simple map; and use and   construct basic symbols in a key.  ∙ Use simple fieldwork and observational skills to  study the geography of their school and its   grounds and the key human and physical features  of its surrounding environment. ∙ To use world maps, atlases and globes.  ∙ To use an orienteering activity where children  navigate around the classroom and playground Links can be made to topic areas:  ∙ Use of maps, atlases and globes ongoing   throughout the key stage.  ∙ Compass directions can be used on maps, planning  routes to Stanley Marsh and in studying the   weather (for example, use a weather vane to   determine wind direction as part of a weather   station).  ∙ Use of aerial photographs and secondary sources  ongoing throughout the key stage (for example,  aerial photographs of the school and its grounds,  internet, pictures, photographs, information texts,  videos, artefacts, Google Earth).  ∙ Use simple fieldwork and observational skills to  study the geography of their school and its   grounds and the key human and physical features  of its surrounding environment (for example,   observe and record information on a school plan,  make a sketch map at Stanley Marsh).

Geography 

Year 2

Statutory requirements ( National curriculum)  Stanley Grove’s Essentials  Suggested activities
Locational knowledge   ∙ Name, locate and identify characteristics of the  four countries and capital cities of the United   Kingdom and its surrounding seas.  ∙ Name and locate the world’s seven continents and  five oceans. ∙ To consolidate from Year 1, using maps and atlases  to recap naming, locating and identifying   characteristics.   ∙ Link work to Mines and local study. ∙ Use maps and globes of the world.  ∙ Use UK maps at a range of scales.  ∙ Use a range of secondary sources (for example,  internet, pictures, photographs, information texts,  videos, Google Earth) to identify characteristics of  the four countries and capital cities of the United  Kingdom and its surrounding seas and to name and  locate the world’s seven continents and five   oceans.  ∙
Place knowledge  ∙ Understand geographical similarities and   differences through studying the human and   physical geography of a small area of the United  Kingdom, and of a small area in a contrasting non European country. ∙ To identify regions of Wakefield.  ∙ To identify a non-European country on a map.  ∙ Link work to Local Hero study of work. ∙ Briefly consolidate learning from Year 1 local study (See Year 1 scheme of work). Visit Stanley Canal. ∙ Study a small area in a contrasting non-Eurpoean  country (For example, Tocuaro in Mexico, St Lucia  in the Caribbean or any other small area in a   contrasting non-European country).   ∙ Find out what is it like to live in this place. Study  the human and physical geography of this place.  Describe what it’s like in terms of landscape, jobs  and weather. Use maps of the area to identify key  features. Use a range of secondary sources of   information to investigate this place. Express their  views about the place in terms of people, places  and environments (for example, the weather, daily  activities of people, changing landscapes).  ∙ Compare the human and physical geographical  similarities and differences of their local area to  that of this contrasting locality.  ∙ Understand how people impact on their   environment in this contrasting locality (for   example pollution, littering) and what they might  do to improve it.
Human and physical geography  ∙ Identify daily weather patterns in the United  Kingdom and the location of hot and cold areas of  the World in relation to the Equator and North and  South Poles.  use basic geographical vocabulary to refer to:   ∙ key physical features, including: beach, cliff, coast,  forest, hill, mountain, sea, ocean, river, soil, valley,  vegetation, season and weather   ∙ key human features, including: city, town, village,  factory, farm, house, office, port, harbour and shop Key human and physical features of comparing and  contrasting it to the human and physical features of our  own locality.  ∙ Identify daily weather patterns in the United  Kingdom  ∙ To identify the difference between two areas using  vocabulary.  ∙ Link study to the non-EU area. For example, study  maps of the UK and St. Lucia.  ∙ To use ICT – Google Maps.  Use basic geographical vocabulary to refer to:   – key physical features, including: beach, cliff,  coast, forest, hill, mountain, sea, ocean, river,   soil, valley, vegetation, season and weather   – key human features, including: city, town,   village, factory, farm, house, office, port,   harbour and shop. ∙ Understand how the environment may be   improved or sustained in our local area.         ∙ Use maps of the UK and atlases to locate where we  live.  ∙ Identify key human and physical features of the  island. Use basic geographical vocabulary to refer  to the human and physical features of the locality  and to compare and contrast it to the human and  physical features our own locality.  ∙ Identify weather patterns and compare this to our  locality. Use the Met Office website.
Geographical skills and fieldwork  ∙ Use world maps, atlases and globes to identify the  United Kingdom and its countries, as well as the  countries, continents and oceans studied.  ∙ Use simple compass directions (North, South, East  and West) and locational and directional language  [for example, near and far; left and right], to   describe the location of features and routes on a  map.  ∙ Use aerial photographs and plan perspectives to  recognise landmarks and basic human and physical  features; devise a simple map; and use and   construct basic symbols in a key.  ∙ Use simple fieldwork and observational skills to  study the geography of their school and its  grounds and the key human and physical features  of its surrounding environment. ∙ To study mining areas locally.  ∙ To link fieldwork to study of the local area.  ∙ To link work in Maths and ICT to directions in  Geography.  ∙ To use an orienteering activity where children  navigate around the playground, using key   vocabulary like ‘quarter turn and half turn’. Links can be made to topic areas:  ∙ Use of maps, atlases and globes ongoing   throughout the key stage.  ∙ To draw a simple map of St.Lucia  ∙ Compass directions can be used on maps.  ∙ To use Beebots in ICT to support the use of  vocabulary linked to direction.  ∙ Use of aerial photographs and secondary sources  ongoing throughout the key stage (for example,  aerial photographs of the local area, internet,   pictures, photographs, information texts, videos,  artefacts, Google Earth).  ∙ Use simple fieldwork and observational skills to  study the key human and physical features of their  surrounding environment (for example, observe  and record information on a local area map, visit  Stanley Canal and make sketch maps).

Geography 

Year 3

Statutory requirements ( National curriculum)  Stanley Grove’s Essentials  Suggested activities
Locational knowledge  ∙ Locate the world’s countries, using maps to focus  on Europe (including the location of Russia) and  North and South America.  ∙ Name and locate cities of the United Kingdom, and  their identifying human and physical   characteristics, key topographical features   (including hills, mountains, coasts and rivers), and  land-use patterns; and understand how some of  these aspects have changed over time.  ∙ Identify the position and significance of the  Equator, the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, the  Arctic and Antarctic Circle. Europe  ∙ To study the location of Greece, linking to History  work on Ancient Greece.  ∙ To study the River Calder and Aire.  ∙ Visit the local area.  ∙ To recap the position of Wakefield on a map. ∙ Use globes of the world.  ∙ Use UK maps at a range of scales.  ∙ Use keys and symbols to identify major road and  rail networks.  ∙ Use local maps of Stanley at a range of scales. ∙ Use a range of secondary sources (for example,  internet, pictures, photographs, information texts,  videos, Google Earth) to identify human and   physical characteristics, key topographical features  and land-use patterns in Stanley.
Place knowledge  ∙ Understand geographical similarities and   differences through the study of human and   physical geography of a region of the United   Kingdom. Scarborough  ∙ To contrast the location of Scarborough to   Wakefield.   ∙ To visit Scarborough, including an in depth study of  Scarborough Castle.   ∙ To plan a route from Wakefield to Scarborough. ∙ To understand the relative size of Wakefield, in  comparison with other countries. ∙ A study of a region of the United Kingdom (for  example, Scarborough) in comparison to our local  area.  ∙ To compare Wakefield’s population to that of  other countries within the UK.  ∙ Use maps and Google Earth to plan a visit to the  region. Use keys and symbols to identify major  road and rail networks.  ∙ Visit the region and study its human and physical  geography to understand the geographical   similarities and differences with our local area.  ∙ Find out about topical geographical issues in this  region, for example, the collapse of a hotel from  erosion, the building of new hotels, and the impact  of tourism on an area.  ∙ Link this with investigating changing coastlines and  erosion and learning about the water cycle.
Human and physical geography  describe and understand key aspects of:   ∙ Physical geography, including: climate zones, rivers,  and the water cycle  ∙ Human geography, including: types of settlement  including land use and economic activity. 3. Human and physical geography –  Climate zones, rivers, coasts and the water cycle.  ∙ To study coastal erosion whilst visiting   Scarborough – for example, the Holbeck Hall Hotel ∙ To study hot and cold climates within the UK,  including locally. ∙ Study climate zones, rivers, coasts and the water  cycle (link this with work on a different UK locality,  for example, Scarborough).  ∙ Study types of settlement and land use in our local  area and in a different UK locality.   ∙ Look at patterns made by individual physical and  human features in the environment [for example,  the distribution of hotels along a seafront at   Scarborough, consider how and why places   become tourist spots].  ∙ Study the water cycle and processes that give rise  to change, for example, erosion of a coastline.
Geographical skills and fieldwork   ∙ Use maps, atlases, globes and digital/computer  mapping to locate countries and describe features  studied.  ∙ Use the eight points of a compass, symbols and key  to build their knowledge of the United Kingdom  and the wider world.  ∙ Use fieldwork to observe, measure, record and  present the human and physical features in the  local area using a range of methods, including   sketch maps and plans.  4. Geographical skills and fieldwork   ∙ To use an orienteering activity where children  navigate the field, using maps to find words.  Links can be made to topic areas:  ∙ Use maps, atlases, globes, Google Earth.  ∙ Use of aerial photographs and secondary sources  for local area and a different region of the United  Kingdom.  ∙ Link work on compass points and direction to work  in PE and orienteering.  ∙ Collect and record evidence (for example, by  carrying out a traffic survey and showing results on a graph) analyse evidence and draw   conclusions (for example, by comparing   population data for two localities).

Geography 

Year 4

Statutory requirements ( National curriculum)  Stanley Grove’s Essentials  Suggested activities
Locational knowledge  ∙ Locate the world’s countries, using maps to focus  on Europe (including the location of Russia)  concentrating on their environmental regions, key  physical and human characteristics, countries, and  major cities.  ∙ Name and locate counties and cities of the United  Kingdom, geographical regions and their   identifying human and physical characteristics, key  topographical features (including hills, mountains,  coasts and rivers), and land-use patterns; and   understand how some of these aspects have   changed over time.  ∙ Identify the position and significance of latitude,  longitude, Equator, Northern Hemisphere,   Southern Hemisphere, the Tropics of Cancer and  Capricorn, Arctic and Antarctic Circle. ∙ Use atlases and globes of the world.  ∙ Use keys and symbols to identify major road and  rail networks.  ∙ Visit the local area / region of Yorkshire on class  trips – Visit Stanley Marsh (link to Science) ∙ Use UK and world / European maps at a range of  scales.  ∙ Locate Equator, Tropic of Capricorn/Cancer, Arctic  Circle and to introduce line of latitude and   longitude.  ∙ Use a range of secondary sources (for example,  internet, pictures, photographs, information texts,  videos, Google Earth) to identify human and   physical characteristics, key topographical features  and land-use patterns of the county of Yorkshire  and regions in Europe.
Place knowledge  ∙ Understand geographical similarities and   differences through the study of human and   physical geography of a region in a European   country. Rome  ∙ Use maps and Google Earth to locate the region. ∙ To recognise impact of tourism on the area. ∙ To compare the area of Rome to another area  within Italy. ∙ A study of a region in a European country (Rome  Province)  ∙ Use a wide range of secondary sources of   information to study its human and physical   geography to understand the geographical   similarities and differences with other places in the  same country and elsewhere in the world (for   example, comparing a village with a part of a city in  the same country).  ∙ Consider how people can impact upon an   environment.
Human and physical geography  describe and understand key aspects of:   ∙ Physical geography, including: climate zones,  mountains and volcanoes.  ∙ Human geography, including: economic activity  including trade links. Climate zones, mountains and volcanoes  ∙ To include a STEM ambassador to talk about  volcanoes and mountains.  ∙ To include trade links with Yorkshire. ∙ Study climate zones, mountains and volcanoes,  (link this with work on a region of a European   country).  ∙ Study types of settlement, land use and economic  activity in the European region, including trade   links.  ∙ Study some physical and human processes [for  example, volcanic eruptions, a factory closure]   focusing on the given region in a European   country.
Geographical skills and fieldwork   ∙ Use maps, atlases, globes and digital/computer  mapping to locate countries and describe features  studied.  ∙ Use the eight points of a compass, four-figure grid  references, symbols and key (including the use of  Ordnance Survey maps) to build their knowledge of  the United Kingdom and the wider world.  ∙ Use fieldwork to observe, measure, record and  present the human and physical features in the  local area using a range of methods, including   sketch maps, plans and graphs, and digital   technologies.  ∙ To use an orienteering activity where children  navigate the field, using maps to find words and  sentences in order to solve a problem.  ∙ To visit Stanley Marsh to use fieldwork skills.  Links can be made to topic areas:  ∙ Use maps, atlases, globes, Google Earth.  ∙ Use of aerial photographs and secondary sources  for local area, the county of Yorkshire or a region  within a European country.  ∙ Link work on compass points and direction to work  in PE and orienteering.  ∙ Collect and record evidence, analyse evidence and  draw conclusions.

Geography 

Year 5

Statutory requirements ( National curriculum)  Stanley Grove’s Essentials  Suggested activities
Locational knowledge  ∙ Locate the world’s countries, using maps to focus  on North and South America, concentrating on   their environmental regions, key physical and   human characteristics, countries, and major cities. ∙ Name and locate counties and cities of the United  Kingdom, geographical regions and their   identifying human and physical characteristics, key  topographical features (including hills, mountains,  coasts and rivers), and land-use patterns; and   understand how some of these aspects have   changed over time.  ∙ Identify the position and significance of latitude,  longitude, Equator, Northern Hemisphere,   Southern Hemisphere, the Tropics of Cancer and  Capricorn, Arctic and Antarctic Circle. Locational knowledge:   ∙ To include map work, covering the whole world.  ∙ To use latitude, longitude, Equator, Northern  Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere, the Tropics of  Cancer and Capricorn, Arctic and Antarctic Circle. ∙ To identify land-use in the local area, including  where mining took place.  ∙ To visit National Coal Mining Museum in Wakefield  to understand how aspects of land-use have   changed over time. Use globes and maps of the  world, focusing on mountains and rivers.  ∙ Visit the local area / region of Yorkshire or other  counties on class trips. ∙ To understand the relative sizes of places (for  example Stanley vs Leeds)Use keys and symbols to  identify major road and rail networks.  ∙ Use a range of secondary sources (for example,  internet, pictures, photographs, information texts,  videos, Google Earth) to identify human and   physical characteristics, key topographical features  and land-use patterns of the counties and cities of  England, and countries / major cities of North and  South America.  ∙ To name and locate human an physical features  (mountains and rivers)  ∙ Use UK and world maps at a range of scales. ∙ To recap locating: Equator, Tropic of   Capricorn/Cancer, Arctic Circle and to introduce  line of latitude and longitude.
Place knowledge  ∙ Understand geographical similarities and   differences through the study of human and   physical geography of a region within North or   South America. A region within North or South America:   California and The Amazon  ∙ To study maps of North America, focusing on  mountains and rivers. ∙ Study Earthquakes in the region of San Francisco. ∙ A study of a region within North or South America  (North America: California and South America:   Amazon Rainforest)  ∙ Use maps and Google Earth to locate the region. ∙ Use a wide range of secondary sources of   information to study its human and physical   geography to understand the geographical   similarities and differences with other places in the  same country and elsewhere in the world (for   example, comparing a village with a part of a city in  the same country).  ∙ Consider how people can impact upon an   environment.
∙ Describe where places are [for example, in which  region/country the places are, whether they are  near rivers or hills, what the nearest towns or cities  are]
Human and physical geography  describe and understand key aspects of:   ∙ Physical geography, including: climate zones,  biomes and vegetation belts, and earthquakes.  ∙ Human geography, including: types of settlement  and land use, and economic activity including trade  links. 3. Human and physical geography –  Climate zones, earthquakes, biomes and vegetation belts    ∙ To invite a STEM ambassador to speak about  Earthquakes and recap volcanoes.  ∙ Study climate zones, earthquakes, biomes and  vegetation belts (link to study of North America,  for example earthquakes on west coast, coniferous  forests or Tundra or Rocky mountain   environments).  ∙ Recognise some physical and human processes [for  example, earthquakes, deforestation]  ∙ Use appropriate geographical vocabulary (for  example, to describe in detail the physical   elements of an earthquake) and explain how these  can cause changes in places and environments.  ∙ To study the different layers of the Amazon  Rainforest.  ∙ To understand types of settlements in the Amazon  Rainforest (tribes).  ∙ To understand that deforestation is used for  economic gain and how deforestation affects land  use.  ∙ Study economic activity including trade links from  North / South America to other parts of the world  (for example, produce from the Rainforests).
Geographical skills and fieldwork   ∙ Use maps, atlases, globes and digital/computer  mapping to locate countries and describe features  studied.  ∙ Use the eight points of a compass, four and six figure grid references, symbols and key (including  the use of Ordnance Survey maps) to build their  knowledge of the United Kingdom and the wider  world.  ∙ Use fieldwork to observe, measure, record and  present the human and physical features in the  local area using a range of methods, including   sketch maps, plans and graphs, and digital   technologies.  4. Geographical skills and fieldwork   ∙ To use an orienteering activity where children  navigate the school, using maps to find words and  sentences in order to solve problems.  ∙ Use the eight points of a compass, four and six figure grid references, symbols and key (including  the use of Ordnance Survey maps).  ∙ To use GPS mapping device at Robinwood Activity  Centre. Links can be made to topic areas:  ∙ Use maps, atlases, globes, Google Earth.  ∙ Use of aerial photographs and secondary sources  for local area, counties and cities of England or   regions with North / South America.  ∙ Communicate in ways appropriate to the task and  audience  ∙ Link work on compass points and direction to work  in PE and orienteering.  ∙ Collect and record evidence, analyse evidence and  draw conclusions.  ∙ Use fieldwork to observe, measure, record and  present the human and physical features in the  local area using a range of methods, including   sketch maps, plans and graphs, and digital   technologies)

Geography 

Year 6

Statutory requirements ( National curriculum)  Stanley Grove’s Essentials  Suggested activities
Locational knowledge  ∙ Locate the world’s countries, using maps to focus  on Europe (including the location of Russia) and  North and South America, concentrating on their  environmental regions, key physical and human  characteristics, countries, and major cities.  ∙ Name and locate counties and cities of the United  Kingdom, geographical regions and their   identifying human and physical characteristics, key  topographical features (including hills, mountains,  coasts and rivers), and land-use patterns; and   understand how some of these aspects have   changed over time  ∙ identify the position and significance of latitude,  longitude, Equator, Northern Hemisphere,   Southern Hemisphere, the Tropics of Cancer and  Capricorn, Arctic and Antarctic Circle, the   Prime/Greenwich Meridian and time zones   (including day and night) 1. Locational knowledge  ∙ To include map work, covering the whole world.  ∙ To consolidate use of latitude, longitude, Equator,  Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere, the  Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, Arctic and   Antarctic Circle. ∙ Use globes of the world.  ∙ Use UK and world maps at a range of scales. ∙ Use keys and symbols to identify major road and  rail networks.  ∙ Visit the local area / region of Yorkshire or other  counties on class trips.  ∙ Use a range of secondary sources (for example,  internet, pictures, photographs, information texts,  videos, Google Earth) to identify human and   physical characteristics, key topographical features  and land-use patterns of the counties and cities of  the United Kingdom, and a region with Europe,  North or South America.
Place knowledge  ∙ understand geographical similarities and   differences through the study of human and   physical geography of a region of the United   Kingdom, a region in a European country, and a  region within North or South America 2. Place knowledge –  A region within Europe and a region within North or South  America.  ∙ To study maps that focus on Europe and the  Americas. ∙ A study of a region within a continent of Europe  and North or South America (for example, the   deserts /rainforests in Guyana and North/South  America).  ∙ Use maps and Google Earth to locate the region. ∙ Use a wide range of secondary sources of   information to study its human and physical   geography to understand the geographical   similarities and differences with other places in the  world, recognising how places fit within a wider  geographical context [for example, as part of a   bigger region or country] and are interdependent 
[for example, through the supply of goods,   movements of people].  ∙ Consider how people can impact upon an   environment.  ∙ Link this to work on Biomes, Vegetation Belts and  Climate Zones.
Human and physical geography  describe and understand key aspects of:   ∙ Physical geography, including: climate zones,  biomes and vegetation belts.  ∙ Human geography, including: types of settlement  and land use, economic activity including trade   links, and the distribution of natural resources   including energy, food, minerals and water. 3. Human and physical geography –  Climate zones, biomes and vegetation belts ∙ Study climate zones, biomes and vegetation belts  of a region within a continent of Europe and North  or South America.  ∙ Study types of settlement and land use, economic  activity including trade links, and the distribution of  natural resources including energy, food, minerals  and water in one of the regions of Guyana and   Italy.  ∙ Study processes, both physical and human, in  these places and environments (for example,   deforestation of a rainforest in Australia).
Geographical skills and fieldwork   ∙ Use maps, atlases, globes and digital/computer  mapping to locate countries and describe features  studied.  ∙ Use the eight points of a compass, six-figure grid  references, symbols and key (including the use of  Ordnance Survey maps) to build their knowledge of  the United Kingdom and the wider world.  ∙ Use fieldwork to observe, measure, record and  present the human and physical features in the  local area using a range of methods, including   sketch maps, plans and graphs, and digital   technologies.  4. Geographical skills and fieldwork     ∙ To consulate orienteering activities where children  navigate the school, using maps to find words and  sentences in order to solve problems.  ∙ Use consolidate using eight points of a compass,  four and six-figure grid references, symbols and  key (including the use of Ordnance Survey maps). Links can be made to topic areas:  ∙ Use maps, atlases, globes, Google Earth.  ∙ Use of aerial photographs and secondary sources  for local area, counties and cities of the United   Kingdom or within a continent of Europe and   North or South America.  ∙ Link work on compass points and direction to work  in PE and orienteering.  ∙ Collect and record evidence, analyse evidence and  draw conclusions.