Primary Science

The O’Brien International School

Scheme of work for Science 

\Key Stage 1 

The principal focus of science teaching in key stage 1 is to enable pupils to experience and observe phenomena, looking more closely at the natural and humanly-constructed world around  them. They should be encouraged to be curious and ask questions about what they notice. They should be helped to develop their understanding of scientific ideas by using different types  of scientific enquiry to answer their own questions, including observing changes over a period of time, noticing patterns, grouping and classifying things, carrying out simple comparative  tests, and finding things out using secondary sources of information. They should begin to use simple scientific language to talk about what they have found out and communicate their ideas  to a range of audiences in a variety of ways. Most of the learning about science should be done through the use of first-hand practical experiences, but there should also be some use of  appropriate secondary sources, such as books, photographs and videos.  

‘Working scientifically’ is described separately in the programme of study, but must always be taught through and clearly related to the teaching of substantive science content in the  programme of study. Throughout the notes and guidance, examples show how scientific methods and skills might be linked to specific elements of the content.  

Pupils should read and spell scientific vocabulary at a level consistent with their increasing word reading a spelling knowledge at key stage 1. Year 1

Statutory requirements ( National curriculum)  Stanley Grove’s Essentials  Suggested activities
WORKING SCIENTIFICALLY  ∙ asking simple questions and recognising that they  can be answered in different ways   ∙ observing closely by eye and beginning to use simple equipment  ∙ performing simple tests (with guidance)  ∙ identifying and classifying (with guidance).  ∙ using their observations and ideas to suggest answers to questions (with guidance).  ∙ gathering and recording data to help in answering  questions. (Tally given and simple chart completed with guidance).  ∙ Orally use Scientific language with HA children using  it in written methods.  Key vocabulary:  Question, Equipment, Identify, Group, Record, Compare,  Contrast, Observe, Describe, Same, Different, Changes Pupils in years 1 should explore the world around them and  raise their own questions. They should experience different  types of scientific enquiries, including practical activities,  and begin to recognise ways in which they might answer  scientific questions. They should use simple features to  compare objects, materials and living things and, with help,  decide how to sort and group them, observe changes over  time, and, with guidance, they should begin to notice  patterns and relationships. They should ask people  questions and use simple secondary sources to find  answers. They should use simple measurements and  equipment (for example, hand lenses, egg timers) to gather  data, carry out simple tests, record simple data, and talk  about what they have found out and how they found it out.  With help, they should record and communicate their  findings in a range of ways and begin to use simple  scientific language.  Use format for Science practical write up if necessary for HA  children.
PLANTS  ∙ identify and name a variety of common wild and  garden plants, including deciduous and evergreen  trees   ∙ Identify and describe the basic structure of a variety  of common flowering plants, including trees.   Key vocabulary:  Wild plants, Garden plants, Deciduous, Evergreen, Root,  Leaves, Bud, Blossoms, Stem, Petals, Trunk, Branches Pupils should use the local environment throughout the  year to explore and answer questions about plants growing  in their habitat. Where possible, they should observe the  growth of flowers and vegetables that they have planted.  They should become familiar with common names of  flowers, examples of deciduous and evergreen trees, and  plant structures (including leaves, flowers (blossom), petals,  fruit, roots, bulb, seed, trunk, branches, stem).   Pupils might work scientifically by: observing closely,  perhaps using magnifying glasses, and comparing and  contrasting familiar plants; describing how they were able  to identify and group them, and drawing diagrams showing  the parts of different plants including trees. Pupils might  keep records of how plants have changed over time, for  example the leaves falling off trees and buds opening; and  compare and contrast what they have found out about  different plants. ∙ Visit and explore the Wildlife area, allotments and  polytunnel within the school grounds.  ∙ Environment leaders to lead gardening for class  ‘welly to belly’ projects.

ANIMALS INCLUDING HUMANS. 

∙ identify and name a variety of common animals  including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and  mammals  

∙ identify and name a variety of common animals  that are carnivores, herbivores and omnivores  ∙ describe and compare the structure of a variety of  common animals (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds  and mammals, including pets)  

∙ Identify, name, draw and label the basic parts of  the human body and say which part of the body is  associated with each sense.  

Key vocabulary: 

fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, Senses – touch, smell, vision, taste, hearing. Omnivores – meat and  plants (examples badger, human, bear, chicken). Carnovores  – meat eating (examples, dog, cat, lion, tiger, snake).  Herbivores – plant eating (examples, cows, horses, mice).

Pupils should use the local environment throughout the  year to explore and answer questions about animals in their  habitat. They should understand how to take care of  animals taken from their local environment and the need to  return them safely after study. Pupils should become  familiar with the common names of some fish, amphibians,  reptiles, birds and mammals, including those that are kept  as pets.  

Pupils should have plenty of opportunities to learn the  names of the main body parts (including head, neck, arms,  elbows, legs, knees, face, ears, eyes, hair, mouth, teeth)  through games, actions, songs and rhymes.  

Pupils might work scientifically by: using their observations  to compare and contrast animals at first hand or through  videos and photographs, describing how they identify and  group them; grouping animals according to what they eat;  and using their senses to compare different textures,  sounds and smells. 

∙ Trip to Tropical World in Leeds, Butterfly House in  Sheffield or other localities such as Fairburn Ings  Nature Reserve. 

∙ Blindfold activities – use senses for smells, tastes,  touch. 

∙ Consider a visit from a local farmer, vet or  beekeeper. 

EVERYDAY MATERIALS.  ∙ distinguish between an object and the material  from which it is made   ∙ identify and name a variety of everyday materials,  including wood, plastic, glass, metal, water, and  rock   ∙ describe the simple physical properties of a variety  of everyday materials   ∙ compare and group together a variety of everyday  materials on the basis of their simple physical   properties.   Key vocabulary:  Wood, Plastic, Glass, Metal, Water, Rock, Brick, Paper,  Fabrics, Elastic, Foil,   Properties: Hard / soft, Stretchy / stiff, Shiny /dull, Rough /  smooth, Bendy / not bendy, Waterproof / not waterproof,  Absorbent / not absorbent Pupils should explore, name, discuss and raise and answer  questions about everyday materials so that they become  familiar with the names of materials and properties such as:  hard/soft; stretchy/stiff; shiny/dull; rough/smooth;  bendy/not bendy; waterproof/not waterproof;  absorbent/not absorbent; opaque/transparent. Pupils  should explore and experiment with a wide variety of  materials, not only those listed in the programme of study,  but including for example: brick, paper, fabrics, elastic, foil.  Pupils might work scientifically by: performing simple tests  to explore questions, for example: ‘What is the best  material for an umbrella? …for lining a dog basket? …for  curtains? …for a bookshelf? …for a gymnast’s leotard?’  ∙ Presented with different materials in a feely bag /  cover and the children have to describe it to the  class / partner using scientific language.   ∙ Ask the children to find the best material for a  given object – link to Science investigation.  ∙ Literacy cross curricular links with traditional tale  ‘The Three Little Pigs’.
SEASONAL CHANGES.  ∙ observe changes across the four seasons   ∙ observe and describe weather associated with the  seasons and how day length varies.   Key vocabulary:  Summer, Autumn, Winter, Spring, Day, Daytime, Weather:  Wind, Rain, Snow, Hail, Sleet, Fog, Sun, Hot, Warm, cold Pupils should observe and talk about changes in the  weather and the seasons.   Note: Pupils should be warned that it is not safe to look  directly at the Sun, even when wearing dark glasses.  Pupils might work scientifically by: making tables and charts  about the weather; and making displays of what happens in  the world around them, including day length, as the  seasons change. ∙ Present pictures from school during the seasons  and ask the children to name them.  ∙ Use a ‘weather display’ that is ongoing throughout the year (include for example photos of trees to  observe how they change through the seasons).  ∙ Take temperatures outside in the morning, lunch  and before school ends to see difference in temp. ∙ Look at different places in the world and how their  seasons are different.  ∙ Simple charts about the weather.  ∙ Simple graph / chart detailing given day length  from four seasons.

Science 

Year 2

Statutory requirements ( National curriculum)  Stanley Grove’s Essentials  Suggested Activities
WORKING SCIENTIFICALLY  ∙ asking simple questions and recognising that they  can be answered in different ways   ∙ observing closely, using simple equipment   ∙ performing simple tests   ∙ identifying and classifying.  ∙ using their observations and ideas to suggest answers to questions  ∙ gathering and recording data to help in answering  questions. (Tally given and simple chart completed) ∙ Use Scientific language appropriate for Year 2  when conducting experiments and in written   methods.  Key vocabulary:  Recap Y1 vocab plus:  Classify, Record – diagram, chart, Data, Fair test, predict Pupils in years 2 should explore the world around them and  raise their own questions. They should experience different  types of scientific enquiries, including practical activities,  and begin to recognise ways in which they might answer  scientific questions. They should use simple features to  compare objects, materials and living things and, with help,  decide how to sort and group them, observe changes over  time, and, with guidance, they should begin to notice  patterns and relationships. They should ask people  questions and use simple secondary sources to find  answers. They should use simple measurements and  equipment (for, hand lenses, egg timers) to gather data,  carry out simple tests, record simple data, and talk about  what they have found out and how they found it out. With  help, they should record and communicate their findings in  a range of ways and begin to use simple scientific language.  Use format for Science practical write up for all children.
LIVING THINGS AND THEIR HABITAT  ∙ explore and compare the differences between  things that are living, dead, and things that have  never been alive   ∙ identify that most living things live in habitats to  which they are suited and describe how different  habitats provide for the basic needs of different  kinds of animals and plants, and how they depend  on each other   ∙ identify and name a variety of plants and animals in  their habitats, including micro-habitats   ∙ describe how animals obtain their food from plants  and other animals, using the idea of a simple food  chain, and identify and name different sources of  food.   Key vocabulary:  Living, Dead, Never alive, Habitats, Micro-habitats, Food,  Food chain, Sun, Grass, Cow, Human, Alive, Healthy Pupils should be introduced to the idea that all living things  have certain characteristics that are essential for keeping  them alive and healthy. They should raise and answer  questions that help them to become familiar with the life  processes that are common to all living things. Pupils should  be introduced to the terms ‘habitat’ (a natural environment  or home of a variety of plants and animals) and ‘micro habitat’ (a very small habitat, for example for woodlice  under stones, logs or leaf litter). They should raise and  answer questions about the local environment that help  them to identify and study a variety of plants and animals  within their habitat and observe how living things depend  on each other, for example, plants serving as a source of  food and shelter for animals. Pupils should compare animals  in familiar habitats with animals found in less familiar  habitats, for example, on the seashore, in woodland, in the  ocean, in the rainforest.   Pupils might work scientifically by: sorting and classifying  things according to whether they are living, dead or were  never alive, and recording their findings using charts. They  should describe how they decided where to place things,  exploring questions for example: ‘Is a flame alive? Is a  deciduous tree dead in winter?’ and talk about ways of  answering their questions. They could construct a simple  food chain that includes humans (e.g. grass, cow, human).  They could describe the conditions in different habitats and  micro-habitats (under log, on stony path, under bushes) and  find out how the conditions affect the number and type(s)  of plants and animals that live there. ∙ Visit and explore the Wildlife area, bog area and  fields for investigating local habitats.
PLANTS  ∙ observe and describe how seeds and bulbs grow  into mature plants   ∙ find out and describe how plants need water, light  and a suitable temperature to grow and stay   healthy.   Key vocabulary:  Recap Y1 vocab plus:  Observe, Describe, Mature plants, Suitable temperature /  light / water, Germination, Growth, Grow, healthy, Survival,  Reproduction Pupils should use the local environment throughout the  year to observe how different plants grow. Pupils should be  introduced to the requirements of plants for germination,  growth and survival, as well as to the processes of  reproduction and growth in plants.   Note: Seeds and bulbs need water to grow but most do not  need light; seeds and bulbs have a store of food inside  them.   Pupils might work scientifically by: observing and recording,  with some accuracy, the growth of a variety of plants as  they change over time from a seed or bulb, or observing  similar plants at different stages of growth; setting up a  comparative test to show that plants need light and water  to stay healthy. ∙ Visit and explore the Wildlife area, allotments and  polytunnel within the school grounds.  ∙ Environment leaders to lead gardening for class  ‘welly to belly’ projects.  ∙ Grow plants in class e.g. daffodils. beans
ANIMALS INCLUDING HUMANS.  ∙ notice that animals, including humans, have  offspring which grow into adults   ∙ find out about and describe the basic needs of  animals, including humans, for survival (water,   food and air)   ∙ describe the importance for humans of exercise,  eating the right amounts of different types of food,  and hygiene.   Key vocabulary:  Recap Y1 vocab plus:  Offspring, Grow, Adults, Survival: Hygiene, Exercise, Food,  Nutrition, Air / water, Reproduction and growth in animals,  Process of growth examples: egg, chick, chicken; egg,  caterpillar, pupa, butterfly; spawn, tadpole, frog; lamb,  sheep. Growing into adults can include reference to baby,  toddler, child, teenager, adult.  .  Pupils should be introduced to the basic needs of animals  for survival, as well as the importance of exercise and  nutrition for humans. They should also be introduced to the  processes of reproduction and growth in animals. The focus  at this stage should be on questions that help pupils to  recognise growth; they should not be expected to  understand how reproduction occurs.   The following examples might be used: egg, chick, chicken;  egg, caterpillar, pupa, butterfly; spawn, tadpole, frog; lamb,  sheep. Growing into adults can include reference to baby,  toddler, child, teenager, adult.   Pupils might work scientifically by: observing, through video  or first-hand observation and measurement, how different  animals, including humans, grow; asking questions about  what things animals need for survival and what humans  need to stay healthy; and suggesting ways to find answers  to their questions. ∙ Use a butterfly garden / butterfly growing kit in  class.   ∙ RSPB Bird Watch
USE OF EVERYDAY MATERIALS  ∙ identify and compare the suitability of a variety of  everyday materials, including wood, metal, plastic,  glass, brick, rock, paper and cardboard for   particular uses   ∙ find out how the shapes of solid objects made from  some materials can be changed by squashing,   bending, twisting and stretching.   Key vocabulary:  Recap Y1 vocab plus:  Cardboard, Rubber, Squashing, Bending, Twisting, Stretching  Examples:  Wood – matches, telegraph poles  Metal – coins, cans, cars  Plastic – some spoons  John Dunlop, Charles Macintosh, John McAdam Pupils should identify and discuss the uses of different  everyday materials so that they become familiar with how  some materials are used for more than one thing (metal can  be used for coins, cans, cars and table legs; wood can be  used for matches, floors, and telegraph poles) or different  materials are used for the same thing (spoons can be made  from plastic, wood, metal, but not normally from glass).  They should think about the properties of materials that  make them suitable or unsuitable for particular purposes  and they should be encouraged to think about unusual and  creative uses for everyday materials. Pupils might find out  about people who have developed useful new materials, for  example John Dunlop, Charles Macintosh or John McAdam.  Pupils might work scientifically by: comparing the uses of  everyday materials in and around the school with materials  found in other places (at home, the journey to school, on  visits, and in stories, rhymes and songs); observing closely,  identifying and classifying the uses of different materials,  and recording their observations. . ∙ Waste management (create and bury a time  capsule which will be dug up when children get  into Y6). Look at what has / hasn’t degraded over  time.

Science 

Lower Key Stage 2 

The principal focus of science teaching in lower key stage 2 is to enable pupils to broaden their scientific view of the world around them. They should do this through exploring, talking  about, testing and developing ideas about everyday phenomena and the relationships between living things and familiar environments, and by beginning to develop their ideas about  functions, relationships and interactions. They should ask their own questions about what they observe and make some decisions about which types of scientific enquiry are likely to be the  best ways of answering them, including observing changes over time, noticing patterns, grouping and classifying things, carrying out simple comparative and fair tests and finding things out  using secondary sources of information. They should draw simple conclusions and use some scientific language, first, to talk about and, later, to write about what they have found out.  ‘Working scientifically’ is described separately at the beginning of the programme of study, but must always be taught through and clearly related to substantive science content in the  programme of study. Throughout the notes and guidance, examples show how scientific methods and skills might be linked to specific elements of the content.  Pupils should read and spell scientific vocabulary correctly and with confidence, using their growing word reading and spelling knowledge.  

Year 3

Statutory requirements ( National curriculum)  Stanley Grove’s Essentials  Suggested Activities
WORKING SCIENTIFICALLY  ∙ With support, asking relevant questions and using  different types of scientific enquiries to answer  them   ∙ With support, setting up simple practical enquiries,  comparative and fair tests   ∙ With support, making systematic and careful  observations and, where appropriate, taking   accurate measurements using standard units, using  a range of equipment, including thermometers   ∙ gathering, recording, classifying and presenting  data using bar charts, tables and tally charts to help  in answering questions   ∙ recording findings using simple scientific language,  drawings, labelled diagrams, keys, bar charts, and  tables   ∙ reporting on findings from enquiries, including oral  and written explanations, displays or presentations  of results and conclusions   ∙ using results to draw simple conclusions and  suggest improvements Pupils in years 3 should be given a range of scientific  experiences to enable them to raise their own questions  about the world around them. They should start to make  their own decisions about the most appropriate type of  scientific enquiry they might use to answer questions;  recognise when a simple fair test is necessary and help to  decide how to set it up; talk about criteria for grouping,  sorting and classifying; and use simple keys. They should  begin to look for naturally occurring patterns and  relationships and decide what data to collect to identify  them. They should help to make decisions about what  observations to make, how long to make them for and the  type of simple equipment that might be used.   They should learn how to use new equipment, such as data  loggers, appropriately. They should collect data from their  own observations and measurements, using notes, simple  tables and standard units, and help to make decisions about  how to record and analyse this data. With help, pupils  should look for changes, patterns, similarities and  differences in their data in order to draw simple conclusions  and answer questions. With support, they should identify  new questions arising from the data, making predictions for  new values within or beyond the data they have collected  and finding ways of improving what they have already done.  Use format for Science practical write up for all children.
∙ identifying differences and similarities related to  simple scientific ideas and processes   ∙ using straightforward scientific evidence to answer  questions or to support their findings.   Key vocabulary:  Recap Y1 and Y2 vocab plus:  Research, Practical enquiries, Comparative test, Fair test,  Careful observation, Accurate measurements, Thermometer,  Data – gather, record, classify, present, Record – drawings,  labelled diagrams, keys, bar charts, tables, Conclusions,  Predictions, Differences, Similarities, Changes, Evidence,  Improvements, Secondary sources, Interpret They should also recognise when and how secondary  sources might help them to answer questions that cannot  be answered through practical investigations. Pupils should  use relevant scientific language to discuss their ideas and  communicate their findings in ways that are appropriate for  different audiences.   These opportunities for working scientifically should be  provided across years 3 so that the expectations in the  programme of study can be met by the end of year 3.
PLANTS.  ∙ identify and describe the functions of different  parts of flowering plants: roots, stem/trunk, leaves  and flowers   ∙ explore the requirements of plants for life and  growth (air, light, water, nutrients from soil, and  room to grow) and how they vary from plant to  plant   ∙ investigate the way in which water is transported  within plants explore the part that flowers play in  the life cycle of flowering plants, including   pollination, seed formation and seed dispersal.  Pupils should be introduced to the relationship between  structure and function: the idea that every part has a job to  do. They should explore questions that focus on the role of  the roots and stem in nutrition and support, leaves for  nutrition and flowers for reproduction.   Note: Pupils can be introduced to the idea that plants can  make their own food, but at this stage they do not need to  understand how this happens.   Pupils might work scientifically by: comparing the effect of  different factors on plant growth, for example, the amount  of light, the amount of fertiliser; discovering how seeds are  formed by observing the different stages of plant life cycles  over a period of time; looking for patterns in the structure   of fruits that relate to how the seeds are dispersed. They  might observe how water is transported in plants, for  example, by putting cut, white carnations into coloured  water and observing how water travels up the stem to the flowers. ∙ Dye in water to see how the colour of leaves /  flowers can change.  ∙ Experiment for growing plants in different places to  see effect – cold, war, light, dark, water.  ∙ Walk to Nature Reserve to look at seed dispersal. ∙ Environment leaders to lead gardening for class  ‘welly to belly’ projects.
Key vocabulary:  Recap Y1 and Y2 vocab plus:  Nutrients / nutrition, Transport, Life cycle, Flowers,   pollination, Seed formation, Seed dispersal, Structure,  Function, Support, “Requirements for life and growth”,  Fertiliser
ANIMALS INCLUDING HUMANS (INCLUDE TEETH)  ∙ identify that animals, including humans, need the  right types and amount of nutrition, and that they  cannot make their own food; they get nutrition  from what they eat   ∙ identify that humans and some other animals have  skeletons and muscles for support, protection and  movement.   ∙ Link to healthy lifestyles, health and hygiene, body  clothes and teeth.  ∙ identify the different types of teeth in humans and  their simple functions   Key vocabulary:  Recap Y1 and Y2 vocab plus:  Nutrition, nutrients, carbohydrates, protein, fats, fibre,  water, vitamins, minerals, skeleton, bones, joints,   endoskeleton, exoskeleton, hydrostatic, vertebrate,   invertebrate, contract / relax, muscles, ball joint, socket joint,  hinge joint, gliding joint, Teeth: incisors – cutting / slicing,  canines – ripping / tearing, molars – chewing / grinding, floss,  brush Pupils should continue to learn about the importance of  nutrition and should be introduced to the main body parts  associated with the skeleton and muscles, finding out how  different parts of the body have special functions.  Pupils might work scientifically by: identifying and grouping  animals with and without skeletons and observing and  comparing their movement; exploring ideas about what  would happen if humans did not have skeletons. They might  compare and contrast the diets of different animals  (including their pets) and decide ways of grouping them  according to what they eat. They might research different  food groups and how they keep us healthy and design  meals based on what they find out.   Discuss healthy lifestyle. How do we need to keep healthy  as well as eating well. Discuss hygiene, changing clothes and  brushing teeth.  Pupils might work scientifically by: comparing the teeth of  carnivores and herbivores, and suggesting reasons for  differences; finding out what damages teeth and how to  look after them.  ∙ Talk from local nurse / dentist.  ∙ Exercise and how it makes our bodies work  differently
ROCKS  ∙ compare and group together different kinds of  rocks on the basis of their appearance and simple  physical properties   ∙ describe in simple terms how fossils are formed  when things that have lived are trapped within rock  ∙ recognise that soils are made from rocks and  organic matter.   Key vocabulary:  Appearance, Physical, Properties, Fossils, Sedimentary, Rock,  Soils, Organic matter, Buildings, Gravestones, Grains, crystals Linked with work in geography, pupils should explore  different kinds of rocks and soils, including those in the local  environment.   Pupils might work scientifically by: observing rocks,  including those used in buildings and gravestones, and  exploring how and why they might have changed over time;  using a hand lens or microscope to help them to identify  and classify rocks according to whether they have grains or  crystals, and whether they have fossils in them. Pupils might  research and discuss the different kinds of living things  whose fossils are found in sedimentary rock and explore  how fossils are formed. Pupils could explore different soils  and identify similarities and differences between them and  investigate what happens when rocks are rubbed together  or what changes occur when they are in water. They can  raise and answer questions about the way soils are formed.  ∙ Trip to Scarborough to look at different types of  rocks and how certain types of rocks e.g. sandstone  can be susceptible to landslides and coastal   erosion. Look at sea defences and types of rocks  used for these.  ∙ Compare this to our local area…what rocks do we  have here?  ∙ Trip to Leeds City Museum to look at rocks and  fossils area in ground floor.   ∙ Rock sampling activities in class (classifications).
LIGHT  ∙ recognise that they need light in order to see things  and that dark is the absence of light   ∙ notice that light is reflected from surfaces   ∙ recognise that light from the sun can be dangerous  and that there are ways to protect their eyes   ∙ recognise that shadows are formed when the light  from a light source is blocked by a solid object   ∙ find patterns in the way that the size of shadows  change.   Key vocabulary:  Reflect, Surface, Natural, Star, Blocked, Solid, Artificial, Torch,  Candle, Lamp, Sunlight, Dangerous, Protect eyes, Opaque,  Transparent, Translucent, Shadows Pupils should explore what happens when light reflects off a  mirror or other reflective surfaces, including playing mirror  games to help them to answer questions about how light  behaves. They should think about why it is important to  protect their eyes from bright lights. They should look for,  and measure, shadows, and find out how they are formed  and what might cause the shadows to change.   Note: Pupils should be warned that it is not safe to look  directly at the Sun, even when wearing dark glasses.  Pupils might work scientifically by: looking for patterns in  what happens to shadows when the light source moves or  the distance between the light source and the object  changes. ∙ Shadow patterns on the floor at different times of  the day.  ∙ Mirror games to see how light beams can bend.
FORCES AND MAGNETS  ∙ compare how things move on different surfaces  ∙ notice that some forces need contact between two  objects, but magnetic forces can act at a distance  ∙ observe how magnets attract or repel each other  and attract some materials and not others   ∙ compare and group together a variety of everyday  materials on the basis of whether they are   attracted to a magnet, and identify some magnetic  materials   ∙ describe magnets as having two poles   ∙ predict whether two magnets will attract or repel  each other, depending on which poles are facing.   Key vocabulary:  Force, Surface, Magnet, Magnetic, Attract, Repel, Magnetic  poles, North, South Pupils should observe that magnetic forces can act without  direct contact, unlike most forces, where direct contact is  necessary (for example, opening a door, pushing a swing).  They should explore the behaviour and everyday uses of  different magnets (for example, bar, ring, button and  horseshoe).   Pupils might work scientifically by: comparing how different  things move and grouping them; raising questions and  carrying out tests to find out how far things move on  different surfaces and gathering and recording data to find  answers their questions; exploring the strengths of different  magnets and finding a fair way to compare them; sorting  materials into those that are magnetic and those that are  not; looking for patterns in the way that magnets behave in  relation to each other and what might affect this, for  example, the strength of the magnet or which pole faces  another; identifying how these properties make magnets  useful in everyday items and suggesting creative uses for  different magnets. ∙ Which materials are magnetic?  ∙ Put an object on the table and move it along with a  magnet underneath.  ∙ How like poles repel each other and opposites  attract.  ∙ Investigations using ramps and cars for forces.
Famous Scientists  ∙ Learn about a range of famous inspirational  Scientists.  Key vocabulary:  Inspirational Scientists: Marie Curie,Joseph Bazalgette  Qualities of a good scientist: Curious, Perseverance, Patient,  Creative, Open minded, Detail-orientated, Communicative,  Problem-solving, Persistent, Able to work alone or in teams,  teamwork. Explore and investigate how inspirational Science is and  how it has and is being used in real life situations and to be  able to give examples of this. To know and learn about both  male and female inspirational Scientists.  To know and apply qualities of a good Scientist especially  with regards to teamwork and perseverance. ∙ Visit from a real Scientist and / or visit from STEM ∙ Studies of famous Scientists to include both male  and female e.g. Marie Curie, Joseph Bazalgette

Science 

Year 4

Statutory requirements ( National curriculum)  Stanley Grove’s Essentials  Suggested Activities
WORKING SCIENTIFICALLY  ∙ Independently, asking relevant questions and using  different types of scientific enquiries to answer   them   ∙ Independently, setting up simple practical enquiries,  comparative and fair tests   ∙ Independently, making systematic and careful  observations and, where appropriate, taking   accurate measurements using standard units, using  a range of equipment, including thermometers and data logging  ∙ gathering, recording, classifying and presenting data  in a variety of ways including scatter graphs and line  graphs to help in answering questions   ∙ recording findings using simple scientific language,  drawings, labelled diagrams, keys, bar charts, and  tables   ∙ reporting on findings from enquiries, including oral  and written explanations, displays or presentations  of results and conclusions   ∙ using results to draw simple conclusions, make  predictions for new values and suggest   improvements and raise further questions  ∙ identifying differences and similarities or changes  related to simple scientific ideas and processes   ∙ using straightforward scientific evidence to answer  questions or to support their findings.   Key vocabulary:  Recap Y1,2,3 vocab plus:  Data logger, Record – line charts / scatter graphs, Raise  further questions   Pupils in year 4 should be given a range of scientific  experiences to enable them to raise their own questions  about the world around them. They should start to make  their own decisions about the most appropriate type of  scientific enquiry they might use to answer questions;  recognise when a simple fair test is necessary and help to  decide how to set it up; talk about criteria for grouping,  sorting and classifying; and use simple keys. They should  begin to look for naturally occurring patterns and  relationships and decide what data to collect to identify  them. They should help to make decisions about what  observations to make, how long to make them for and the  type of simple equipment that might be used.   They should learn how to use new equipment, such as data  loggers, appropriately. They should collect data from their  own observations and measurements, using notes, simple  tables and standard units, and help to make decisions  about how to record and analyse this data. With help,  pupils should look for changes, patterns, similarities and  differences in their data in order to draw simple  conclusions and answer questions. With support, they  should identify new questions arising from the data, making  predictions for new values within or beyond the data they  have collected and finding ways of improving what they  have already done. They should also recognise when and  how secondary sources might help them to answer  questions that cannot be answered through practical  investigations. Pupils should use relevant scientific  language to discuss their ideas and communicate their  findings in ways that are appropriate for different  audiences.   These opportunities for working scientifically should be  provided across years 4 so that the expectations in the  programme of study can be met by the end of year 4. Use format for Science practical write up for all children.
LIVING THINGS AND THEIR HABITATS.  ∙ recognise that living things can be grouped in a  variety of ways   ∙ explore and use classification keys to help group,  identify and name a variety of living things in their  local and wider environment   ∙ recognise that environments can change and that  this can sometimes pose dangers to living things.   Key vocabulary:  Recap Y2 vocab plus:  Environment, dangers, flowering plants – including grasses,  non-flowering plants – including mosses and ferns, plants,  animals, vertebrate – fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds,  mammals (recapped from Y1), invertebrate – snails, slugs,  worms, spiders, insects.  Human impact:   positive – nature reserves, garden ponds  Negative – population, developments, litter, deforestation Pupils should use the local environment throughout the  year to raise and answer questions that help them to  identify and study plants and animals in their habitat. They  should identify how the habitat changes throughout the  year. Pupils should explore possible ways of grouping a  wide selection of living things that include animals and  flowering plants and non-flowering plants. Pupils could  begin to put vertebrate animals into groups such as fish,  amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals; and  invertebrates into snails and slugs, worms, spiders, and  insects.   Note: Plants can be grouped into categories such as  flowering plants (including grasses) and non-flowering  plants, such as ferns and mosses.   Pupils should explore examples of human impact (both  positive and negative) on environments, for example, the  positive effects of nature reserves, ecologically planned  parks, or garden ponds, and the negative effects of  population and development, litter or deforestation.  Pupils might work scientifically by: using and making simple  guides or keys to explore and identify local plants and  animals; making a guide to local living things; raising and  answering questions based on their observations of animals  and what they have found out about other animals that  they have researched.  ∙ Trip to nature reserve (use ranger for knowledge  and expertise)  ∙ Invite an animal into class for a week (e.g. bearded  dragon).  ∙ Environment leaders to lead gardening for class  ‘welly to belly’ projects.
ANIMALS INCLUDING HUMANS  ∙ describe the simple functions of the basic parts of  the digestive system in humans   ∙  ∙ construct and interpret a variety of food chains,  identifying producers, predators and prey.   Key vocabulary:  Recap Y1, 2  Digestion, mouth, tongue, saliva, oesophagus, transports,  stomach, acid, enzymes, small intestine – absorbs water,  vitamins, large intestine – compacts colon, Food chain: sun,  producers, consumers, prey, predators Pupils should be introduced to the main body parts  associated with the digestive system, for example, mouth,  tongue, teeth, oesophagus, stomach and small and large  intestine and explore questions that help them to  understand their special functions.   They might draw and discuss their ideas about the digestive  system and compare them with models or images.  ∙ Use large model of digestive system.
SOUND  ∙ identify how sounds are made, associating some of  them with something vibrating   ∙ recognise that vibrations from sounds travel  through a medium to the ear   ∙ find patterns between the pitch of a sound and  features of the object that produced it   ∙ find patterns between the volume of a sound and  the strength of the vibrations that produced it   ∙ recognise that sounds get fainter as the distance  from the sound source increases.   Key vocabulary:  Vibrate, vibration, data logger, sound survey, air, medium,  ear, hear, sound, volume, pitch, faint, fainter, distance, loud,  louder, string, percussion, woodwind, brass, insulate,  insulation Pupils should explore and identify the way sound is made  through vibration in a range of different musical  instruments from around the world; and find out how the  pitch and volume of sounds can be changed in a variety of  ways.   Pupils might work scientifically by: finding patterns in the  sounds that are made by different objects such as saucepan  lids of different sizes or elastic bands of different  thicknesses. They might make earmuffs from a variety of  different materials to investigate which provides the best  insulation against sound. They could make and play their  own instruments by using what they have found out about  pitch and volume.  ∙ Link to music.  ∙ Give the children a problem – make earmuffs from  a variety of different materials to investigate which  provides the best insulation against sound.  ∙ Outside sound investigations
ELECTRICITY.  ∙ identify common appliances that run on electricity  ∙ construct a simple series electrical circuit,  identifying and naming its basic parts, including   cells, wires, bulbs, switches and buzzers   ∙ identify whether or not a lamp will light in a simple  series circuit, based on whether or not the lamp is  part of a complete loop with a battery   ∙ recognise that a switch opens and closes a circuit  and associate this with whether or not a lamp lights  in a simple series circuit   ∙ recognise some common conductors and insulators,  and associate metals with being good conductors.   Key vocabulary:  Appliances, electricity, electrical circuit, current, battery/cell,  wire, bulb, buzzer, danger, electrical safety, sign, switch – open / closed, insulators – wood, rubber, plastic, glass,  conductors – metal, water Pupils should construct simple series circuits, trying  different components, for example, bulbs, buzzers and  motors, and including switches, and use their circuits to  create simple devices. Pupils should draw the circuit as a  pictorial representation, not necessarily using conventional  circuit symbols at this stage; these will be introduced in  year 6.   Note: Pupils might use the terms current and voltage, but  these should not be introduced or defined formally at this  stage. Pupils should be taught about precautions for  working safely with electricity.   Pupils might work scientifically by: observing patterns, for  example, that bulbs get brighter if more cells are added,  that metals tend to be conductors of electricity, and that  some materials can and some cannot be used to connect  across a gap in a circuit.  ∙ Link to Art /DT making a light up scene involving  switches

Science 

Upper Key Stage 2 

The principal focus of science teaching in upper key stage 2 is to enable pupils to develop a deeper understanding of a wide range of scientific ideas. They should do this through exploring  and talking about their ideas; asking their own questions about scientific phenomena; and analysing functions, relationships and interactions more systematically. At upper key stage 2, they  should encounter more abstract ideas and begin to recognise how these ideas help them to understand and predict how the world operates. They should also begin to recognise that  scientific ideas change and develop over time. They should select the most appropriate ways to answer science questions using different types of scientific enquiry, including observing  changes over different periods of time, noticing patterns, grouping and classifying things, carrying out comparative and fair tests and finding things out using a wide range of secondary  sources of information. Pupils should draw conclusions based on their data and observations, use evidence to justify their ideas, and use their scientific knowledge and understanding to  explain their findings.  

‘Working and thinking scientifically’ is described separately at the beginning of the programme of study, but must always be taught through and clearly related to substantive science  content in the programme of study. Throughout the notes and guidance, examples show how scientific methods and skills might be linked to specific elements of the content.  

Pupils should read, spell and pronounce scientific vocabulary correctly. 

Year 5

Statutory requirements ( National curriculum)  Stanley Grove’s Essentials  Suggested Activities
WORKING SCIENTIFICALLY  ∙ planning different types of scientific enquiries to  answer questions, including recognising and  controlling variables where necessary  ∙ taking measurements, using a range of scientific  equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision,  taking repeat readings when appropriate   ∙ recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, classification  keys, tables, bar graphs   ∙ using test results to make predictions to set up  further comparative and fair tests   ∙ reporting and presenting findings from enquiries,  including conclusions, causal relationships, in oral  and written forms such as displays and other   presentations   ∙ identifying scientific evidence that has been used to  support or refute ideas or arguments.  Pupils in years 5 should use their science experiences to:  explore ideas and raise different kinds of questions; select  and plan the most appropriate type of scientific enquiry to  use to answer scientific questions; recognise when and how  to set up comparative and fair tests and explain which  variables need to be controlled and why. They should use  and develop keys and other information records to identify,  classify and describe living things and materials, and  identify patterns that might be found in the natural  environment. They should make their own decisions about  what observations to make, what measurements to use and  how long to make them for, and whether to repeat them;  choose the most appropriate equipment to make  measurements and explain how to use it accurately. They  should decide how to record data from a choice of familiar  approaches; look for different causal relationships in their  data and identify evidence that refutes or supports their  ideas. They should use their results to identify when further  tests and observations might be needed; recognise which  secondary sources will be most useful to research their  ideas and begin to separate opinion from fact. They should  Use format for Science practical write up for all children. Children to use format but write up independently in their  books.  Links to outdoor learning in most topics.
Key vocabulary:  Recap Y1,2,3, 4 vocab plus:  Plan, Variables, Measurements, Accuracy, Precision, Report – scientific diagrams, tables. scatter graphs, bar charts, line  charts, Further comparative and fair test, Repeat readings,  Explanations, Evidence – support, refute ideas or arguments,  Systematic use relevant scientific language and illustrations to discuss,  communicate and justify their scientific ideas and should  talk about how scientific ideas have developed over time.  These opportunities for working scientifically should be  provided across years 5 so that the expectations in the  programme of study can be met by the end of year 5. Pupils  are not expected to cover each aspect for every area of  study. 
LIVING THINGS AND THEIR HABITATS.  ANIMALS INCLUDING HUMANS  ∙ describe the differences in the life cycles of a  mammal, an amphibian, an insect and a bird   ∙ describe the life process of reproduction in some  plants and animals.   ∙ describe the changes as humans develop to old age.   Key vocabulary:  Recap Y2 and Y4 vocab plus:  Life cycles, Life process of reproduction, Reproduction – plants: sexual, asexual and animals: sexual, Life cycles around  the world – rainforest, oceans, desert, Prehistoric, David  Attenborough, Jane Goodall Pupils should study and raise questions about their local  environment throughout the year. They should observe life cycle changes in a variety of living things, for example,  plants in the vegetable garden or flower border, and  animals in the local environment. They should find out  about the work of naturalists and animal behaviourists, for  example, David Attenborough and Jane Goodall.  Pupils should find out about different types of   reproduction, including sexual and asexual reproduction in  plants, and sexual reproduction in animals.   Pupils might work scientifically by: observing and  comparing the life cycles of plants and animals in their local  environment with other plants and animals around the  world (in the rainforest, in the oceans, in desert areas and  in prehistoric times), asking pertinent questions and  suggesting reasons for similarities and differences. They  might try to grow new plants from different parts of the  parent plant, for example, seeds, stem and root cuttings,  tubers, bulbs. They might observe changes in an animal  over a period of time (for example, by hatching and rearing  chicks), comparing how different animals reproduce and  grow.  Pupils should draw a timeline to indicate stages in the  growth and development of humans. They should learn  about the changes experienced in puberty.   Pupils could work scientifically by researching the gestation  periods of other animals and comparing them with humans;  by finding out and recording the length and mass of a baby  as it grows.  ∙ Talk by local farmer, vet or animal breeder. ∙ Environment leaders to lead gardening for class  ‘welly to belly’ projects.  ∙ Grow plants in class e.g. cress  ∙ Work in groups to compare and contrast life cycles  life-processes and reproduction.  ∙ Create a timeline of the human life.
PROPERTIES AND CHNAGES OF MATERIALS.  ∙ know that some materials will dissolve in liquid to  form a solution, and describe how to recover a   substance from a solution   ∙ use knowledge of solids, liquids and gases to decide  how mixtures might be separated, including   through filtering, sieving and evaporating   ∙ give reasons, based on evidence from comparative  and fair tests, for the particular uses of everyday  materials, including metals, wood and plastic   ∙ demonstrate that dissolving, mixing and changes of  state are reversible changes   ∙ explain that some changes result in the formation of  new materials, and that this kind of change is not  usually reversible, including changes associated with  burning and the action of acid on bicarbonate of  soda.   Key vocabulary:  Recap Y1,2, 4 vocab plus:  Properties, hardness, solubility, transparency, electrical  conductor, thermal conductor, response to magnets, dissolve  / dissolving, solution, mixing, separate, separating, reversible  changes, filtering, sieving, irreversible, new material, burning,  rusting, magnetism, chemists, quantitative measurements,  conductivity, insulation, chemical, Spencer Silver, Ruth  Benerito Pupils should build a more systematic understanding of  materials by exploring and comparing the properties of a  broad range of materials, including relating these to what  they learnt about magnetism in year 3 and about electricity  in year 4. They should explore reversible changes, including,  evaporating, filtering, sieving, melting and dissolving,  recognising that melting and dissolving are different  processes. Pupils should explore changes that are difficult  to reverse, for example, burning, rusting and other  reactions, for example, vinegar with bicarbonate of soda.  They should find out about how chemists create new  materials, for example, Spencer Silver, who invented the  glue for sticky notes or Ruth Benerito, who invented  wrinkle-free cotton.   Note: Pupils are not required to make quantitative  measurements about conductivity and insulation at this  stage. It is sufficient for them to observe that some  conductors will produce a brighter bulb in a circuit than  others and that some materials will feel hotter than others  when a heat source is placed against them. Safety  guidelines should be followed when burning materials.  Pupils might work scientifically by: carrying out tests to  answer questions, for example, ‘Which materials would be  the most effective for making a warm jacket, for wrapping  ice cream to stop it melting, or for making blackout  curtains?’ They might compare materials in order to make a  switch in a circuit. They could observe and compare the  changes that take place, for example, when burning  different materials or baking bread or cakes. They might  research and discuss how chemical changes have an impact  on our lives, for example, cooking, and discuss the creative  use of new materials such as polymers, super-sticky and  super-thin materials.  ∙ Independent research projects  ∙ Experiment different substances in water to  investigate which materials create a solution. Eg.  Coffee, salt, pasta etc…  ∙ Link to reversible changes. Experiment   evaporation – turning a solution into a substance  (salt–water to salt and water)  ∙ Experiments with non-Newtonian fluids – Outdoor  Learning session. Link to irreversible changes.
EARTH AND SPACE.  ∙ describe the movement of the Earth, and other  planets, relative to the Sun in the solar system   ∙ describe the movement of the Moon relative to the  Earth   ∙ describe the Sun, Earth and Moon as approximately  spherical bodies   ∙ use the idea of the Earth’s rotation to explain day  and night and the apparent movement of the sun  across the sky.   Key vocabulary:  Earth, Sun, Moon, Moons, Planets, Stars, Asteroids, Solar  system, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus,  Neptune, Pluto, Rotate, Day / night, Aristotle, Ptolemy,  Galileo, Copernicus, Brahe, Alhazen, Orbit, Axis, Spherical,  Heliocentric, Geocentric, Hemisphere, Season, tilt Pupils should be introduced to a model of the Sun and  Earth that enables them to explain day and night. Pupils  should learn that the Sun is a star at the centre of our solar  system and that it has eight planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth,  Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune (Pluto was  reclassified as a ‘dwarf planet’ in 2006). They should  understand that a moon is a celestial body that orbits a  planet (Earth has one moon; Jupiter has four large moons  and numerous smaller ones).   Note: Pupils should be warned that it is not safe to look  directly at the Sun, even when wearing dark glasses.  Pupils should find out about the way that ideas about the  solar system have developed, understanding how the  geocentric model of the solar system gave way to the  heliocentric model by considering the work of scientists  such as Ptolemy, Alhazen and Copernicus.   Pupils might work scientifically by: comparing the time of  day at different places on the Earth through internet links  and direct communication; creating simple models of the  solar system; constructing simple shadow clocks and   sundials, calibrated to show midday and the start and end  of the school day; finding out why some people think that  structures such as Stonehenge might have been used as  astronomical clocks. ∙ Use large ball and the children to demonstrate  movement of Earth in solar system. 1 in middle  with large ball and others at distance away   showing how they orbit. Sun large football, Earth  small ball, moon a marble.  ∙ Children to create their own model of the solar  system and share with class. Projects displayed in  classroom.  ∙ Class debate on geocentric vs heliocentric models  – English (speaking and listening) links.
FORCES.  ∙ explain that unsupported objects fall towards the  Earth because of the force of gravity acting between  the Earth and the falling object   ∙ identify the effects of air resistance, water   resistance and friction, that act between moving  surfaces   ∙ recognise that some mechanisms, including levers,  pulleys and gears, allow a smaller force to have a  greater effect.   Key vocabulary:  Recap Y3 vocab plus:  Gravity, Air resistance, Water resistance, Friction, Surface,  Force, Effect, Move, Accelerate, Decelerate, Stop, Change  direction, Brake, Mechanism, Pulley, Gear, Spring, Theory of  gravitation, Galileo Galilei, Sir Isaac Newton Pupils should explore falling objects and raise questions  about the effects of air resistance. They should explore the  effects of air resistance by observing how different objects  such as parachutes and sycamore seeds fall. They should  experience forces that make things begin to move, get  faster or slow down. Pupils should explore the effects of  friction on movement and find out how it slows or stops  moving objects, for example, by observing the effects of a  brake on a bicycle wheel. Pupils should explore the effects  of levers, pulleys and simple machines on movement. Pupils  might find out how scientists, for example, Galileo Galilei  and Isaac Newton helped to develop the theory of  gravitation.   Pupils might work scientifically by: exploring falling paper  cones or cup-cake cases, and designing and making a  variety of parachutes and carrying out fair tests to  determine which designs are the most effective. They might  explore resistance in water by making and testing boats of  different shapes. They might design and make products  that use levers, pulleys, gears and/or springs and explore  their effects. ∙ possible link to DT  ∙ make aeroplanes, parachutes, paper boats – use of  FU water tanks.  ∙ Outdoor learning with catapults (pulleys and  levers).  ∙ Experiments with air-resistance (parachutes) – Outdoor Learning session with large parachutes  and smaller parachutes of varying surface area   used in the classroom.  ∙ Experiment using tin-foil boats of different surface  areas to observe water resistance.  ∙ Research project for Sir Isaac Newton and his  theory of gravitation. 

Science 

Year 6

Statutory requirements ( National curriculum)  Stanley Grove’s Essentials  Suggested Activities
WORKING SCIENTIFICALLY  ∙ planning different types of scientific enquiries to  answer questions, including recognising and   controlling variables where necessary  ∙ taking measurements, choose their own range of  scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and  precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate   ∙ recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, classification  keys, tables,scatter graphs and line bar and graphs   ∙ using test results to make predictions to set up  further comparative and fair tests. Year 6 to be able  to decide for themselves.  ∙ reporting and presenting findings from enquiries,  including conclusions, causal relationships and   explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral  and written forms such as displays and other   presentations   ∙ Identifying scientific evidence that has been used to  support or refute ideas or arguments.   Key vocabulary:  Recap Y1,2, 3, 4, 5 vocab plus:  Degree of trust (in results), Report – classification keys, pie  charts Pupils in years 5 should use their science experiences to:  explore ideas and raise different kinds of questions; select  and plan the most appropriate type of scientific enquiry to  use to answer scientific questions; recognise when and how  to set up comparative and fair tests and explain which  variables need to be controlled and why. They should use  and develop keys and other information records to identify,  classify and describe living things and materials, and  identify patterns that might be found in the natural  environment. They should make their own decisions about  what observations to make, what measurements to use and  how long to make them for, and whether to repeat them;  choose the most appropriate equipment to make  measurements and explain how to use it accurately. They  should decide how to record data from a choice of familiar  approaches; look for different causal relationships in their  data and identify evidence that refutes or supports their  ideas. They should use their results to identify when further  tests and observations might be needed; recognise which  secondary sources will be most useful to research their  ideas and begin to separate opinion from fact. They should  use relevant scientific language and illustrations to discuss,  communicate and justify their scientific ideas and should  talk about how scientific ideas have developed over time.  These opportunities for working scientifically should be  provided across years 5 so that the expectations in the  programme of study can be met by the end of year 5. Pupils  are not expected to cover each aspect for every area of  study.  Use format for Science practical write up for all children.
LIVING THINGS AND THEIR HABITATS.  ∙ describe how living things are classified into broad  groups according to common observable   characteristics and based on similarities and   differences, including micro-organisms, plants and  animals   ∙ give reasons for classifying plants and animals based  on specific characteristics.   Key vocabulary:  Recap Y2, 4, 5 vocab plus:  Classify, compare, Linnaean, Carl Linnaeus, Classification,  Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus,  Species, Characteristics, Microorganism, Organism Pupils should build on their learning about grouping living things in year 4 by looking at the classification system in  more detail. They should be introduced to the idea that  broad groupings, such as micro-organisms, plants and  animals can be subdivided. Through direct observations  where possible, they should classify animals into commonly  found invertebrates (such as insects, spiders, snails, worms)  and vertebrates (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and  mammals). They should discuss reasons why living things  are placed in one group and not another.   Pupils might find out about the significance of the work of  scientists such as Carl Linnaeus, a pioneer of classification.  Pupils might work scientifically by: using classification  systems and keys to identify some animals and plants in the  immediate environment. They could research unfamiliar  animals and plants from a broad range of other habitats  and decide where they belong in the classification system. ∙ Charles Waterton – Wakefield Museum visits to  class.  ∙ RSPB Big Bird Watch.  ∙ Environment leaders to lead gardening for class  ‘welly to belly’ projects.
ANIMALS INCLUDING HUMANS.  ∙ identify and name the main parts of the human  circulatory system, and describe the functions of  the heart, blood vessels and blood   ∙ recognise the impact of diet, exercise, drugs and  lifestyle on the way their bodies function describe the ways in which nutrients and water are   transported within animals, including humans.  Key vocabulary:  Recap Y1,2,3, 4, 5 vocab plus:  internal organs, heart, lungs, liver, kidney, brain, skeletal,  skeleton, muscle, muscular, digest, digestion, digestive,  circulatory system, heart, blood vessels, blood, impact, diet,  exercise, drugs, lifestyle, nutrients, water, damage, drugs,  alcohol, substances Pupils should build on their learning from years 3 and 4  about the main body parts and internal organs (skeletal,  muscular and digestive system) to explore and answer  questions that help them to understand how the circulatory  system enables the body to function.   Pupils should learn how to keep their bodies healthy and  how their bodies might be damaged – including how some  drugs and other substances can be harmful to the human  body.   Pupils might work scientifically by: exploring the work of  scientists and scientific research about the relationship  between diet, exercise, drugs, lifestyle and health. ∙ School Nurse / Police visit to discuss use of drugs  both ones used to help us and those that are illegal  (drug liaison officer).  ∙ Puberty talk  ∙ Heart from butchers to dissect.  ∙ Link to P.E. – function of the heart.
EVOLUTION AND INHERITANCE  ∙ recognise that living things have changed over time  and that fossils provide information about living  things that inhabited the Earth millions of years ago   ∙ recognise that living things produce offspring of the  same kind, but normally offspring vary and are not  identical to their parents   ∙ identify how animals and plants are adapted to suit  their environment in different ways and that   adaptation may lead to evolution.  Key vocabulary:  Recap Y3 vocab plus:  Evolution, Adaptation, Inherited traits, Adaptive traits,  Natural selection, Inheritance, Charles Darwin, DNA, Genes,  Variation, Parent, Offspring, Fossil / Fossilisation,   Environment, Habitat, Plants, Animals, Living things,   Palaeontologists, Mary Anning, Alfred Wallace, Charles  Darwin Building on what they learned about fossils in the topic on  rocks in year 3, pupils should find out more about how  living things on earth have changed over time. They should  be introduced to the idea that characteristics are passed  from parents to their offspring, for instance by considering  different breeds of dogs, and what happens when, for  example, labradors are crossed with poodles. They should  also appreciate that variation in offspring over time can  make animals more or less able to survive in particular  environments, for example, by exploring how giraffes’  necks got longer, or the development of insulating fur on  the arctic fox. Pupils might find out about the work of  palaeontologists such as Mary Anning and about how  Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace developed their ideas on  evolution.   Note: At this stage, pupils are not expected to understand  how genes and chromosomes work. Pupils might work  scientifically by: observing and raising questions about local  animals and how they are adapted to their environment;  comparing how some living things are adapted to survive in  extreme conditions, for example, cactuses, penguins and  camels. They might analyse the advantages and  disadvantages of specific adaptations, such as being on two  feet rather than four, having a long or a short beak, having  gills or lungs, tendrils on climbing plants, brightly coloured  and scented flowers.  ∙ Link to studies of Charles Darwin and Mary Anning. ∙ Use fossils from Science cupboard.
LIGHT  ∙ recognise that light appears to travel in straight  lines   ∙ use the idea that light travels in straight lines to  explain that objects are seen because they give out  or reflect light into the eye   ∙ explain that we see things because light travels  from light sources to our eyes or from light sources  to objects and then to our eyes   ∙ use the idea that light travels in straight lines to  explain why shadows have the same shape as the  objects that cast them.  Key vocabulary:  Recap Y3 vocab plus:  Light ,Travels, Straight lines, Reflect, Reflection, Refract,  Refraction, Light source, Angle of incidence, Angle of   reflection, Object, Mirrors, Periscope, Kaleidoscope,   Rainbow, Prism, Filters Pupils should build on the work on light in year 3, exploring  the way that light behaves, including light sources,  reflection and shadows. They should talk about what  happens and make predictions.   Pupils might work scientifically by: deciding where to place  rear-view mirrors on cars; designing and making a  periscope and using the idea that light appears to travel in  straight lines to explain how it works. They might  investigate the relationship between light sources, objects  and shadows by using shadow puppets. They could extend  their experience of light by looking a range of phenomena  including rainbows, colours on soap bubbles, objects  looking bent in water and coloured filters (they do not need  to explain why these phenomena occur). ∙ Make periscopes  ∙ Make kaleidoscopes   ∙ Use prisms
ELECTRICITY.  ∙ associate the brightness of a lamp or the volume of  a buzzer with the number and voltage of cells used  in the circuit   ∙ compare and give reasons for variations in how  components function, including the brightness of  bulbs, the loudness of buzzers and the on/off   position of switches   ∙ use recognised symbols when representing a simple  circuit in a diagram. Building on their work in year 4, pupils should construct  simple series circuits, to help them to answer questions  about what happens when they try different components,  for example, switches, bulbs, buzzers and motors. They  should learn how to represent a simple circuit in a diagram  using recognised symbols.   Note: Pupils are expected to learn only about series  circuits, not parallel circuits. Pupils should be taught to take  the necessary precautions for working safely with  electricity.   Pupils might work scientifically by: systematically  identifying the effect of changing one component at a time  in a circuit; designing and making a set of traffic lights, a  burglar alarm or some other useful circuit. ∙ Learn about Thomas Edison, Michael Faraday and  Nikola Tesla.  ∙ Kit-Kat challenge in circuits.  ∙ LED lights in pictures (link to Art/DT)   Key vocabulary:  Recap Y4 vocab plus:  series circuit, parallel circuit (explain only to HA, not   required), cell, motor, circuit diagram, recognised symbols,  volume, voltage, brightness, switches, LED’s, Alternating  current, Thomas Edison, Michael Faraday, Nikola Tesla.